Survey: Embedded Systems
In Modern Power Industry
CONTENTS
●

DCS (Distributed Control Systems)
Distributed Control Systems

●

SCADA Systems

●

Communication Protocols
–
...
DCS (Distributed Control Systems)
●

Automation system for an independent Unit

●

Main Brain of the Power Plant

●

Provi...
DCS (Distributed Control Systems)
●

●

Layer 0: Embedded
Processor
ASIC /FPGA / DSP
Processors /SoC

●

FPGA: Reconfigura...
DCS (Distributed Control Systems)
●

Can be implemented as System-on-a-Chip (SoC)

●

Hardware/ Software Partitioning:
–

...
DCS (Distributed Control Systems)
DCS Architecture

Typical DCS Architecture for coal fired power plant Source: ALSTOM Als...
CONTENTS
●

Distributed Control Systems (DCS)

●

SCADA Systems

●

Communication Protocols
–

DNP3

–

ProfiBUS

–

Wirel...
SCADA Systems
●

SCADA – Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition

●

Used for very large complex electrical systems
–

●

S...
SCADA Systems
SCADA Architecture

9
Typical architecture of SCADA System (Source: Juniper Networks)

9
SCADA Systems
Key components:
–

I/O hardware – Remote Terminal Units (RTUs)

–

Network backbone

–

Human Machine Interf...
SCADA vs DCS
SCADA

DCS

–

I/O ports: 20k - 450k

–

I/O ports: 2k -15k

–

Event and Data
acquisition oriented

–

Proce...
CONTENTS
●

Distributed Control Systems (DCS)

●

SCADA Systems

●

Communication Protocols
–

DNP3

–

ProfiBUS

–

Wirel...
DNP3 (Distributed Network Protocol)
–

Communication protocol used in Power industry for data
communication

–

Non propri...
DNP3 (Distributed Network Protocol)
DNP3 Architecture

DNP3 user software
S/W
Application Layer
Data Link layer
H/W
Physic...
DNP3 (Distributed Network Protocol)

ADDR. ADDR.

LEN

CTRL

START

LSB

MSB

DEST.

LSB

MSB

SOURCE.

LSB

MSB
CRC

Fram...
DNP3 (Distributed Network Protocol)
●

Protocol Implementation in RTUs

●

Implementation as FPGAs over ethernet/ RS232C

...
CONTENTS
●

Distributed Control Systems (DCS)

●

SCADA Systems

●

Communication Protocols
–

DNP3

–

ProfiBUS

–

Wirel...
ProfiBUS Protocol
●

●

●

●

Acronym for Pro(cess)fi(field) bus
Communication protocol used in Power industry for data
co...
ProfiBUS Protocol
●

2 types
–
–

●

●

ProfiBUS DP (Decentralised Peripherals)
ProfiBUS PA (Process Automation)

Physical...
ProfiBUS Protocol
ProfiBUS Architecture
User Interface
Direct Data link Mapper
---

OSI layers
not used
by ProfiBUS

-FDL
...
CONTENTS
●

Distributed Control Systems (DCS)

●

SCADA Systems

●

Communication Protocols
–

DNP3

–

ProfiBUS

–

Wirel...
WirelessHART Protocol
●

Standard wireless protocol used in process automation industry

●

Used in Wireless Instrumentati...
WirelessHART Protocol
●

4 Layer Abstraction
–

Gateway

–

Network Manager

–

Field Devices

–

Security manager

23
23
WirelessHART Protocol
WirelessHART Architecture

WirelessHART architecture. Certain Layers
of OSI architecture are missing...
WirelessHART Protocol
●

Mesh topology in a power plant using WirelessHART

Communication of RTUs with control centre via ...
WirelessHART Protocol
●

Honeywell XYR6000 series Instruments based on
WirelessHART technology

Pressure
Transmitters

Pos...
References
[1] Alcides Ortega,Christiane Marie Schweitzer, “Performance Analysis of Smart Grid
Communication Protocol DNP3...
THANK YOU

28
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Survey: Embedded Systems In Power Industry

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Survey: Embedded Systems In Power Industry

  1. 1. Survey: Embedded Systems In Modern Power Industry
  2. 2. CONTENTS ● DCS (Distributed Control Systems) Distributed Control Systems ● SCADA Systems ● Communication Protocols – DNP3 – ProfiBUS – WirelessHART 2 2
  3. 3. DCS (Distributed Control Systems) ● Automation system for an independent Unit ● Main Brain of the Power Plant ● Provide Infrastructure for implementing the control system algorithms. ● Complex Electronic system ● Centre point of all Analog and Digital Signals ● Major Market Players: ABB, Siemens, ALSTOM, Metso, GE 3 3
  4. 4. DCS (Distributed Control Systems) ● ● Layer 0: Embedded Processor ASIC /FPGA / DSP Processors /SoC ● FPGA: Reconfigurable ● MIMO Design: 2k – 10k I/O ● Redundancy: An Important concept of systems engineering. Vetical layers DCS Source: Metso Automation: MaxDNA Systems 4 4
  5. 5. DCS (Distributed Control Systems) ● Can be implemented as System-on-a-Chip (SoC) ● Hardware/ Software Partitioning: – Intellectual Property Re-use – Cost optimization – Maximize performance 5 5
  6. 6. DCS (Distributed Control Systems) DCS Architecture Typical DCS Architecture for coal fired power plant Source: ALSTOM Alspa 6 6 6
  7. 7. CONTENTS ● Distributed Control Systems (DCS) ● SCADA Systems ● Communication Protocols – DNP3 – ProfiBUS – WirelessHART 7 7
  8. 8. SCADA Systems ● SCADA – Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition ● Used for very large complex electrical systems – ● Smart Grids One system covers large no of substations, control stations, swicthyards, load dispatch centres ● Data collection from different units, processing and logging ● System Security from cyber attacks ● I/O size: 20k to 450k I/O ports 8 8
  9. 9. SCADA Systems SCADA Architecture 9 Typical architecture of SCADA System (Source: Juniper Networks) 9
  10. 10. SCADA Systems Key components: – I/O hardware – Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) – Network backbone – Human Machine Interface (HMI) – Control and processing Systems – Database management – Security Software 10 10
  11. 11. SCADA vs DCS SCADA DCS – I/O ports: 20k - 450k – I/O ports: 2k -15k – Event and Data acquisition oriented – Process Oriented – Systems like power plants, which function as an independent unit – Systems spread over a large geographical area 11 11
  12. 12. CONTENTS ● Distributed Control Systems (DCS) ● SCADA Systems ● Communication Protocols – DNP3 – ProfiBUS – WirelessHART 12 12
  13. 13. DNP3 (Distributed Network Protocol) – Communication protocol used in Power industry for data communication – Non proprietary protocol – Managed by DNP3 users group – Extensively used in SCADA systems,communication between Master control centre and RTUs 13 13
  14. 14. DNP3 (Distributed Network Protocol) DNP3 Architecture DNP3 user software S/W Application Layer Data Link layer H/W Physical Layer Network >> 14 14
  15. 15. DNP3 (Distributed Network Protocol) ADDR. ADDR. LEN CTRL START LSB MSB DEST. LSB MSB SOURCE. LSB MSB CRC Frame Format for DNP3 DIR PRM FCB FCV (DFC) FUNCTION CODE Control Byte 15 15
  16. 16. DNP3 (Distributed Network Protocol) ● Protocol Implementation in RTUs ● Implementation as FPGAs over ethernet/ RS232C ● Protocol Performance with network traffic Performance Analysis of DNP3 in a heterogeneous traffic environment [1] 16 16
  17. 17. CONTENTS ● Distributed Control Systems (DCS) ● SCADA Systems ● Communication Protocols – DNP3 – ProfiBUS – WirelessHART 17 17
  18. 18. ProfiBUS Protocol ● ● ● ● Acronym for Pro(cess)fi(field) bus Communication protocol used in Power industry for data communication Proprietary protocol Developed by Siemens and BMBF (German Dept of Education and Research) ● Extensively used in SCADA as well as DCS Systems ● Architecture based on OSI Model (Open Systems architecture) 18 18
  19. 19. ProfiBUS Protocol ● 2 types – – ● ● ProfiBUS DP (Decentralised Peripherals) ProfiBUS PA (Process Automation) Physical layer may be RS485 and Optical Fibre network network topology change with DP/ PA/ coupled networks and type of physical layer – Different bandwidth – Change in no of devices per network 19 19
  20. 20. ProfiBUS Protocol ProfiBUS Architecture User Interface Direct Data link Mapper --- OSI layers not used by ProfiBUS -FDL Physical Layer Network >> 20 20
  21. 21. CONTENTS ● Distributed Control Systems (DCS) ● SCADA Systems ● Communication Protocols – DNP3 – ProfiBUS – WirelessHART 21 21
  22. 22. WirelessHART Protocol ● Standard wireless protocol used in process automation industry ● Used in Wireless Instrumentation ● Major Advantages – – Easy Maintenance – ● Savings in Material (Network/Copper cable) Reliability Risks – Data Security/ Protection from cyber attacks 22 22
  23. 23. WirelessHART Protocol ● 4 Layer Abstraction – Gateway – Network Manager – Field Devices – Security manager 23 23
  24. 24. WirelessHART Protocol WirelessHART Architecture WirelessHART architecture. Certain Layers of OSI architecture are missing.Source: [2] 24 24
  25. 25. WirelessHART Protocol ● Mesh topology in a power plant using WirelessHART Communication of RTUs with control centre via gateways. Source [2] 25 25
  26. 26. WirelessHART Protocol ● Honeywell XYR6000 series Instruments based on WirelessHART technology Pressure Transmitters Position Transmitters Temperature Transmitters 26 26
  27. 27. References [1] Alcides Ortega,Christiane Marie Schweitzer, “Performance Analysis of Smart Grid Communication Protocol DNP3 over TCP/IP in a Heterogeneous Traffic Environment ” - Ilha Soltiera Brazil [2] Jianping Song et al., “WirelessHART: Applying Wireless Technology in Real-Time Industrial Process Control”, IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium. Image sources taken from various product manufacturers mentioned along with the image. 27 27
  28. 28. THANK YOU 28 28
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