We were appointed to do 24 week training at this esteemed
organization. We were assigned to visit various division of
These 24 weeks training was a very educational adventure
for us. It was really amazing to see the plant by our self and
learn how electricity, which is one of our daily requirements
of life, is produced. This report has been made by our
experience at NTPC Badarpur and Faridabad. The material
in this report has been gathered from senior student
reports, trainers manuals and power journals provided by
training department. The specification and principles are as
learned by us from the employees of each division of
JOURNEY OF NTPC
OPERATION OF POWER PLANT
BASIC STEPS OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION
PARTS OF A POWER PLANT
VARIOUS CYCLES AT POWER STATION
COAL HANDLING PLANT (CHP)
ABOUT FARIDABAD THERMAL POWER STATION
POWER GENERATION PROCESS
MAIN PARTS OF TRANSFORMER
India’s largest power company, NTPC was set up in
1975 to accelerate power development in India.
NTPC became a Maharatna company in May, 2010, one
of the only four companies to be awarded this status.
The total installed capacity of the company is 39,174
MW (including JVs) with 16 coal based and 7 gas based
stations, located across the country.
In addition under JVs, 7 stations are coal based &
another station uses naptha/LNG as fuel.
The company has set a target to have an installed power
generating capacity of 1,28,000 MW by the year 2032.
BADARPUR THERMAL POWER STATION was established on 1973 and it was the
part of Central Government.
On 01/04/1978 is was given to NTPC.
Since then operating performance of NTPC has been considerably above the
Badarpur thermal power station started with a single 95 mw unit.
There were 2 more units (95 MW each) installed in next 2 consecutive years.
Now it has total five units with total capacity of 720 MW. Ownership of BTPS was
transferred to NTPC with effect from 01.06.2006
The power is supplied to a 220 KV network that is a part of the northern grid.
The ten circuits through which the power is evacuated from the plant are:
5. UP (Noida)
As per FARADAY’s Law-“Whenever the amount of magnetic flux linked
with a circuit changes, an EMF is produced in the circuit. Generator works
on the principle of producing electricity. To change the flux in the
generator turbine is moved in a great speed with steam.”
To produce steam, water is heated in the boilers by burning the coal.
In a Badarpur Thermal Power Station, steam is produced and used
to spin a turbine that operates a generator.
Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives
an electrical generator.
After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in
The electricity generated at the plant is sent to consumers through highvoltage power lines
The Badarpur Thermal Power Plant has Steam Turbine-Driven
Generators which has a collective capacity of 705MW.
The fuel being used is Coal which is supplied from the Jharia Coal Field
Water supply is given from the Agra Canal.
The basic steps in the generation of electricity
from coal involves following steps:
◦ Coal to steam
◦ Steam to mechanical power
◦ Mechanical power to electrical power
1. Cooling tower
2. Cooling water pump
3. Transmission line (3-phase)
4. Unit transformer (3-phase)
5. Electric generator (3-phase)
6. Low pressure turbine
7. Condensate extraction pump
9. Intermediate pressure turbine
10. Steam governor valve
11. High pressure turbine
13. Feed heater
14. Coal conveyor
15. Coal hopper
16. Pulverised fuel mill
17. Boiler drum
18. Ash hopper
19. Super heater
20. Forced draught fan
22. Air intake
24. Air preheater
26. Induced draught fan
27. Flue Gas
PRIMARY AIR CYCLE
SECONDARY AIR CYCLE
FLUE GAS CYCLE
FEED WATER CYCLE
◦ Squirrel cage motor
◦ Wound motor
◦ Slip ring induction motor
In modern thermal power plant three phase squirrel cage induction motors
are used but sometime double wound motor is used when we need high
starting torque e.g. in ball mill.
BEARINGS AND LUBRICATIONS
A good bearing is needed for trouble free operation of motor. Since it is
very costly part of the motor, due care has to be taken by checking it at
regular intervals. So lubricating plays an important role. Two types
of lubricating are widely used
◦ Oil lubrication
◦ Grease lubrication
Winding is an essential part so it should be insulated. Following
types of insulation are widely used
This instrument is used for measuring inside as well as outside
diameter of bearing.
This instrument is used for measuring insulation resistance.
It measures the vibration of the motor. It is measured in three
dimensions-axial, vertical and horizontal.
The coal handling plant consists of two plants:
◦ Old Coal Handling Plant (OCHP)
◦ New Coal Handling Plant (NCHP)
OCHP supplies coal to Unit- I, II, III &
NCHP supplies coal to Unit- IV and V.
COAL SUPPLIED AT BTPS
Coal is supplied to BTPS by Jharia coal mines.
The main constituents of CHP plant are:
Wagon from coal yard come to the tippler and emptied here. There are 2 wagon tipplers in the OCHP.
Conveyer belts are used in the OCHP to transfer coal from one place to other as required in a convenient &
It is used as a safety device for the motor i.e. if the belt is not moving & the motor is ON, then it burns to save
the motor. This switch checks the speed of the belt & switches off the motor when speed is zero.
As the conveyer belt take coal from wagon to crusher house, no metal piece should go along with coal. To
achieve this objective, metal detectors & separators are used.
Both the plants i.e. OCHP & NCHP use TATA crusher powered by BHEL motor. Crusher is designed to crush
the pieces to 20 mm size i.e. practically considered as the optimum size for transfer via conveyer.
If any large piece of metal of any hard substances like metal impurities comes in the conveyer belt which
cause load on the metal separator, then the rotary breaker rejects them reducing the load on the metal
These are the switches which are installed at every 10m gap in a conveyer belt to ensure the
safety of motors running the conveyer belts. If at any time some accident happens or coal jumps
from belt and starts collecting at a place, then the switch can be used.
Est. 1997, this state of the art power plant has a
production capacity of up to 430 MW.
It is the only power plant in this country to supply its
entire power to a state i.e. Haryana rather than to the
It consist of 2 Gas Turbines and 1 Steam Turbine.
The source of fuel is Natural Gas through HBJ
The water source canal is Gurgaon Canal.
The Gas/Naphtha from pipeline is taken and
supplied to GT Combustion Chamber where
it is burnt as fuel along with air drawn from
atmosphere. This heat is then converted into
mechanical energy in the Gas Turbine. Gas
turbine through a common shaft rotates a
Generator, which produces electric power.
Flue gas from the turbine exhaust is used to
convert water into steam in the Waste Heat
Recovery Boiler (WHRB). Water required for
steam generation is circulated through the
tubes in the boiler, where heat exchange
takes place and water gets converted into
steam. The steam generated from WHRBs is
used to run a steam turbo generator and
produce electric power. This power is
supplied to customer through 220KV lines.
Switchgear is one that makes or breaks the electrical circuit.
It is a switching device that opens & closes a circuit that defined as apparatus used for
switching, Lon rolling & protecting the electrical circuit & equipments.
The switchgear equipment is essentially concerned with switching & interrupting currents
either under normal or abnormal operating conditions.
The tubular switch with ordinary fuse is simplest form of switchgear & is used to control &
protect& other equipments in homes, offices etc.
However such switchgear cannot be used profitably on high voltage system (3.3 KV) for 2
Firstly, when a fuse blows, it takes some time to replace it & consequently there is interruption of service
Secondly, the fuse cannot successfully interrupt large currents that result from the High Voltage System.
In order to interrupt heavy fault currents, automatic circuit breakers are used.
There are very few types of circuit breakers in B.P.T.S they are VCB, OCB, and SF6 gas
The most expensive circuit breaker is the SF6 type due to gas.
There are various companies which manufacture these circuit breakers: VOLTAS, JYOTI,
Switchgear includes switches, fuses, circuit breakers, relays & other equipments.
In low tension switch gear thermal over load relays are used whereas in high tension 5
different types of relays are used.
Main switch is control equipment which controls or disconnects the main supply. The main switch for 3
phase supply is available for the range 32A, 63A, 100A, 200Q, 300A at 500V grade.
With Avery high generating capacity of the modern power stations extremely heavy carnets would flow
in the fault and the fuse clearing the fault would be required to withstand extremely heavy stress in
process. It is used for supplying power to auxiliaries with backup fuse protection. With fuses, quick
break, quick make and double break switch fuses for 63A and 100A, switch fuses for 200A,400A, 600A,
800A and 1000A are used.
AC Contractors are 3 poles suitable for D.O.L Starting of motors and protecting the connected motors.
For overload protection, thermal overload relay are best suited for this purpose. They operate due to
the action of heat generated by passage of current through relay element.
AIR CIRCUIT BREAKERS
It is seen that use of oil in circuit breaker may cause a fire. So in all circuits breakers at large capacity
air at high pressure is used which is maximum at the time of quick tripping of contacts. This reduces the
possibility of sparking. The pressure may vary from 50-60kg/cm^2 for high and medium capacity circuit
Contactors used in ntpc
Thermal overload relay
MINIMUM OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER
These use oil as quenching medium.
AIR CIRCUIT BREAKER
In this the compressed air pressure around 15 kg per cm^2 is used for extinction
of arc caused by flow of air around the moving circuit . The breaker is closed by
applying pressure at lower opening and opened by applying pressure at upper
opening. When contacts operate, the cold air rushes around the movable contacts
and blown the arc
SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKER
The principle of current interruption is similar to that of air blast circuit breaker. It
simply employs the arc extinguishing medium namely SF6. When it is broken down
under an electrical stress, it will quickly reconstitute itself.
VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKER
It works on the principle that vacuum is used to save the purpose of insulation
and. In regards of insulation and strength, vacuum is superior dielectric medium
and is better that all other medium except air and sulphur which are generally used
at high pressure.
It is a static machine which increases or
decreases the AC voltage without changing
the frequency of the supply.
It is a device that:
◦ Transfer electric power from one circuit
◦ It accomplishes this by electromagnetic
◦ In this the two electric circuits are in mutual
inductive influence of each other.
It works on FARADAY’S LAW
OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION (self
or mutual induction depending on the type of
It is used generally to conserve the insulating property of the oil from deterioration& protect the
transformer against failure on account of bad quality of oil.
SILICAGEL DEHYDRATING BREATHER
It is used to prevent entry of moisture inside the transformer tank. The breather consists of silica gel.
GAS OPERATED RELAY (BUCHHOLZ RELAY)
It is a gas actuated relay used for protecting oil immersed transformer against all types of faults. It
indicates presence of gases in case of some minor fault & take out the transformer out of circuit in
case of serious fault.
Every transformer with an oil guage to indicate the oil level. The oil guage may be provided with the
alarm contacts which gave an alarm the oil level has dropped beyond permissible height due to oil
It is made from highly insulating material to insulate & to bring out the terminals of the
transformer from the container. The bushings are of 3 types:
Porcelain bushings used for low voltage transformer
b. Oil filled bushings used for voltage up to 33KV.
c. Condensed type bushings used for voltage above 33KV.
The transformer are usually provided with few tappings on secondary side so that output
voltage can be varied for constant input voltage.
It increases the surface area of the tank & more heat is thus radiated in less time.
WINDINGS TEMPERATURE INDICATOR (OIL GUAGE)
Device which indicates the temperature of winding of transformer & possible damage to
the transformer due too overload can be prevented.