SPECTROSCOPIC AND THERMAL ANALYSIS OF COMPOSTING DURING AGITATED PILE AND ROTARY DRUM COMPOSTING
ABSTRACTWater hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has infested vast wetlands, andhas caused major problems in the region viz. reducing fish population,blocking irrigation canals and averting navigation, damaging ricefields, eutrophication etc. Composting can be one of the suitableoptions for management and disposal of this free floating weed, asthe process is ecologically sound and economically viable, and helpsin reducing large quantities of organic wastes. Chemical analysesused in previous studies to determine the quality and stability ofcompost is time consuming and unreliable. Therefore, the aim of thisstudy is to employ modern spectroscopic and thermal analyses duringagitated pile and rotary drum composting of water hyacinth and itsdifferent waste combinations with cattle manure and sawdust. Duringphase 1 of the project, samples were prepared by pile and drumcomposting techniques. In phase 2, spectroscopic and thermal analysisof these collected samples will be done.
MATERIAL FLOW FOR CONVENTIONAL COMPOSTING PROCESS C, N, Inorganic, Composting Humic substances,Pathogens, Weed Mixing Process Curing Inorganic micro- seeds, Microbes organisms
PHASES IN COMPOSTING PROCESS • Time necessary for microorganisms to colonize inLatent phase new environment • Rise of biologically produced temperature to Growth phase mesophilic levelThermophilic • Temperature rises to highest level phase • Temperature decreases to mesophlilic and,Maturation phase consequently ambient levels
PATTERNS OF TEMPERATURE AND MICROBIAL GROWTH DURING COMPOSTING
ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS Nutrient balance Particle size • Organisms involved in stabilization of • Particle size of composting materials should organic matter utilize about 30 parts of C be as small as possible so as to allow for for each part of N efficient aeration Moisture control Aeration requirement • Optimum moisture content is known to be • Necessary to ensure that oxygen is between 50-60% supplied throughout the mass and aerobic activity is maintained Temperature • Optimum temperature varies for different feedstocks or materials. However, most data indicate it to be between 50-600C
TYPES OF COMPOSTING Composting Open Process Reactor ProcessAgitated Pile Static Pile / Vertical Flow Horizontal/Inclined Non-flow (Batch) (Windrow) Aerated Pile
ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMSConsidered to be world’s worst aquatic plantsAbility to reproduce exponentially interferes withagricultural and infrastructural projectsCan present many problems for fishermenBlamed for reduction of biodiversityLow oxygen conditions create breading conditions formosquito vectors of malaria, encephalitis and filariasis
POTENTIAL UTILIZATIONAs a phytoremediation agent • Ability to grow in heavily polluted water together with its capacity for metal ion accumulation makes it suitable for treating wastewatersPower alcohol production • Relatively high content of hemicellulose indicates it could be a good source of hemicellulose for bioconversionBiogas production • Possibility of converting water hyacinth to biogas has also emerged as an area of major interest for many yearsAnimal fodder/fish feed • High water and mineral content of water hyacinth indicates that the nutrients in water hyacinth are suitable to some animals
COMPOST MATERIAL Water Hyacinth Sawdust Cattle Manure
SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES IN COMPOSTINGYear Raw Material Spectroscopic Technique 1990 Cattle manure FTIR 1998 Pig manure FTIR 2003 Municipal Solid Waste Thermal analysis 2003 Olive Mill wastes FTIR 2005 Sewage sludge and green plant waste FTIR 2007 Winery and Distillery residues Thermal analysis 2009 Olive mill residues FTIR & DSC
PHASE IISpectrocopic and Thermal analysis of samplesAgitated Pile – Samples from day 0, 18 and 30 to beanalyzedRotary Drum – Samples from day 0, 12 and 20 to beanalyzed5 different waste combinations will be testedTotal 30 samples to be analyzed by FTIR, TGA, DTG andDSC
REFERENCES1. Gunnarsson, C.C., Petersen, C.M., 2007. Water hyacinths as a resource in agriculture and energy production:A literature review. Waste Management 27, 117-129.2. Hsu, J.H., Lo, S.L., 1999. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of organic matter transformations during composting of pig manure. Environ. Pollut. 104, 189–196.3. Haug, R.T., 1993. The practical handbook of composting engineering. Lewis publishers.4. Jouraiphy, A., Amir, S., El Gharous, M., Revel, J-C., Hafidi, M., 2005. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of organic matter transformation during composting of sewage sludge and green plant waste. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 56, 101-108.5. Kalamdhad, A., Ali, M., Khwairakpam, M., & Kazmi, A. (2009). Organic metter transformation during rtary drum composting. Dynamic Soil, Dynamic Plant.
THANK YOU Presentation by – Shreyas Nangalia 09012227