Spectroscopic and Thermal Analysis of Composting during Agitated Pile and Rotary Drum Composting
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Spectroscopic and Thermal Analysis of Composting during Agitated Pile and Rotary Drum Composting

on

  • 510 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
510
Views on SlideShare
510
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Spectroscopic and Thermal Analysis of Composting during Agitated Pile and Rotary Drum Composting Presentation Transcript

  • 1. SPECTROSCOPIC AND THERMAL ANALYSIS OF COMPOSTING DURING AGITATED PILE AND ROTARY DRUM COMPOSTING
  • 2. ABSTRACTWater hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has infested vast wetlands, andhas caused major problems in the region viz. reducing fish population,blocking irrigation canals and averting navigation, damaging ricefields, eutrophication etc. Composting can be one of the suitableoptions for management and disposal of this free floating weed, asthe process is ecologically sound and economically viable, and helpsin reducing large quantities of organic wastes. Chemical analysesused in previous studies to determine the quality and stability ofcompost is time consuming and unreliable. Therefore, the aim of thisstudy is to employ modern spectroscopic and thermal analyses duringagitated pile and rotary drum composting of water hyacinth and itsdifferent waste combinations with cattle manure and sawdust. Duringphase 1 of the project, samples were prepared by pile and drumcomposting techniques. In phase 2, spectroscopic and thermal analysisof these collected samples will be done.
  • 3. COMPOSTING
  • 4. MATERIAL FLOW FOR CONVENTIONAL COMPOSTING PROCESS C, N, Inorganic, Composting Humic substances,Pathogens, Weed Mixing Process Curing Inorganic micro- seeds, Microbes organisms
  • 5. PHASES IN COMPOSTING PROCESS • Time necessary for microorganisms to colonize inLatent phase new environment • Rise of biologically produced temperature to Growth phase mesophilic levelThermophilic • Temperature rises to highest level phase • Temperature decreases to mesophlilic and,Maturation phase consequently ambient levels
  • 6. PATTERNS OF TEMPERATURE AND MICROBIAL GROWTH DURING COMPOSTING
  • 7. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS Nutrient balance Particle size • Organisms involved in stabilization of • Particle size of composting materials should organic matter utilize about 30 parts of C be as small as possible so as to allow for for each part of N efficient aeration Moisture control Aeration requirement • Optimum moisture content is known to be • Necessary to ensure that oxygen is between 50-60% supplied throughout the mass and aerobic activity is maintained Temperature • Optimum temperature varies for different feedstocks or materials. However, most data indicate it to be between 50-600C
  • 8. TYPES OF COMPOSTING Composting Open Process Reactor ProcessAgitated Pile Static Pile / Vertical Flow Horizontal/Inclined Non-flow (Batch) (Windrow) Aerated Pile
  • 9. WINDROW COMPOSTING
  • 10. AERATED STATIC PILE
  • 11. ROTARY DRUM COMPOSTER
  • 12. WATER HYACINTH
  • 13. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMSConsidered to be world’s worst aquatic plantsAbility to reproduce exponentially interferes withagricultural and infrastructural projectsCan present many problems for fishermenBlamed for reduction of biodiversityLow oxygen conditions create breading conditions formosquito vectors of malaria, encephalitis and filariasis
  • 14. POTENTIAL UTILIZATIONAs a phytoremediation agent • Ability to grow in heavily polluted water together with its capacity for metal ion accumulation makes it suitable for treating wastewatersPower alcohol production • Relatively high content of hemicellulose indicates it could be a good source of hemicellulose for bioconversionBiogas production • Possibility of converting water hyacinth to biogas has also emerged as an area of major interest for many yearsAnimal fodder/fish feed • High water and mineral content of water hyacinth indicates that the nutrients in water hyacinth are suitable to some animals
  • 15. COMPOST MATERIAL Water Hyacinth Sawdust Cattle Manure
  • 16. WASTE COMPOSITIONS AND CHARACTERISTICSParameters and Trials Water Hyacinth Sawdust Cattle Manure Trial 1 150 0 0 Trial 2 120 15 15 Trial 3 105 15 30 Trial 4 90 15 45 Trial 5 75 15 60 pH 5.79 6.155 6.65 Conductivity (dS/m) 4.91 0.389 3.31 Moisture content(%) 85.535 10.015 80.92 Volatile Solids 72.641 97.871 72.054
  • 17. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Agitated Pile and Rotary Drum composting Waste collection and charaterization Pile & Drum Start up and Waste Feeding Different Operating Scenarios 5 trials of different waste combinations Sampling & Analysis Preparing Database & Report
  • 18. SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Thermogravimetric Analysis Differential Thermogravimetry Differential scanning calorimetry
  • 19. FOURIER TRANSFORM FTIR Spectra of compostedINFRARED SPECTROSCOPY olive-mill wastes at various stages of maturation
  • 20. THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS
  • 21. DIFFERENTIALTHERMOGRAVIMETRY
  • 22. DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY
  • 23. SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES IN COMPOSTINGYear Raw Material Spectroscopic Technique 1990 Cattle manure FTIR 1998 Pig manure FTIR 2003 Municipal Solid Waste Thermal analysis 2003 Olive Mill wastes FTIR 2005 Sewage sludge and green plant waste FTIR 2007 Winery and Distillery residues Thermal analysis 2009 Olive mill residues FTIR & DSC
  • 24. PHASE IISpectrocopic and Thermal analysis of samplesAgitated Pile – Samples from day 0, 18 and 30 to beanalyzedRotary Drum – Samples from day 0, 12 and 20 to beanalyzed5 different waste combinations will be testedTotal 30 samples to be analyzed by FTIR, TGA, DTG andDSC
  • 25. 1634 2924 3434 Water Hyacinth% Transmittance 1020 2920 1643 1042 Cattle Manure 3405 603 1260 2921 1639 1035 Saw Dust 3430 500 1000 1500 3000 3500 4000 -1 Wavenumber (cm )
  • 26. REFERENCES1. Gunnarsson, C.C., Petersen, C.M., 2007. Water hyacinths as a resource in agriculture and energy production:A literature review. Waste Management 27, 117-129.2. Hsu, J.H., Lo, S.L., 1999. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of organic matter transformations during composting of pig manure. Environ. Pollut. 104, 189–196.3. Haug, R.T., 1993. The practical handbook of composting engineering. Lewis publishers.4. Jouraiphy, A., Amir, S., El Gharous, M., Revel, J-C., Hafidi, M., 2005. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of organic matter transformation during composting of sewage sludge and green plant waste. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 56, 101-108.5. Kalamdhad, A., Ali, M., Khwairakpam, M., & Kazmi, A. (2009). Organic metter transformation during rtary drum composting. Dynamic Soil, Dynamic Plant.
  • 27. THANK YOU Presentation by – Shreyas Nangalia 09012227