Shreya seminar (303)


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Shreya seminar (303)

  1. 1. Anti-Cancer Treatment: PRESENTED BY Shreya M. Modi M.Sc sem-3. Roll no.-22. Submitted to- P. G. Department of Microbiology. Department of Life Science, Patan. Dt.-8/8/2011.
  2. 2. Contents:  Introduction.  Types of cancer.  Causes of cancer.  Characteristics of cancerous cells.  The goals of cancer treatments.  Treatments of cancer.  How cancer is treated?  How can cancer be prevented?
  3. 3. Introduction:  Disease in which abnormal cells grow & divide without control & are able to invade other tissues that is called Cancer.  Cancerous cells can spread to other parts of the body through the blood & lymph system.  Diagnosis & treatment of this cancerous cells that is called Anti-cancer treatment.
  4. 4. There are two types of tumor but not all tumors are cancerous. 1)Benign tumors are not cancerous. -They can often be removed & in most cases, they don’t come back. -Cells in benign tumors don’t spread to other parts of the body. 2)Malignant tumors are cancerous. -Cells in these tumors can invade nearby tissues & spread to other parts of the body.
  5. 5. Types of Cancer: - There are 5 types of Cancer. Cancers. Occur. 1) Carcinoma : - It begins at the skin (or) at tissues that cover internal organs. 2) Sarcoma : - It begins at bone, cartilage, muscle, blood vessels & other connective tissue. 3) Leukemia : - It begins at blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow. 4) Lymphoma & myeloma : - It begins at the cells of the Immune system. 5) Central nervous system cancers : - It begins at the tissues of the brain & spinal cord.
  6. 6. Common types of Cancer: Cancers: Examples: 1) Blood Cancers: - Leukemia (or) Lymphoma. 2) Bone Cancers: - Osteosarcoma. 3) Brain Cancers: - Adult brain tumor. 4) Breast Cancers: - Inflammatory breast cancer. - Invasive types of breast cancer. 5) Digestive/Gastrointestinal Cancers: - Gastrointestinal cancer. - Colon cancer & Liver cancer. - Pancreatic cancer & Small intestine cancer. 6) Eye Cancers: - Retinoblastoma. 7) Endocrine Cancers: - Thyroid cancer & Parathyroid cancer. - Pituitary tumor. 8) Gynecologic Cancers: - Cervical cancer & Ovarian cancer. 9) Head & Neck Cancers: - Salivary gland cancer. 10) Respiratory Cancers: - Lung cancer. 11) Skin Cancers: - Melanoma & Non-melanoma cancer.
  7. 7. Causes of Cancer:  Normal cells in the body follow a path of growth, division & death.  But, Cancer is ultimately the result of damaging DNA & inducing mutation to the cells, that uncontrollably grow & divide but don’t die.  When, programmed cell death process breaks down, cancer begins to form & leads to growth of abnormal cancerous cells.
  8. 8. There are some cancers occur by the certain viruses: Class of Viruses. Viruses. Tumors induced. 1)DNA Viruses: -Herpes viruses. Epstein – Barr virus. Burkitt’s lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma. -Papova viruses. Human papilloma viruses. Cervical cancer. 2)RNA Viruses: -C-type Viruses. Rous sarcoma virus. Sarcomas. -Retro Viruses. Human T-cell leukemia virus. Leukemias / Lymphomas.
  9. 9. Characteristics of Cancerous Cells:  The problem:  Cancer cells divide rapidly.  They are “immortal”.  Cell-cell communication is altered.  Uncontrolled proliferation.  Invasiveness.  Ability to metastasise.  Molecular changes in cell membrane components.
  10. 10. The Goals of Cancer Treatments: 1)Curative. -Total irradication of cancerous cells. 2)Palliative. -Alleviation of symptoms. -Avoidance of life-threatening toxicity. -Increased survival & improved quality of life. 3)Adjuvant therapy. -Attempt to eradicate microscopic cancer after surgery. e.g. breast cancer.
  11. 11. Treatments of cancer:  The discovery of oncogenes & tumor suppresor genes will allow the development of new drugs that act selectively against the cancerous cells.  Most of the drugs currently used in cancer treatment either damage DNA (or) inhibit DNA replication.  Consequently, these drugs are toxic not only to cancerous cells but also to normal cells.
  12. 12.  The use of drugs that inhibit tumor growth by interfering with angiogenesis (blood vessel formation) (or) distrupting tumor blood vessels, rather than acting directly against cancerous cells.  FDA to approve the use of the first angiogenesis inhibitor, a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial grow factor (VEGF), for treatment of colon cancer.  Two small molecule inhibitors of the VEGF receptor have also been approved for treatment of kidney cancer.
  13. 13. How cancer is treated?  Cancer treatment depends on the type of cancer, the stage of the cancer, age, health status & additional personal characteristics.  There is no single treatment for cancer & patients often receive a combination of therapies.  There are certain therapies used for cancer treatment. 1) Surgery. 2) Radiation. 3) Chemo therapy. 4) Immuno therapy. 5) Hormone therapy. 6) Gene therapy. 7) Recombinant DNA approach.
  14. 14. 1)Surgery:  Surgery is the oldest known treatment for cancer.  If a cancer has not metastasized, it is possible to completely cure a patient by surgically removing the cancerous cells surrounding non-tumorous tissues.  This is often seen in the removal of the prostate (or) breast.  After the disease has spread, however, it is nearly impossible to remove all of the cancerous cells.
  15. 15. Side effects of surgery:  Pain.  Fatigue.  Loss of appetite.  Swelling around the site of surgery.  Drainage from the site of surgery.  Bruising around the site of surgery.
  16. 16. 2)Radiation therapy:  This treatment focuse high-energy rays on cancerous cells & causing mutations.  Mutations are more likely to kill rapidly growing tumor cells.  Location of a tumor must be clearly defined before treatment is begin.  This therapy can’t be used on metastatic tumors.
  17. 17.  Radiotherapy utilizes high-energy X-rays & gamma-rays that are emitted from metals such as radium. Side effects of radiation:  Cell death.  Cell damage & regeneration stoppage.  Cell regeneration on children.  Skin problems.  Fatigue.  Memory loss.
  18. 18. 3)Chemotherapy:  Chemotherapy utilizes chemicals that interfere with the cell division process - damaging proteins (or) DNA. So, that cancerous cells will commit suicide.  Chemotherapy is generally used to treat cancer that has spread (or) metastasized because the medicines travel throughout the entire body.
  19. 19.  Combination therapies often include multiple types of chemotherapy (or) chemotherapy combined with other treatment options. Principles of Combined Chemotherapy:  Each drug is active against the cancer.  Each drug has a different mechanism of action.  Each drug has a different mechanism of resistance.  Non-overlapping toxicities among the drugs.
  20. 20. Some Druges used in cancer chemotherapy: Class of drugs. Drugs. Mechanism of action. Antimetabolites. Methotrexate. Inhibit pathways for biosynthesis 5-fluorouracil. of nucleic acids by substituting 6-mercaptopurine. for normal compound. Antibiotics. Actinomycin D. Bind to DNA. Adriamycin. Daunorubicin. Alkylating agents. Nitrogen mustard. Chemically modify DNA. Chlorambucil. Cyclophosphamide. Imidazole carboximide. Cisplatin. Mitotic inhibitors. Vincristine. Interfere with mitosis. Vinblastine. Taxol. Others. Asparaginase. Degrade the a. acid asparagine.
  21. 21. Alkylating agents: • cyclophosphamide: • cisplatin: • Mechanism of action: cross-link two strands of DNA leading to impairment of DNA replication & RNA transcription.
  22. 22. Side effects of chemotherapy:
  23. 23. 4)Immunotherapy:  Immunotherapy aims to get the body's immune system to fight the tumor.  It improves cancer-fighting abilities by stimulating the entire immune system.  By introduce various vaccines & antibodies into the body can inhibit the growth of various cancerous cells.
  24. 24. There are two types of immunotherapy techniques. 1) Local immunotherapy: It injects a treatment into an affected area. For example, to cause inflammation that causes a tumor to shrink. 2) Systemic immunotherapy: It treats the whole body by administering an agent such as the protein interferon alpha that can shrink tumors.
  25. 25. •Bone marrow transplantation can also be considered immunotherapy because the donor's immune cells will often attack the tumor (or) cancerous cells that are present in the host. Side effects of immunotherapy:  Fever.  Weakness.  Fatigue.  Vomiting.  Diarrhea.  Swelling.  Redness.  Skin irritation.  Body aches.  Bone aches.
  26. 26. 5)Hormone therapy:  Several cancers have been linked to some types of hormones, most notably in breast & prostate cancer.  Hormone therapy is designed to alter hormone production in the body so, that cancerous cells stop growing (or) are killed completely.
  27. 27.  Breast cancer hormone therapies often focus on reducing estrogen levels. (a common drug for this is tamoxifen.)  Prostate cancer hormone therapies often focus on reducing testosterone levels.  In addition, some leukemia & lymphoma cases can be treated with the hormone cortisone.
  28. 28. Side effects of hormone:  Bone pain.  Joint pain.  Osteoporosis.  Higher Cholesterol.  Depression.  Dry skin.  Fatigue.  Headache.  Weakness.  Vomiting. Hormones. Drug. Mechanism of action. Estrogen. Tamoxifen. Inhibit growth of particular Anastrozole. hormone that are necessary Cortisone. for the growth of certain Progesterone. tumors. Androgens. Some drugs which used in Hormone therapy:
  29. 29. 6)Gene therapy:  The goal of gene therapy is to replace damaged genes.  For example, researchers are trying to replace the damaged gene that signals cells to stop divide.  Other gene-based therapies focus on further damaging cancerous cell DNA, where, the cell commits suicide.
  30. 30. There are two types of genes: 1)Tumor suppressor gene: -It regulating the cell cycle & apoptosis. -when it is active it “suppresses” tumors. -when it is inactive it may involve DNA methylation. 2)Oncogene: -It is derived from protooncogenes. -It normally play role in signal transduction & apoptosis. -It promotes uncontrolled growth of tumor. -Oncogenes in retroviruses are referred to as V-onc & those in tumors as C-onc.
  31. 31. There are two types of gene therapy: 1)Germ line gene therapy: - In this gene therapy, Germ cells, i.e., sperm (or) eggs are modified by the functional genes, which are integrated into their genomes. - The change due to therapy would be heritable & would be passed on to later generations. 2)Somatic gene therapy: - In this gene therapy, the therapeutic genes are transferred into the somatic cells of a patient. -Any modifications & effects will not be inherited by the patient's later generations.
  32. 32. 7)Recombinant DNA approach:  This approach delivering the killer genes only to the tumor cells & not to normal cells.  Most successful gene therapies employ an ex-vivo approach, in which cells are removed from the body, manipulated & returned.  But this approach can’t be used against tumor cells, because tumor cells can’t be removed from the body.  For this approach we must used method that will allow in-vivo delivery of genes to targeted tumor cells.
  33. 33. How can cancer be prevented?  Cancers that are the easiest to prevent. By, - to avoid smoke tobacco, - to avoid drink alcohol.  Diet is also an important part of cancer prevention.  Certain vaccinations. -many women receive a human papillomavirus vaccines which can prevent the causes of cervical cancer. -Hepatitis B vaccines which can prevent the causes of liver cancer. etc…  Breast self-examination, are common methods -Mammograms, for screening of -Testicular self-examination, various cancers. etc…
  34. 34. REFERENCES:  The cell, a molecular approach, 5th edition, By – Geoffrey M. Cooper & Robert E. Hausman.  Instent notes in immunology.