Gold nano particles


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gold nano particles a new approach for cancer treatment

Gold nano particles

  1. 1. Golden Bullet Technology in Treatment of Cancer Presented by B.Shreni Industrial Pharmacy Gokaraju Rangaraju College of Pharmacy
  2. 2. Outline • Introduction • Gold Nanoparticle-Mediated Thermal Therapies • Gold Nanoparticle Design for Photothermal Therapy • Characteristics of Gold Nanoparticles • Types of Gold Nanoparticles • Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles • Mechanism • Characterization • Applications • References
  3. 3. Cancer • Cancer is a disease where cells grow out of control invades,erodes,and destroy normal tissue. Chemotherapy Radiation
  4. 4. • Individuals undergoing chemotherapy frequently report experiencing symptoms as nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, constipation or diarrhea. • Fever and fatigue are also common side effects experienced by chemotherapy patients. • The most apparent and emotionally challenging side effect associated with chemo treatment is alopecia--a medical condition in which hair falls out
  5. 5. When the world says give up… Hope whispers try one more time
  6. 6. • Here’s the hope ……. Nanotechnology based drug delivery system Nanotechnology is the science that deals with the processes that occur at molecular level and of nanolength scale size.
  7. 7. Nanoparticles • Nanoparticles as drug delivery systems enable unique approaches for cancer treatment. • Nanoparticles have optical, magnetic, chemical and structural properties that set them apart from bulk solids, with potential applications in medicine • Gold (au) nanoparticles (aunps) exhibit a combination of physical, chemical, optical and electronic properties • Gold nano particles plays a multifunctional role in Image and diagnose diseases Deliver of therapeutic agents Administer electromagnetic radiation to disease site
  8. 8. Gold Nanoparticle-Mediated Thermal Therapies • Gold nanoparticles are emerging as promising agents for cancer therapy • These are beneficial in diagnosis of cancer due to their photo physical property and optical property. • Unlike conventional cancer treatments, the golden nanoparticle approach uses no toxic chemicals and no radiation, reducing the risk of unpleasant side effects. • This therapy will work on any soft-tissue tumours, such as the breast, prostate, brain, skin, head, neck and cervix. • The nano particles are designed to convert light into heat - blasting away the surrounding cancerous tissue.
  9. 9. • Gold nano particles occur as clusters of gold atoms up to 100nm in diameter • Nanogold has unusal visible properties as the particles are small enough to scatter visible light • Mass gold reflects light • Gold nano particles appear deep red to black in solution- colour depends on size of nano particles • Surface plasmone resonance is the term used by nanotechnologists in Biosensing
  10. 10. Characteristics of Gold Nanoparticles • Gold nanoparticles are chemically inert • These have greater biological compatibility • Optical properties like plasmon resonance are fluorescence and chemiluminescence having better exhibited by gold nanoparticles • Gold nanoparticles provide microscopic probes for the study of the cancer cell • Gold nanoparticles accumulate in the cancerous cell and show the cytotoxic effect i.e. apoptosis or necrosis of the specific cell and cell specific receptor • These have high stability due to the gold-sulphur bonds
  11. 11. Appearance of gold nano particles on binding with cancerous cells • By adding conjugated nano particle solution to healthy cells and cancerous cells and focussing it under a microscope shining cancerous cells are observed
  12. 12. Gold Nanoparticle Design for Photothermal Therapy Key features: • Wavelength of maximal absorption • absorption cross-section • size of the particle  Gold is a good conductor of heat. • Gold nanoparticles are able to be heate heated up by radio frequency. • The heated NP would inturn heat the • cancer cell and makes it destroyed. •
  13. 13. Types of Gold Nanoparticles Nanorods Nanoshells Nanocages
  14. 14. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Precursor: HAuCl4 , other gold salts Stabilizer:carboxylates, phosphines, amines, thiols, polymers Reducing agent: citrate, ascorbic acid, borohydrides Turkevich method: • Small amounts of hot chlorauric acid is reacted with small amounts of sodium citrate solution. The colloidal gold will form because the citrate ions act as both a reducing agent, and a capping agent. • There by monodisperse gold nanospheres are produced. • The size of the nanospheres can be controlled by varying the citrate/gold ratio. • The major limitations of this method are the low yield and the restriction of using water as the solvent.
  15. 15. Brust method • This method used to produce gold nanoparticles in organic liquids that are normally not miscible with water (like toluene) • It involves the reaction of a chlorauric acid solution with tetraoctylammonium bromide (TOAB) solution in toluene and sodium borohydride as an anti-coagulant and a reducing agent, respectively
  16. 16. Martin Method • “Naked” gold nanoparticles are produced in water by reducing HAuCl4 with NaBH4. Even without any other stabilizer like citrate, gold nanoparticles are stably dispersed. • The key is to stabilize HAuCl4 and NaBH4 in the aqueous stock solutions with HCl and NaOH for >3 months and >3 hours respectively
  17. 17. Mechanism • Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been engineered such that their plasmon resonance is tuned to near infrared (NIR) wavelengths, which allows them to absorb and convert this energy to heat leading to hyperthermic temperatures of surrounding media As a result GNPs have received increased attention for localized administration of hyperthermia for cancer cells ablation, and this approach is currently in early clinical trials
  18. 18. Characterization of gold nanoparticles • UV-Vis spectroscopy: The formation of gold nanoparticles was followed by scanning the solution containing gold nanoparticles at the wave length ranged from 400-700 nm • Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM): The analysis of synthesized gold nanoparticles was carried out on the film coated drop of nanoparticles employing transmission electron microscopy
  19. 19. Applications • Gold Nanoparticles for the Delivery of Protein, Peptides and Nucleic Acid • Medical imaging • Diseases can be diagnosed through the detection of a biomolecule(s) characteristic to a specific disease type and stage • Detection of tumor is the functionalization of the nanoparticle with an antibody specific to the tumor antigens, and then detect the nanoparticle by some spectroscopic technique • Selective Photothermal cancer therapy
  20. 20. Progress • Organo gold compounds has been prepared that are sufficiently stable under physiological conditions and are promising candidates for pharmacological testing as cytotoxic agent • Gold is highly resistent to bacteria and can be used to prevent the growth in infections • Gold nanoparticles are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases
  21. 21. Future Golden bullet technology in patient treatment
  22. 22. Conclusion Gold and nanotechnology in the age of innovation is gold for good
  23. 23. References • Going Small for Big Advances (2004). National Institutes of Health Publication Number 04-5489. [Kindle Edition] Retrieved from • nanotech1.htm • chemotherapy-1005.html • • nanoparticles-cancer-dogs
  24. 24. Thank you