آلية التقييم الحسي للأغذية
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آلية التقييم الحسي للأغذية

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آلية التقييم الحسي للأغذية آلية التقييم الحسي للأغذية Presentation Transcript

  • ‫لألغذٌة‬ ً‫الحس‬ ‫التقٌٌم‬ ‫آلٌة‬ (ً‫العمل‬ ‫الجزء‬) ‫الشرٌك‬ ‫دمحم‬ ‫ٌوسف‬ ‫الدكتور‬ ‫األستاذ‬ ‫التدرٌب‬ ‫إدارة‬/‫والتطوٌر‬ ‫للتدرٌب‬ ‫النجمة‬ ‫مركز‬ ‫واالستشارات‬
  • •‫العضوٌة‬ ‫الحسٌة‬ ‫االختبارات‬
  • ‫لألغذٌة‬ ً‫الحس‬ ‫التقٌٌم‬ • Sensory analysis ً‫الحس‬ ‫التحلٌل‬ ‫تعرٌف‬ Sensory analysis (or sensory evaluation) is a scientific discipline ‫دراصت‬ ‫أو‬ ‫تعهيًاث‬ ‫أو‬ ‫تذريب‬ that applies principles of experimental design and statistical analysis to the use of human senses (sight, smell, taste, touch and hearing) for the purposes of evaluating consumer products. • The discipline requires panels of human assessors,‫انًحكًين‬ whom the products are tested, and recording the responses made by them. • By applying statistical techniques to the results it is possible to make inferences ‫اصتنتاجاث‬and insights ‫انًالحظاث‬about the products under test.
  • • Most large consumer goods companies have departments dedicated ‫يكزس‬ to sensory analysis. • Sensory analysis can generally be broken down into three sub-sections: 1. Effective testing (dealing with objective facts about products) ‫األجهزة‬ ‫فيها‬ ‫يضتخذو‬ ‫اختباراث‬ 2. Affective testing (dealing with subjective facts such as preferences) (‫انتذوق‬ ‫أو‬ ‫انحضيت‬ ‫االختباراث‬) 3. Perception (the biochemical and psychological aspects of sensation
  • Effective testing • This type of testing is concerned with obtaining objective facts about products. This could range from basic discrimination testing( • e.g. Do two or more products differ from each other?) to descriptive profiling • ( e.g. What are the characteristics of two or more products?). • The type of panel required for this type of testing would normally be a trained panel
  • Affective testing • Otherwise known as consumer testing, • this type of testing is concerned with obtaining subjective data, • or how well products are likely to be accepted. • Usually large (50 or more) panels of untrained personnel are recruited for this type of testing, although smaller focus groups can be utilized to gain insights into products. • The range of testing can vary from simple comparative testing (e.g. Which do you prefer, A or B?) to structured questioning regarding the magnitude of acceptance of individual characteristics (e.g. Please rate the "fruity aroma": dislike | neither | like).
  • ً‫الحس‬ ‫اإلدراك‬ Perception • Perception involves the biochemical and psychological theories relating to human (and animal (sensations . • By understanding the mechanisms involved it may be possible to explain why certain characteristics are preferred over others • Descriptive analysis involves trained panels (6-30 people) who evaluate products by rating the intensity of various characteristics on a scale. Statistical analyses are applied to look for differences among various products for characteristics of interest • Consumer testing sometimes called hedonic test involves having potential consumers of a product evaluate various products and a small number of items on a ballot.
  • ‫لألغذٌة‬ ً‫الحس‬ ‫التقٌٌم‬ •ً‫عه‬ ‫نهحكى‬ ‫اتباعها‬ ‫يًكن‬ ‫انتي‬ ‫االختباراث‬ ‫ين‬ ‫يجًىعت‬ ‫هي‬ ‫انطبيعيت‬ ‫انهصفاث‬ ‫يحصهت‬ ‫هي‬ ‫وانتي‬ ‫انغذائي‬ ‫انًنتج‬ ‫جىدة‬ ‫يا‬ ‫ينتج‬ ‫بها‬ ‫يتًيز‬ ‫انتي‬ •‫انغذائي‬ ‫نهًنتج‬ ‫انًًيزة‬ ‫انعناصز‬ ‫تىافز‬ ‫يذي‬ ‫عن‬ ‫تعبز‬ ‫وهي‬ ‫انًضتههك‬ ‫لبم‬ ‫ين‬ ‫فيه‬ ً‫ا‬‫يزغىب‬ ‫وتجعهه‬ •‫انحضيت‬ ‫انجىدة‬ ‫اصى‬ ‫عهيه‬ ‫يطهك‬ ‫ولذ‬Sensory Quality •‫بىاصطت‬ ‫انغذائي‬ ‫انًنتج‬ ‫حىل‬ ‫انًضتههك‬ ‫حكى‬ ‫يحصهت‬ ‫هى‬ ‫ويهًش‬ ‫وشى‬ ‫ونظز‬ ‫تذوق‬ ‫ين‬ ‫أحاصيضه‬
  • ‫الحسٌة‬ ‫الخصائص‬ ‫تقٌٌم‬ •‫انتانيت‬ ‫االختباراث‬ ‫ين‬ ‫نىعين‬ ‫انغزض‬ ‫نهذا‬ ‫يضتخذو‬: •‫انحضيت‬ ‫انعضىيت‬ ‫انخىاص‬ ‫فيها‬ ‫يضتخذو‬ ‫االختباراث‬ (‫انتذوق‬ ‫أو‬ ‫انحضيت‬ ‫االختباراث‬)‫باصى‬ ‫وتعزف‬ Subjective methods‫أو‬ ‫انحىاس‬ ‫فيها‬ ‫تضتخذو‬ ‫نهتمييى‬ ‫انًختهفت‬ ‫انحضيت‬ ‫األعضاء‬. •‫األجهزة‬ ‫فيها‬ ‫يضتخذو‬ ‫اختباراث‬Objective methods
  • ‫الحسٌة‬ ‫العضوٌة‬ ‫االختبارات‬ ‫أهداف‬ .1‫غذائٌة‬ ‫سلع‬ ‫من‬ ‫المستهلك‬ ‫ٌفضله‬ ‫ما‬ ‫معرفة‬. .2‫المنتجات‬ ‫بٌن‬ ‫االختالفات‬ ‫على‬ ‫التعرف‬. .3‫للتصنٌع‬ ‫الطرق‬ ‫وأفضل‬ ‫المنتجات‬ ‫أفضل‬ ‫اختبار‬. .4‫المنتج‬ ‫جودة‬ ‫مستوى‬ ‫تحدٌد‬. •‫الحسٌة‬ ‫العضوٌة‬ ‫لالختبارات‬ ‫أمثلة‬ .1‫البسٌطة‬ ‫المقارنات‬ ‫اختبار‬Simple difference test‫المقارنة‬ ‫أو‬ ‫أزواج‬ ً‫ف‬Paired comparison test .2‫ثالثة‬ ‫من‬ ‫االثنان‬ ‫االختبار‬Duo/trio test .3‫المثلث‬ ‫اختبار‬Triangle test .4‫المتعددة‬ ‫المقارنات‬ ‫اختبارات‬Multiple comparison test
  • ‫البسٌط‬ ‫المقارنات‬ ‫اختبار‬ ‫ازواج‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫المقارنة‬ ‫أو‬ •‫ازواج‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫المحكمٌن‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫االختبار‬ ‫هذا‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫تقدم‬ Two samples •‫كمراقب‬ ‫تستخدم‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫من‬ ‫واحدة‬Control‫تجرٌبٌة‬ ‫واألخرى‬. •‫هذه‬ ‫من‬ ‫أزواج‬ ‫عمل‬ ‫ٌتم‬ ‫فإنه‬ ‫تجرٌبٌة‬ ‫عٌنة‬ ‫من‬ ‫أكثر‬ ‫وجود‬ ‫حالة‬ ً‫وف‬ ‫المراقب‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫مع‬ ‫العٌنات‬ •‫مثل‬:- •(2‫و‬1( )2‫و‬3( )2‫و‬4) •‫؟‬ ‫متماثلتٌن‬ ‫أم‬ ‫مختلفتٌن‬ ‫العٌنتٌن‬ ‫هل‬ ‫معرفة‬ ‫المحكمٌن‬ ‫من‬ ‫ٌطلب‬ ‫ثم‬ •‫معٌنة‬ ‫خاصٌة‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫شدة‬ ‫أكثر‬ ‫أو‬ ‫أقل‬ ‫العٌنتٌن‬ ‫أي‬ ‫أو‬ •‫خاصة‬ ‫بطرٌقة‬ ‫النتائج‬ ‫تحلٌل‬ ‫ٌتم‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫بعد‬
  • paired comparison test • In paired comparison analysis ,also known as paired choice analysis • a range of options are compared and the results are tallied ً‫ف‬ ‫سجلت‬ ‫جدول‬to find an overall winner. • A range of plausible ‫القبول‬options is listed. • Each option is compared against each of the other options, determining the preferred option in each case. • The results are tallied and the option with the highest score is the preferred option. • This technique may be conducted individually or in groups. • It may include criteria to guide the comparisons or be based on intuition ‫بدٌهة‬ ‫أو‬ ‫حدس‬following an open discussion of the group. • A paired choice matrix or paired comparison matrix can be constructed to help with this type of analysis .
  • ‫ثالثة‬ ‫من‬ ‫االثنان‬ ‫اختبار‬ •‫مرجعٌة‬ ‫عٌنة‬ ‫للمحكم‬ ‫ٌقدم‬ ‫االختبار‬ ‫هذا‬ ً‫ف‬Reference (R ) ‫عنها‬ ‫ممكن‬ ‫شًء‬ ‫وكل‬ ‫وصفاتها‬ ‫خواصها‬ ‫كل‬ ‫تماما‬ ‫معروف‬ ‫للمحكم‬ ‫بالنسبة‬ •‫كودٌة‬ ‫بأرقام‬ ‫مجهولتٌن‬ ‫أخرتٌن‬ ‫عٌنتٌن‬ ‫له‬ ‫ٌقدم‬ ‫ثم‬ •‫نفس‬ ‫لها‬ ‫العٌنتٌن‬ ‫تلك‬ ‫من‬ ‫أي‬ ‫تحدٌد‬ ‫المحكم‬ ‫من‬ ‫ٌطلب‬ ‫المرجعٌة‬ ‫العٌنٌة‬ ‫مع‬ ‫الحسٌة‬ ‫الصفات‬.
  • R 1 2 ‫شكل‬) (‫الصفات‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫مختلفان‬ ‫وعٌنتان‬ ‫المرجعٌة‬ ‫عٌنة‬ ‫االختبار‬ ‫ٌضم‬ ‫المرجعٌة‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫مع‬ ‫المتشابهة‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫تحدٌد‬ ‫المطلوب‬.
  • •‫المثلث‬ ‫اختبار‬ •،‫إلٌه‬ ‫بالنسبة‬ ‫ومجهولة‬ ، ‫مرقمة‬ ‫عٌنات‬ ‫ثالثة‬ ‫للمحكم‬ ‫تقدم‬ ‫وٌطلب‬ ،‫عنهم‬ ‫مختلفة‬ ‫والثالثة‬ ً‫ا‬‫تمام‬ ‫متشبهان‬ ‫منهما‬ ‫اثنان‬ ‫المختلفة‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫تحدٌد‬ ‫المحكم‬ ‫من‬ •‫شكل‬) (‫مختلفة‬ ‫والثالثة‬ ‫متشبهان‬ ‫العٌنتان‬ ‫المثلث‬ ‫اختبار‬ ‫عنهما‬.
  • 2 ‫مختلفة‬ 2 • ‫شكل‬) (‫عنهما‬ ‫مختلفة‬ ‫والثالثة‬ ‫متشبهان‬ ‫العٌنتان‬ ‫المثلث‬ ‫اختبار‬.
  • ‫المتعددة‬ ‫المقارنات‬ ‫اختبار‬ •‫منهم‬ ‫وٌطلب‬ ، ‫واحد‬ ‫وقت‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫من‬ ‫عدد‬ ‫للمحكمٌن‬ ‫تقدم‬ ‫حسب‬ ‫على‬ ،‫الصفات‬ ‫من‬ ‫مجموعة‬ ‫أو‬ ‫معٌنة‬ ‫صفة‬ ‫حسب‬ ‫على‬ ‫تقٌٌمها‬ ‫مثل‬ ‫التحكٌم‬ ‫استمارة‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫الموضح‬ ‫منهم‬ ‫المطلوب‬:- •‫التفضٌل‬ ‫لدرجة‬ ً‫ا‬‫تبع‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫ترتٌب‬Ranking‫من‬ ‫صفة‬ ‫لكل‬ ‫الحسٌة‬ ‫الصفات‬. •‫وصف‬Descriptive‫أو‬ ‫مٌلهم‬ ‫درجة‬ ‫حٌث‬ ‫من‬ ‫باللفظ‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫أو‬ ‫قبولهم‬ ‫على‬ ‫ٌدل‬ ‫معٌن‬ ‫لفظ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫وصف‬ ‫باستخدام‬ ‫للعٌنات‬ ‫قبولهم‬ ‫للعٌنات‬ ‫قبولهم‬ ‫عدم‬ •‫بالنقاط‬ ‫بالعٌنة‬ ‫الحسٌة‬ ‫صفة‬ ‫جودة‬ ‫تقدٌر‬(Scoring)‫من‬0‫إلى‬ 10‫نقطة‬. •‫القبول‬ ‫ودرجة‬ ‫الحسٌة‬ ‫الصفة‬ ‫الوصف‬ ‫بٌن‬ ‫تضم‬ ‫المعاٌٌر‬.
  • ً‫العمل‬ ‫التدرٌب‬ •‫ومحالٌل‬ ‫ومربى‬ ‫وسكري‬ ً‫ملح‬ ‫محلول‬ ‫من‬ ‫مختلفة‬ ‫عٌنات‬ ‫أمامك‬ ‫صفاتها‬ ‫حدد‬ ‫حالوتها‬ ‫شدة‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫مختلفة‬ ‫سكرٌة‬ ‫ومحالٌل‬ ‫ملونة‬ ‫ملحٌة‬ ‫حسب‬ ‫وعلى‬ ‫المختلفة‬ ‫االستمارات‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫المطلوب‬ ‫حسب‬ ‫على‬ ‫الحسٌة‬ ‫منها‬ ‫لكل‬ ‫المطلوب‬ ‫االختبار‬. •ً‫كالتال‬ ‫مقسمة‬ ً‫وه‬ ‫السكرٌة‬ ‫المحالٌل‬ ‫من‬ ‫عٌنات‬ ‫ثالثة‬ ‫أمامك‬:- –‫مرجعٌة‬ ‫عٌنة‬. –‫المرجعٌة‬ ‫للعٌنة‬ ‫مشابهة‬ ‫عٌنة‬. –‫المرجعٌة‬ ‫للعٌنة‬ ‫مشابهة‬ ‫غٌر‬ ‫عٌنة‬
  • •‫الحسٌة‬ ‫صفاتها‬ ‫تقٌٌم‬ ‫المطلوب‬ ، ً‫المرب‬ ‫من‬ ‫عٌنة‬ ‫أمامك‬ ‫اختبار‬ ‫طرٌقة‬ ‫حسب‬ ‫على‬ ً‫التال‬ ‫الجدول‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫المذكورة‬ ‫من‬ ‫الحسٌة‬ ‫الصفات‬ ‫تقٌٌم‬1‫إلى‬10.
  • •‫درجة‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫تختلف‬ ‫سكرٌة‬ ‫المحالٌل‬ ‫من‬ ‫عٌنات‬ ‫خمسة‬ ‫أمامك‬ ‫على‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫ترتٌب‬ ‫المطلوب‬ ، ‫اللون‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫أو‬ ‫الحالوة‬ ً‫ا‬ٌ‫تصاعد‬ ‫اللون‬ ‫أو‬ ‫الحالوة‬ ‫درجة‬ ‫حسب‬(‫إلى‬ ‫أقل‬ ‫من‬ ‫فاألعمق‬ ‫الفاتح‬ ‫اللون‬ ‫من‬ ‫أو‬ ‫الحالوة‬ ‫درجة‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫أغلى‬)، ً‫التال‬ ‫الجدول‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫النتائج‬ ‫تسجل‬.
  • Flavor Profile :Used • To describe aroma, flavor and aftertaste components. • Panelists, typically 5-8, are selected on basis of taste and aroma ability. • An eight point ordinal category scale is used to estimate intensity of each attribute e.g. 0 = absent through to 8 = Strong • Uses a fixed frame of reference to express intensities (absolute scale) • Consensus ً‫جماع‬ ‫اتفاق‬ scores for each attribute are developed after discussion
  • Texture Profile • Used to describe textural/mouthfeel attributes Panelists, typically 5-8, are selected on basis of ability to discriminate known textural difference on product type to be trained. • Panelists are trained using predetermined reference scales for textural attributes • Panelists score products for attributes individually using a scale, category, continuous line or Magnitude estimation, on which they have been trained during the training process
  • Quantitative Descriptive Analysis • Developed in response to criticism of previous methods’ lack of statistical treatment of data. • Panelists, selected from a large pool of individuals according to their ability to describe and discriminate between products in the category to be ultimately tested. • Panel leader acts as a facilitator and does not direct initial panel discussion. • Each panelist’s performance is monitored and compared to that of the whole panel. • Continuous Line scales are used to extend beyond fixed anchors and are not meant as absolute measures as in the Flavour Profile (although sometimes used this way). • Consensus opinions are used in initial attribute set up but then individual product assessment takes place • Data are translated into mean scores and analyzed statistically using ANOVA techniques.
  • Free Choice Profiling Panelists • use their own attributes and scales when evaluating the products • The numbers of attributes used can vary for each panelist. • Requires little panel training • Generalized Procrustes • Analysis is used on the results to generate a ‘consensus space’ in which each individual’s data are plotted. (Delegate only need demonstrate an awareness of this technique and does not need to be able to perform it.).
  • ‫الزٌت‬ ‫عن‬ ‫الكشف‬ ‫آلٌة‬ .1‫العٌنة‬ ‫تقدٌم‬ •‫الزجاج‬ ‫من‬ ‫أكواب‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫تقدٌم‬ ‫ٌفضل‬. •‫على‬ ‫ٌحتوي‬ ‫كوب‬ ‫كل‬14–16‫الزٌت‬ ‫عٌنة‬ ‫من‬ ‫مل‬. •‫بٌن‬ ‫ما‬ ‫أو‬12.8–14.6‫الزٌت‬ ‫عٌنة‬ ‫من‬ ‫جم‬. •‫األلومونٌوم‬ ‫برقائق‬ ‫االختبار‬ ‫عٌنات‬ ‫أكواب‬ ‫تغطى‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ٌجب‬. •‫كوب‬ ‫لكل‬ ‫كودٌة‬ ‫أرقام‬ ‫تعطى‬ 2.‫الحرارة‬ ‫درجة‬ •‫عند‬ ‫الكشف‬ ‫إجراء‬ ‫أثناء‬ ‫الزٌت‬ ‫عٌنة‬ ‫حرارة‬ ‫تكون‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ٌجب‬28+2 ‫درجة‬ ‫عند‬ ‫من‬ ‫أفضل‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫على‬ ‫الجٌد‬ ‫الحكم‬ ‫المحكم‬ ‫ٌستطٌع‬ ‫حتى‬ ‫الغرفة‬ ‫حرارة‬
  • •‫عند‬ ‫الحرارة‬ ‫درجة‬ ‫تساعد‬28+2‫الزٌوت‬ ‫تصاعد‬ ‫والرائحة‬ ‫الطعم‬ ‫عن‬ ‫المسئولة‬ ‫الطٌارة‬. •‫بٌن‬ ‫ما‬ ‫الفحص‬ ‫غرفة‬ ‫حرارة‬ ‫درجة‬ ‫تكون‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ٌجب‬20– 25º‫م‬. .3‫الكشف‬ ‫زمن‬ •‫بٌن‬ ‫ما‬ ‫الزٌت‬ ‫عٌنات‬ ‫عن‬ ‫الكشف‬ ‫إلجراء‬ ‫زمن‬ ‫أحسن‬ ‫الساعة‬10–12‫ظهرا‬
  • ‫للزٌت‬ ‫الحسٌة‬ ‫الخصائص‬ ‫للتحدٌد‬ ‫طرٌقة‬ •‫الرائحة‬ ‫عن‬ ‫الكشف‬ ‫اختبار‬ ‫طرٌقة‬:- .1‫األلومونٌوم‬ ‫برقائق‬ ‫المغطى‬ ‫الزٌت‬ ‫عٌنة‬ ‫كوب‬ ‫المحكم‬ ‫ٌلتقط‬ .2‫بتدوٌره‬ ‫ٌقوم‬ ‫الوقت‬ ‫نفس‬ ً‫وف‬ ‫بلطف‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫كوب‬ ‫ٌهز‬ ‫للكوب‬ ‫الداخلٌة‬ ‫جدران‬ ‫على‬ ‫الزٌت‬ ‫عٌنة‬ ‫لتوزٌع‬. .3‫المتطاٌرة‬ ‫الزٌت‬ ‫رائحة‬ ‫مكونات‬ ‫وٌستنشق‬ ‫الغطاء‬ ‫ٌرفع‬ ‫عن‬ ‫تزٌد‬ ‫ال‬ ‫لمدة‬30‫ثانٌة‬. .4‫الرائحة‬ ‫االستنشاق‬ ‫ٌعاد‬ ، ‫نتٌجة‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫الوصول‬ ‫عدم‬ ‫حالة‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫األولى‬ ‫التجربة‬ ‫من‬ ‫قصٌرة‬ ‫فترة‬ ‫بعد‬ ‫ولكن‬ ‫أخرى‬ ‫مرة‬.
  • •‫الزٌت‬ ‫نكهة‬ ‫عن‬ ‫الكشف‬ .1‫الحصول‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫للوصول‬ ‫الزٌت‬ ‫رائحة‬ ‫عن‬ ‫الكشف‬ ‫خطوات‬ ‫تطبٌق‬ ‫تتبع‬ ‫االختبار‬ ‫إجراء‬ ‫وزمن‬ ‫الحرارة‬ ‫درجة‬ ‫عند‬ ‫الزٌت‬ ‫نكهة‬ ‫على‬ ‫التالٌة‬ ‫الخطوات‬:- •‫األلومونٌوم‬ ‫برقائق‬ ‫المغطى‬ ‫الزٌت‬ ‫عٌنة‬ ‫كوب‬ ‫المحكم‬ ‫ٌلتقط‬ •‫عٌنة‬ ‫لتوزٌع‬ ‫بتدوٌره‬ ‫ٌقوم‬ ‫الوقت‬ ‫نفس‬ ً‫وف‬ ‫بلطف‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫كوب‬ ‫ٌهز‬ ‫للكوب‬ ‫الداخلٌة‬ ‫جدران‬ ‫على‬ ‫الزٌت‬. •‫حدود‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫الزٌت‬ ‫من‬ ‫كمٌة‬ ‫الفم‬ ‫طرٌق‬ ‫عن‬ ‫المحكم‬ ‫ٌشفط‬3‫من‬ ‫مل‬ ‫مع‬ ً‫عال‬ ‫بصوت‬ ‫الهواء‬ ‫من‬ ‫كمٌة‬ ‫شفط‬ ‫مع‬ ‫الزٌت‬ ‫عٌنة‬ ‫كوب‬ ‫جدران‬ ‫على‬ ‫الزٌت‬ ‫لتحرك‬ ً‫عال‬ ‫بصوت‬ ‫الفم‬ ‫داخل‬ ‫الهواء‬ ‫تحرٌك‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫بلع‬ ‫ٌتم‬ ‫ثم‬ ‫ببطء‬ ‫اللسان‬ ‫وفوق‬ ‫الداخلٌة‬ ‫الفم‬
  • •‫وفوق‬ ‫الداخلٌة‬ ‫الفم‬ ‫جدران‬ ‫على‬ ‫الزٌت‬ ‫توزٌع‬ ‫عملٌة‬ ‫من‬ ‫هدف‬ ‫من‬ ‫الطٌارة‬ ‫المكونات‬ ‫لمساعدة‬ ‫الهواء‬ ‫شفط‬ ‫طرٌق‬ ‫عن‬ ‫اللسان‬ ‫األنف‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫الوصول‬. •‫منه‬ ‫المطلوب‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫طعم‬ ‫على‬ ‫التركٌز‬ ‫المحكم‬ ‫من‬ ‫المطلوب‬ ‫تحدٌدها‬
  • ‫المحكم‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫توفرها‬ ‫واجب‬ ‫الشروط‬ •‫مدخنا‬ ‫كونه‬ ‫حالة‬ ً‫وف‬ ‫مدخن‬ ‫غٌر‬ ‫المحكم‬ ‫ٌكون‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ٌفضل‬ ‫زمنٌة‬ ‫بفترة‬ ‫االختبار‬ ‫قبل‬ ‫التدخٌن‬ ‫بعملٌة‬ ‫القٌام‬ ‫ٌجب‬ ‫ال‬ ‫علٌه‬ ‫بٌن‬ ‫ما‬1-2‫ساعة‬. •‫ساعة‬ ‫بنصف‬ ‫االختبار‬ ‫قبل‬ ‫القهوة‬ ‫بشرب‬ ‫ٌسمح‬ ‫ال‬. •‫نفاذة‬ ‫رائحة‬ ‫ذو‬ ‫صابون‬ ‫أو‬ ‫زٌنة‬ ‫مواد‬ ‫أو‬ ‫روائح‬ ‫استعمال‬ ‫عدم‬ ‫الرائحة‬ ‫عدٌم‬ ‫بصابون‬ ‫الغسٌل‬ ‫علٌه‬ ‫ٌجب‬ ‫الحالة‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫مثل‬ ً‫فف‬ ‫تؤثر‬ ‫قد‬ ‫رائحة‬ ‫أى‬ ‫من‬ ‫للتخلص‬ ‫وتجفٌفها‬ ‫بالماء‬ ‫ٌدٌه‬ ‫وغسل‬ ‫الكشف‬ ‫نتٌجة‬ ‫على‬.
  • •‫الكشف‬ ‫إجراء‬ ‫من‬ ‫ساعة‬ ‫قبل‬ ‫اإلفطار‬ ‫تناول‬. •‫أٌضا‬ ‫جٌدة‬ ‫نفسٌة‬ ‫حالة‬ ً‫وف‬ ‫جٌدة‬ ‫صحة‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫ٌكون‬ ‫أن‬. •‫من‬ ‫كبٌر‬ ‫حد‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫اإلقالل‬ ‫مع‬ ‫تام‬ ‫بهدوء‬ ‫االختبار‬ ‫غرفة‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫الجلوس‬ ‫زمالئه‬ ‫بقٌة‬ ‫مع‬ ‫التحدث‬ •ً‫معمل‬ ‫معطف‬ ‫ارتداء‬ ‫مع‬ ‫الطعم‬ ‫أو‬ ‫الرائحة‬ ‫من‬ ‫خالى‬ ‫قفاز‬ ‫ارتداء‬ ‫ٌجب‬ ‫الحسٌة‬ ‫التجارب‬ ‫بإجراء‬ ‫خاص‬ ‫نظٌف‬. •‫من‬ ‫قطعة‬ ‫مضغ‬ ‫المحكم‬ ‫على‬ ‫ٌجب‬ ‫أخرى‬ ‫عٌنة‬ ‫على‬ ‫الحكم‬ ‫إلجراء‬ ‫بالماء‬ ‫فمه‬ ‫بمضمضة‬ ‫القٌام‬ ‫ثم‬ ‫منها‬ ‫والتخلص‬ ‫بلعها‬ ‫بدون‬ ‫التفاح‬ ‫الغرفة‬ ‫حرارة‬ ‫درجة‬ ‫حرارته‬ ‫درجة‬ ‫المقطر‬ •‫مدتها‬ ‫زمنٌة‬ ‫فترة‬ ‫ترك‬15ً‫والثان‬ ‫األول‬ ‫الكشف‬ ‫اجراء‬ ‫من‬ ‫دقٌقة‬ •‫تجربة‬ ‫لكل‬ ‫خاص‬ ‫جدول‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫نتائجه‬ ‫ٌسجل‬
  • • What are some common odor descriptors ? , ODOR DESCRIPTORS: alcohol-like, almond- like, ammonia-like ammonia, animal, anise (Licorice), apple (fruit), aromatic, bakery (fresh bread), banana-like, bark-like, birch bark, bean- like, beery (beer-like), bitter, black pepepr-like, blood-like blood, raw meat, burnt candie, burnt milk, burnt paper-like, burnt paper, burnt rubber- like, burnt, smoky, buttery (fresh), cadaverous, like dead animal, camphor-like, caramel, caraway, cardboard-like, cat urine-like, cedarwood-like,
  • • celery, chalky, cheesy, chemical, cherry (berry), chocolate, cinnamon, cleaning fluid-like, cleaning fluid, clove-like, coconut-like, coffee- like, cologne, cooked vegetables, cool, cooling, cork-like, creosote, crushed grass, crushed weeds, cucumber-see raw, cucumber-like, dill- like, dirty linen-like, disinfectant, carbolic, dry, powdery, eggy (fresh eggs), etherish, anaesthetic, eucalyptus, fecal (like manure), fermented (rotten) fruit, fishy, floral, fragrant, fresh green vegetables, fresh tobacco smoke,
  • • fried chicken, fruity (citrus), fruity (other), garlic, onion, gasoline-like gasoline solvent, geranium leaves, grainy (as grain), grapejuice-like grapefruit, green pepper, hay, heavy, herbal green, cut grass, honey, household gas, incense, kerosene, kippery (smoked fish), laura leaves, lavender, leather, lemon (fruit), light, malty, maple (as in syrup), meaty (cooked, Good), medicinal, melon- cantaloupe, honey dew melon, metallic, mint, peppermint, molasses, mothballs-like, mothballs, mouse- like, mushroom-like, mush-like, musty, earthy, moldy, nail polish remover, nutty (walnut, etc), oak wood, cognac-like, oily, fatty, orange (fruit), pain-like, peach (fruit), peanut butter
  • • pear (fruit), perfumery, pineapple (fruit), popcorn, potato, putrid, foul, decayed, raisins, rancid, raw cucumber-like, raw potato-like, rope-like, rose-like, rubbery (new rubber) sauerkraut-like, seasoning (for meat) seminal, sperm- like, sewer odor, sharp, pungent, acid, sickening, soapy, sooty, soupy, sour milk, sour, acid, vinegar, spicy, state tobacco smoke, strawberry-like, sulfidic, sweaty, sweet, tar-like, ten-leaves-like, turpentine (pine oil), urine-like, vanilla-like, varnish, violets, warm, wet paper-like, wet wool, wet dog, woody, resinous, yeasty . • Updated: Friday, March 12, 2004.
  • SPECIFIC VOCABULARY FOR OIL • Negative attributes • Fusty/ muddy sediment Characteristic flavour of oil obtained from olives piled or stored in such conditions as to have undergone an advanced stage of anaerobic fermentation, or of oil which has been left in contact with the sediment that settles in underground tanks and vats and which has also undergone a process of anaerobic fermentation. • Musty-Characteristic flavor of oils obtained from fruit in which large numbers • humid of fungi and yeasts have developed as a result of its being stored in humid conditions for several days.
  • • Winey- Characteristic flavor of certain oils reminiscent of wine or vinegar. This • vinegary flavor is mainly due to a process of aerobic fermentation in the olives or in • Acid-sour olive paste left on pressing mats which have not been properly cleaned and leads to the formation of acetic acid, ethyl acetate and ethanol. • Metallic Flavor that is reminiscent of metals. It is characteristic of oil which has been in prolonged contact with metallic surfaces during crushing, mixing, pressing or storage. • Rancid Flavor of oils which have undergone an intense process of oxidation.
  • Other negative attributes • Heated or Characteristic flavor of oils caused by excessive and/or prolonged • burnt heating during processing, particularly when the paste is thermally mixed, if this is done under unsuitable thermal conditions. • Hay–wood Characteristic flavor of certain oils produced from olives that have dried out. • Rough Thick, pasty mouthfeel sensation produced by certain old oils.
  • • Greasy Flavor of oil reminiscent of that of diesel oil, grease or mineral oil. • Vegetable Flavor acquired by the oil as a result of prolonged contact with • Water vegetable water which has undergone fermentation processes. • Brine Flavor of oil extracted from olives which
  • • Esparto Characteristic flavor of oil obtained from olives pressed in new esparto mats. The flavour may differ depending on whether the mats are made of green esparto or dried esparto. • Earthy Flavor of oil obtained from olives which have been collected with earth or mud on them and not washed. • Grubby Flavor of oil obtained from olives which have been heavily attacked by the grubs of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae).
  • • Cucumber Flavor produced when an oil is hermetically packed for too long, particularly in tin containers, and which is attributed to the formation of 2,6 nonadienal. • Wet wood Characteristic flavor of oils extracted from olives which have been injured by frost while on the tree.
  • Positive attributes • Fruity Set of olfactory sensations characteristic of the oil which depends on the variety and comes from sound, fresh olives, either ripe or unripe. It is perceived directly and/or through the back of the nose. • Bitter Characteristic primary taste of oil obtained from green olives or olives turning colour. It is perceived in the circumvallate papillae on the “V” region of the tongue. • Pungent Biting tactile sensation characteristic of oils produced at the start of the crop year, primarily from olives that are still unripe. It can be perceived throughout the whole of the mouth cavity, particularly in the throat.
  • ‫المثلث‬ ‫اختبار‬ ‫طرٌقة‬ ‫ملخص‬ •‫بالمادة‬ ‫التماثل‬ ‫أو‬ ‫االختالف‬ ‫اثبات‬ ‫هو‬ ‫تجرى‬ ً‫الت‬ ‫االختبارات‬ ‫جمٌع‬ ‫من‬ ‫الغرض‬ ‫الغذائٌة‬ •‫االحصائٌة‬ ‫التحالٌل‬ ‫على‬ ‫تعتمد‬ ‫االختبارات‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫نتائج‬ •‫عٌنات‬ ‫ثالثة‬ ‫من‬ ‫االختبار‬ ‫وحدة‬ ‫تتكون‬ •‫التحالٌل‬ ‫بإجراء‬ ‫القائم‬ ‫لدى‬ ‫إال‬ ‫تعرف‬ ‫ال‬ ‫بحٌث‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫جمٌع‬ ‫ترقم‬ •‫للمحكمٌن‬ ‫المختلفة‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫تقدٌم‬ ‫ٌجرى‬ •‫مختلفة‬ ‫وعٌنة‬ ‫متشبهتان‬ ‫عٌنتان‬ ‫هناك‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ٌعرف‬ ‫محكم‬ ‫كل‬ •‫العٌنات‬ ً‫باق‬ ‫عن‬ ‫تختلف‬ ً‫الت‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫ٌمٌز‬ ‫أن‬ ‫المحكم‬ ‫من‬ ‫ٌطلب‬ •‫الطرٌقة‬ ‫تلخٌص‬ ‫وٌمكن‬ •‫المحكمٌن‬.......‫المختلفة‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫اختبار‬ •‫المجاهٌل‬ ‫عدد‬.......‫ثالثة‬ •‫االحتمال‬ ‫درجة‬.......3/1
  • TRIANGLE TESTS • Name _______________________________ Date ____________________ • Product : ________________________________________________ • Characteristic to be Judged :_____________________________________ • Instructions :You will have three samples two of which are alike and one is different. You are to select the one which is different . • Which is the odd sample __________________________? • Briefly describe the difference you observe .
  • ً‫الزوج‬ ‫االختبار‬ ‫طرٌقة‬Paired Test •‫الطرٌقة‬ ‫ملخص‬ •‫عشوائٌة‬ ‫بطرٌقة‬ ً‫التوال‬ ‫على‬ ‫أو‬ ‫سرٌا‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫تقدم‬. •‫المحكم‬.....‫المتوقعة‬ ‫الخواص‬ ‫أساس‬ ‫على‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫اختبار‬. •‫المقٌاس‬....‫وضوح‬ ‫بكل‬ ‫وٌحدد‬ ‫ٌختبر‬ •‫المجهول‬.....2 •‫االحتمال‬ ‫درجة‬....2/1
  • SENSORY EVALUATION • DUO-TRIO TEST-DIFFERENCE ANALYSIS • NAME _________________________________________ • DATE _________________________________________ • PRODUCT ______________________________________ • On your tray you have a marked control sample (C) and two coded samples, one is identical with C, the other is different. Which of the coded samples is different from C ? • SAMPLES..........CHECK ODD SAMPLE________________________________ •
  • ‫القٌاس‬ ‫المزدوجة‬ ‫االختبارات‬ ‫طرٌقة‬ Dual Standard •‫الزوجٌة‬ ‫االختبارات‬ ‫ضمن‬ ‫من‬ ‫االختبار‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫ٌعتبر‬ •‫عٌنتان‬ ‫للمحكم‬ ‫تقدم‬(‫أ‬)‫و‬(‫ب‬)‫ذلك‬ ‫بعد‬ ‫تقدم‬ ‫ثم‬ ‫معروفة‬ ‫أنها‬ ‫على‬ ‫أوال‬ ‫تمٌٌزها‬ ‫ٌستطٌع‬ ‫أن‬ ‫الحكم‬ ‫وعلى‬ ‫مجهولة‬ ‫عٌنات‬ ‫أنها‬ ‫على‬. •‫ٌعطى‬ ‫الحكم‬ ‫أن‬ ‫حٌث‬ ‫األخرى‬ ‫الطرق‬ ‫من‬ ‫أسهل‬ ‫االختبار‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫ٌعتبر‬ ‫من‬ ‫أعلى‬ ‫درجة‬ ‫ٌتوقع‬ ‫فإنه‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫وعلى‬ ‫أوال‬ ‫معلومة‬ ‫أنها‬ ‫على‬ ‫جمٌع‬ ‫التمٌٌز‬ ‫على‬ ‫القدرة‬. •‫العٌنة‬ ‫تذوق‬ ‫أن‬ ‫حٌث‬ ‫التذوق‬ ‫اختبار‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫وخاصة‬ ‫المساوي‬ ‫بعض‬ ‫توجد‬ ‫للمساعدة‬ ‫ولٌس‬ ‫االلتباس‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫ٌؤذي‬ ‫قد‬ ‫اإلضافٌة‬. •‫أفضل‬ ‫للفوارق‬ ‫ٌوضح‬ ‫ألنه‬ ‫المفضلة‬ ‫االختبارات‬ ‫من‬ ‫ٌعتبر‬ ‫ولكنه‬ Better discrimination
  • ‫الطرٌقة‬ ‫ملخص‬ ‫معروفة‬ ‫أنها‬ ‫على‬ ‫أوال‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫تقدم‬ ‫عشوائٌة‬ ‫بطرٌقة‬ ً‫التوال‬ ‫على‬ ‫أو‬ ُ‫ا‬ٌ‫سو‬ ‫تقدم‬
  • •‫المحكم‬......‫العٌنات‬ ‫تمٌٌز‬ •‫الصفات‬ ‫معروفة‬ ‫أوال‬ ‫العٌنتان‬ ‫تقدم‬ ‫المقٌاس‬ •‫المجهول‬ ‫عدد‬2 •‫الصحٌحة‬ ‫االحتمال‬ ‫درجة‬2/1
  • ‫المتعددة‬ ‫المقاٌٌس‬ ‫طرٌقة‬ Multiple standard •‫قٌاسٌة‬ ‫أو‬ ‫مراقبٌه‬ ‫عٌنة‬ ‫من‬ ‫اكثر‬ ‫الطرٌقة‬ ‫هذا‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫ٌستدم‬(‫أ‬) •‫أكثر‬ ‫أو‬ ‫قٌاسٌة‬ ‫عٌنات‬ ‫ثالثة‬ ‫استخدام‬ ‫ٌمكن‬ ‫أنه‬ ‫أي‬ •‫المختبرة‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫عدد‬ ‫كان‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫الطرٌقة‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫تصلح‬ ‫ال‬2‫فقط‬. •‫المجهولة‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫نختبر‬ ‫أن‬ ‫نرٌد‬ ‫أننا‬ ‫لنفرض‬(‫ب‬)‫إلٌجاد‬ ‫المراقب‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫بٌن‬ ‫الفرق‬(‫أ‬) •‫العٌنة‬ ‫اختبار‬ ‫ٌمكن‬ ‫أنه‬ ‫طبٌعٌا‬(‫ب‬)‫المراقب‬ ‫عٌنة‬ ‫مع‬(‫أ‬1) ‫و‬(‫أ‬2)‫و‬(‫أ‬3)‫إختالفا‬ ‫تختلف‬ ‫القٌاسٌة‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫أن‬ ‫حٌث‬ ‫بٌنها‬ ‫فٌما‬ ‫واضحا‬.
  • •‫المجهولة‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫تقدم‬ ‫االختبار‬ ‫هذا‬ ً‫فف‬ ‫األساس‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫وعلى‬(‫ب‬) ‫المراقب‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫من‬ ‫عدٌد‬ ‫مع‬(‫أ‬)... •‫ولكن‬ ‫فقط‬ ‫المختلفة‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫معرفة‬ ‫لٌس‬ ‫االعتبار‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫األخذ‬ ‫مع‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫أي‬ ‫اختالفا‬ ‫األكثر‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫إٌجاد‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫الوصول‬ ‫محاولة‬ ‫المجموعة‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫إلى‬ ً‫تنتم‬ ‫ال‬ ً‫الت‬ •‫العٌنات‬ ‫من‬ ‫تفهمه‬ ‫ٌمكن‬ ‫ولكن‬ ‫بالضبط‬ ‫محدد‬ ‫مقٌاس‬ ‫ٌوجد‬ ‫ال‬ ‫المختبرة‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫من‬ ‫استنتاجه‬ ‫للمحكم‬ ‫وٌمكن‬ ‫المختبرة‬.
  • ‫المتعددة‬ ‫المقاٌٌس‬ ‫طرٌقة‬ ‫ملخص‬
  • •ً‫عشوائ‬ ‫وبترتٌب‬ ‫واحد‬ ‫وقت‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫تقدم‬ •‫المكم‬......‫اختالفا‬ ‫أكثر‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫اخٌار‬ •‫المقٌاس‬......‫صفات‬ ‫من‬ ‫تحدٌده‬ ‫ٌمكن‬ ‫ولكن‬ ‫معروف‬ ‫غٌر‬ ‫المختبرة‬ ‫العٌنة‬ •‫المجهول‬4 •‫االحتمال‬ ‫درجة‬=4/1‫أقل‬ ‫أو‬(‫من‬ ‫أكثر‬ ‫استخدام‬ ‫عند‬3 ‫مراقبه‬ ‫عٌنات‬ •ً‫ه‬ ‫النجاح‬ ‫احتمال‬ ‫درجة‬ ‫فإن‬ ‫مجهولة‬ ‫كلها‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫أن‬ ‫وحٌث‬ ‫عن‬ ‫عبارة‬1‫االختبار‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫عدد‬ ‫على‬ ‫مقسوما‬
  • ‫الواحد‬ ‫التنبٌه‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫الطرٌقة‬ Single stimuli •‫االنتشار‬ ‫كثٌرة‬ ‫غٌر‬ ‫طرٌقة‬ ً‫وه‬ •‫ككل‬ ‫بالمجموعة‬ ‫ولكن‬ ‫واحد‬ ‫بحكم‬ ‫فٌها‬ ‫عادة‬ ‫ٌؤخذ‬ ‫وال‬. •‫المراقب‬ ‫عٌنة‬ ‫أوال‬ ‫تقدم‬(‫أ‬)‫حتى‬ ‫المرات‬ ‫من‬ ‫عدٌد‬ ‫المحكم‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫جٌدا‬ ‫تمٌٌزها‬ ‫ٌستطٌع‬ ‫أنه‬ ‫ٌشعر‬ •‫تكون‬ ‫ربما‬ ‫عٌنة‬ ‫وكل‬ ‫عٌنة‬ ‫وكل‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫سلسلة‬ ‫له‬ ‫تقدم‬ ‫ثم‬(‫أ‬) ‫أو‬(‫ب‬)‫العٌنة‬ ‫هذه‬ ً‫ه‬ ‫ما‬ ‫ٌمٌز‬ ‫أن‬ ‫علٌه‬ ‫وٌجب‬. •‫المراقب‬ ‫عٌنة‬ ‫تقدم‬ ‫أن‬ ‫على‬ ‫االختبار‬ ‫ٌجرى‬(‫أ‬)‫والعٌنة‬ ‫المجهولة‬(‫ب‬)‫للمحكم‬ ‫أوال‬ ‫معروفة‬ ‫كعٌنات‬. •‫سبق‬ ‫كما‬ ‫االختبار‬ ‫ٌكمل‬ ‫جٌدا‬ ‫تمٌزها‬ ‫ٌستطٌع‬ ‫حتى‬.
  • •‫بٌن‬ ‫ما‬ ‫قدره‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫بٌن‬ ‫وقت‬ ‫بمرور‬ ‫ٌسمح‬40-60‫وهو‬ ‫ثانٌة‬ ‫األخرى‬ ‫الطرق‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫المطبق‬ ‫من‬ ‫وقت‬ ‫أطول‬. •‫كانت‬ ‫سواء‬ ‫لالختبار‬ ‫المقدمة‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫لفحص‬ ‫ٌستخدم‬(‫أ‬)‫أو‬(‫ب‬) ‫عشوائٌة‬ ‫بطرٌقة‬ •‫المراقب‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫عدد‬ ‫أن‬ ً‫ٌعن‬ ‫وهذا‬(‫أ‬)‫المجهولة‬ ‫والعٌنات‬(‫ب‬) ‫متساوٌة‬ ‫تكون‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ربما‬ ‫االختبارات‬ ‫من‬ ‫سلسلة‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫المقدمة‬ •‫معروفة‬ ‫تقدم‬ ً‫الت‬ ‫المراقب‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫أو‬ ‫المراقب‬ ‫بعٌنة‬ ‫االختبار‬ ‫ٌبدأ‬ ‫للمحكم‬ •‫جدا‬ ‫كبٌر‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫عدد‬ ‫كان‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫إال‬ ‫أخرى‬ ‫مرة‬ ‫المقٌاس‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫ٌلجأ‬ ‫ال‬ ‫عادة‬ ‫معروف‬ ‫مقٌاس‬ ‫أنه‬ ‫على‬ ‫االختبار‬ ‫أثناء‬ ‫فترات‬ ‫على‬ ‫المقٌاس‬ ‫تقدم‬ ‫حٌث‬
  • ‫الواحد‬ ‫التنبٌه‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫طرٌقة‬ ‫ملخص‬ ‫معروفة‬ ‫عٌنات‬ ‫أنها‬ ‫على‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫تقدم‬ ‫لـ‬ ‫سواء‬ ‫معروفة‬ ‫غٌر‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫سلسلة‬ ‫طول‬(‫أ‬)‫لـ‬ ‫أو‬(‫ب‬)
  • •‫المحكم‬.....‫األصل‬ ‫تماثل‬ ‫ال‬ ‫أو‬ ‫تماثل‬ ‫أنها‬ ‫على‬ ‫عٌنة‬ ‫كل‬ ‫ٌمٌز‬ •‫المقٌاس‬....‫التجربة‬ ‫بداٌة‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫معروفة‬ ‫كعٌنة‬ ‫ٌقدم‬ •‫المجهول‬...‫العٌنات‬ ‫عدد‬ ‫إي‬ ‫االختبار‬ ‫سلسلة‬ ‫طول‬ ‫على‬ ‫ٌعتمد‬ •‫االحتمال‬ ‫درجة‬=2/1
  • ‫ثالثة‬ ‫من‬ ‫االثنان‬ ‫الختبار‬ ‫ملخص‬ R 1 2 ‫شكل‬) (‫الصفات‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫مختلفان‬ ‫وعٌنتان‬ ‫المرجعٌة‬ ‫عٌنة‬ ‫االختبار‬ ‫ٌضم‬ ‫المرجعٌة‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫مع‬ ‫المتشابهة‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫تحدٌد‬ ‫المطلوب‬.
  • ‫على‬ ‫المرجعٌة‬ ‫ألعٌنة‬ ‫تقدم‬ ‫صفاتها‬ ‫لجمٌع‬ ‫معروفة‬ ‫أنها‬ ‫على‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫تقدم‬ ‫عشوائٌة‬ ‫بطرٌقة‬ ً‫التوال‬
  • •‫المحكم‬.....‫المجهولٌن‬ ‫بٌن‬ ‫من‬ ‫المختلفة‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫ٌختار‬ •‫المقٌاس‬......‫معلومة‬ ‫وتكون‬ ‫تقدم‬ ‫العٌنات‬ ‫أحد‬ •‫المجهول‬2‫االحتمال‬ ‫درجة‬=2/1
  • •‫الطرٌقة‬ ‫لتطبٌق‬ ‫مثال‬ •‫واألخرى‬ ‫طازجة‬ ‫احداها‬ ‫الفواكه‬ ‫عصٌر‬ ‫من‬ ‫عٌنات‬ ‫عرضت‬ ‫بنسبة‬ ‫حافظة‬ ‫مادة‬ ‫إلٌها‬ ‫مضاف‬1% •‫ثالثة‬ ‫من‬ ‫اثنان‬ ‫نظام‬ ‫استعمال‬ ‫التحكٌم‬ ‫لجنة‬ ‫على‬ •‫التجربة‬ ‫البٌانات‬ ‫علٌه‬ ‫لتسجٌل‬ ‫استبٌان‬ ‫للمحكمٌن‬ ‫قدم‬ •‫وكانت‬ ً‫إحصائ‬ ‫جدول‬ ‫شكل‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫ووضعت‬ ‫النتائج‬ ‫جمعت‬ ‫جدول‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫سجلت‬ ‫النتائج‬) (
  • ‫النتائج‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫من‬ ‫االستنتاج‬ •ً‫الكل‬ ‫المجموع‬=10×2=20
  • •‫الحرجة‬ ‫النسبة‬ ‫من‬ ‫علٌها‬ ‫المتحصل‬ ‫قٌمة‬ ‫تساوي‬=Standard Error (S E)=2.23 •‫االعتٌادي‬ ‫المنحنى‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫الموجب‬ ‫النصف‬ ‫تحت‬ ‫البحث‬ ‫ٌتم‬Normal curve‫مساحة‬ ‫لتحدٌد‬+(2.23)‫وحدات‬ ‫من‬(S E) •‫ومنه‬ ً‫القٌاس‬ ‫المنحنى‬ ‫تحت‬ ‫المساحة‬ ‫ٌمثل‬ ً‫الت‬ ‫الجدول‬ ‫ومن‬ ‫المنحنى‬ ‫تحت‬ ‫الثقة‬ ‫مستوى‬ ‫ٌستنتج‬ •‫رقم‬ ‫نجد‬0.4871‫منه‬ ‫تطرح‬0.5‫الناتج‬ ‫فٌكون‬=0.0129 •‫بطرب‬0.0129×100=1.29 •‫والعٌنة‬ ‫المعاملة‬ ‫العٌنة‬ ‫بٌن‬ ‫جوهري‬ ‫واضح‬ ‫فرق‬ ‫هناك‬ ‫أن‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫معنى‬ ‫عند‬ ‫محسوس‬ ‫الفرق‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫وأن‬ ‫الطازجة‬1.3%‫الثقة‬ ‫مستوى‬ ‫من‬.
  • •‫كل‬ ‫أن‬ ‫أي‬1000‫فإن‬ ‫العٌنتٌن‬ ‫هاتٌن‬ ‫علٌهم‬ ‫تعرض‬ ‫شخص‬ 13‫الحكم‬ ‫ٌخطئون‬ ‫فقط‬
  • ‫اإلحصائٌة‬ ‫خطوات‬ ‫تلخٌص‬ .1‫المعادلة‬ ‫من‬ ‫الحرجة‬ ‫النسبة‬ ‫على‬ ‫الحصول‬. .2‫تحت‬ ‫الواقعة‬ ‫المساحة‬ ‫من‬ ‫علٌها‬ ‫ٌتحصل‬ ‫النتائج‬ ‫أهمٌة‬ ‫مدى‬ ‫استنتجها‬ ‫وٌمكن‬ ‫االعتٌادي‬ ‫المنحنى‬ ‫من‬ ‫الموجب‬ ‫النصف‬ ‫جدول‬ ‫من‬‫ٌستنتج‬ ‫ومنه‬ ً‫القٌاس‬ ‫المنحنى‬ ‫تحت‬ ‫المساحة‬ ‫ٌمثل‬ ً‫الت‬ ‫الثقة‬ ‫مستوى‬ .3‫القٌمة‬ ‫من‬ ‫السابقة‬ ‫الخطوة‬ ‫من‬ ‫علٌه‬ ‫المتحصل‬ ‫المساحة‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫تطرح‬ 0.5ً‫ف‬ ‫الناتج‬ ‫ٌضرب‬ ‫ثم‬100‫جوهرٌا‬ ‫النتائج‬ ‫قٌم‬ ‫على‬ ‫للحصول‬ ‫الثقة‬ ‫حد‬ ‫مستوى‬ ‫وٌستنتج‬