• Fat is the substance in food that provides a rich texture and flavor.• Animal products such as meat, dairy, and eggs contain the most fat.• Nuts and seeds are also high in fat.• Cooking fats include olive oil, lard, canola oil, walnut oil, butter, margarine and shortening.• Shortenings and margarines are tailored fat systems whose nutritional and functional properties have been manipulated in order to deliver speciﬁc consumer needs.
• In fats such as margarine and shortening,the functional characteristics of natural fat systems have been modiﬁed to provide desirable consistency and keeping quality in the end product.• These modiﬁed fats oﬀer special functional utility to baking, confectionery, and cooking applications.• Being one of the most ﬂexible basic food ingredients, it is expected that the use of shortening and margarine will continue to grow
• Fat has a bad reputation in the diet world, although only a little bit of that reputation is deserved.• While bad fats can contribute to poor health, some of them are needed for good health.• which fats are good and which ones are bad.
• Fats and oils are made up of individual molecules called fatty acids.• Theyre chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms that have a carboxyl group at one end and a methyl group at the other.• Carboxyl groups contain one carbon atom, one hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms, and methyl groups include one carbon atom and three hydrogen atoms.• The carbon atoms in the fatty acid molecules are linked by single or double bonds.• Fatty acids vary in length.• Short chain fatty acids have two to four carbon atoms, medium chain fatty acids have six to 12 carbons atoms, long fatty acids have 14 to 18 carbon atoms.• A have more than 20 carbon atoms chains.
• Fatty acids are either saturated or unsaturated.• Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between any of the carbon atoms in the chain.• Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds in the carbon chain.• Monounsaturated fatty acids have one double bond and polyunsaturated fatty acids have two or more double bonds.• Unsaturated fatty acids are sometimes named by the position of the double bonds in the carbon chain.• The names omega-3,-6 or -9 refer to the locations of the first double bond in the three different fatty acid molecules.
• Omega 3• A group of unsaturated fatty acids found in some fish oils and linseed oil.• Omega-3 fatty acids may change the chemistry of blood, reducing the risk of heart disease.• Consumption of foods with high levels of these fatty acids may be ‘cardio protective’ because they help to lower blood cholesterol and prevent arteries from being clogged with cholesterol rich plaques.• It has been suggested that one oily-fish meal a week provides the same protection as three or more.• Fish oil capsules containing omega-3 fatty acids are now on the market, but according to the American Medical Association, the capsules may not be as effective as eating fish and other oily seafood.• It is possible that the fatty acids only work effectively with other components in fish that are absent from the capsules.
• Unsaturated fatty acids can have two different configurations of the hydrogen atoms on either side of the double bonds.• These are referred to as "cis" or "trans" configurations.
• Cis configurations have those hydrogen atoms both on the same side of the molecule.• This causes the molecule to look like it is bent.• Trans configurations have those hydrogen atoms on opposite sides of the double bond.• This gives the molecule a more linear appearance, like saturated fats.• Interestingly, it turns out that both saturated fats and trans-fats are bad for health.
• Most of the fats in the food you eat are called triglycerides.• A triglyceride is made up of three fatty acid molecules attached to a glycerol molecule.• Your body will use triglycerides as a source of energy or store them as adipose tissue, better known as body fat.• The types of fatty acids in the triglycerides have an important impact on the physical state of the fats you eat.• Fats that are composed of triglycerides with saturated fatty acids, like meat, are solid at room temperature.• Fats that are composed of triglycerides with unsaturated fatty acids, like vegetable oils, are liquid at room temperature.
• Fats may be either solids or liquid at room temperatures , depending on their structure and composition. Solid fat liquid
• The foods you eat may also include cholesterol.• Cholesterol does not produce any energy like triglycerides, but it is important for many biochemical processes and hormone production.• Elevated cholesterol levels in the body have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
• The cholesterol in the body is mostly made in your liver and there are three different types:• High Density Lipoproteins,• Low Density Lipoproteins and Very Low Density Lipoproteins.
• High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are composed mainly of proteins, with only small amounts of cholesterol.• HDLs are often referred to as "good cholesterol" because they help remove cholesterol from artery walls and transport it to the liver for elimination from the body.• Higher HDL levels actually protect against coronary heart disease.• Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are composed mainly of cholesterol and have very little protein.• They are often referred to as "bad cholesterol" because they are primarily responsible for depositing cholesterol within arteries.• High levels of LDLs are associated with an increased risk for coronary heart disease
• Fats and cholesterol have a number of important functions, which include:1. Lubrication of body surfaces2. Components of cell membrane structures3. Formation of steroid hormones4. Energy storage5. Insulation from cold6. Carrying fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, K
• Saturated fats are made up of triglycerides that have saturated fatty acids.• These fats are solid at room temperature.• They come mostly from animal sources, although saturated fats are in coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil.• Saturated fats found in red meat, butter, milk, cheese and eggs will increase cholesterol levels in the body.• In fact, saturated fat will raise your cholesterol much more than dietary cholesterol does.
• Eating a diet rich in red meat has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and some cancers.• Since red meat has the highest concentration of saturated fats, many experts suggest that you limit your consumption of red meat to only two or three small servings per week.• monounsaturated fats are made up of triglycerides that have monounsaturated fatty acids.• They are liquid at room temperature but solid when refrigerated.• Olive oil contains a well-known monounsaturated fatty acid call oleic acid.• Canola oil, peanuts and avocados also contain some monounsaturated fats.• Consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids has been shown to help keep LDL cholesterol levels low and HDL cholesterol high.
• Polyunsaturated fats come mostly from plant sources like nuts, seeds and vegetable oils.• Two well known polyunsaturated fats are the omega- 3 and omega-6 fats.• These fats are liquid at room temperature and often stay liquid when refrigerated.• Fish is also good source of polyunsaturated omega-3 fats, especially cold water, oily ocean fish.• This is why you should eat fish at least three times per week.• While most red meat is low in polyunsaturated fats, animals raised on grass instead of corn-based feeds have meat that has more polyunsaturated fats and lower in fat in general.
• The essential fatty acids are so named because you need to get them from your diet.• Body can make many of the fats it needs from other types of fatty acids, but the omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids must come from the diet.• Omega-6 fatty acids come from vegetable oils, nuts and seed oils.• Most people get plenty of these fats from their diets -- usually more than enough.• While the omega-6 fatty acids are common in a typical Western diet, the omega-3 fatty acidsare often deficient.• Many experts believe that eating a diet with too many omega-6 fats and too few omega-3 fats increases your risk for inflammation and chronic disease.
• Getting enough omega-3 fatty acids from your diet or as dietary supplements will help to reduce inflammation, regulate heart rhythm and keep your cholesterol levels normal.• When you dont get enough of the essential fatty acids in your diet, you may have dry skin, dry hair and increased inflammation.
Trans Fat• Hydrogenation is a chemical process in which hydrogen gas is bubbled through a liquid oil in the presence of cataysit often a reactive metal such as platinum or nickel. The resulting reaction forces unsaturated fatty acids to accept additional hydrogen atoms and become at least partially saturated.• In practical cooking terms, hydrogenation would convert an unsaturated vegetable oil, the kind often used for deep frying, into a partially solid form like margarine.• A fully hydrogenated vegetable oil would be as thick as animal fat , but most food manufacturers do not take the hydrogenation process that far.• Hydrogenating vegetable-based oils is generally less expensive than using saturated animal fats, and partial hydrogenation gives processed foods a longer shelf life.
• Trans-fats• Most trans-fats are created artificially by a process called hydrogenation.• It involves heating regular vegetable oil and forcing hydrogen atoms onto the polyunsaturated fatty acid molecules.• This process turns the oil into a solid substance and improves the shelf life of the fat.
• Fully hydrogenating a vegetable oil will make it firm and not create trans-fats.• However, the firmness of the fat makes it difficult to use in cooking.• Partially hydrogenating an oil makes for a softer product and is still widely used in baking and processing foods.• Examples include stick margarine and partially hydrogenated frying oils.• Trans-fats are commonly found in donuts, snack cakes, cookies and processed foods.
• Artificially created trans-fats are the unhealthiest of fats, even worse than saturated fat.• Eating too many trans-fats has been linked to increasing your risk of cardiovascular disease.• Not all trans-fats are created in the lab.• Small amounts of natural trans-fats occur in milk and beef.• Conjugated linoleic acid is a well-known natural trans-fat.• The natural trans-fats do not appear to be as unhealthy as the artificial trans-fats.