High nutritional food

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High nutritional food

  1. 1. High Nutritional Food Dr. Yousef Elshrek
  2. 2. • Calcium is a very important mineral in human metabolism, making up about 1-2% of an adult human's body weight. • In addition to its widely known role in bone structure, calcium is used to help control muscle and nerve function, as well as to manage acid/base balance in our blood stream. • From this very simple description, you can see how calcium-rich foods can play a role in many aspects of your health that extend far beyond the specific area of bone health.
  3. 3. • While the most common problem related to calcium metabolism is undoubtedly bone loss from getting too little calcium, there can be problems when intake of this nutrient gets too high as well. • Excess calcium can deposit in places where it doesn't belong, including blood vessels and the kidneys (in the form of kidney stones). • There is still some debate about how much of a problem this is for the average adult, but at this time, most nutrition experts agree that excess dietary calcium is very unlikely, and probably the result of a diet that is largely dependent upon dairy foods.
  4. 4. Sardines • Sardines are commonly consumed by humans. • Fresh sardines are often grilled, pickled or smoked, or they are preserved in cans. • Sardines are rich in vitamins and minerals. • A small serving of sardines once a day can provide 13 percent of vitamin B2; roughly one-quarter of niacin; and about 150 percent of the recommended daily value of vitamin B12. • All B vitamins help to support proper nervous system function and are used for energy metabolism, or converting food into energy. • Also, sardines are high in the major minerals such as phosphorus, calcium, potassium, and some trace minerals including iron and selenium.
  5. 5. • 100 gms of sardines contains more than 340 milligrams of calcium, about 2.8 times that of 120 mg of cow's milk • Sardines are also a natural source of marine omega-3 fatty acids, which reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. • Recent studies suggest that regular consumption of omega-3 fatty acids reduces the likelihood of developing Alzheimer's disease • These fatty acids can also lower blood sugar levels.
  6. 6. • They are also a good source of vitamin D, calcium, vitamin B12,and protein. • Sardines are very low in contaminants, such as mercury, relative to other fish commonly eaten by humans.
  7. 7. Calcium in Vegetables spinach Collard greens Vegetables especially high in calcium include a number of greens. • Boiled spinach contains 245 mg/ cup • Collard greens contain 266 mg / cup • Boiled mustard greens 284 mg and mustard/ cup • Spinach 315 mg per cup. • One cup of boiled soybeans contains 261 mg • One stalk of boiled broccoli contains 112 mg. • One cup of boiled snap green beans supplies 55 mg.
  8. 8. Beans • Beans are an excellent source of vegetable protein and minerals such as iron, magnesium and zinc. • They are rich in folic acid, an element associated with the reduction of such birth defects as Spina Bifida, and they also protect against heart disease. • Beans are also a good source of non-lactic calcium. • They are rich in soluble dietary fiber, which helps to bring down cholesterol levels and also contain estrogens of vegetable origin, which contribute towards reducing certain cancers caused by hormonal action.
  9. 9. • To maintain a healthy lifestyle adults should consume three (3) cups of cooked dry beans a week, while most Americans don’t even eat one (1) cup in a week. • Serving size of cooked white beans is equal to 1/2 cup = 113.4 gms • One serving contains the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Calories = 178 Fat = 10 gms Protein = 8 gms Carbohydrates = 20 gms Calcium= 100 mg
  10. 10. • Dry beans contains a high-fiber and if It are not a regular part of person diet, the natural oligosaccharides (complex carbohydrates) in beans may cause temporary digestive discomfort. • Research shows that adding beans to the diet on a regular basis — at least once or twice a week — reduces flatulence. • The best way to reduce beans’ naturally occurring oligosaccharides, tannins, phytic acid, and trypsin inhibitors is to use the quick hot-soak method to soften dry beans, then drain the soaking water and start with fresh water for cooking
  11. 11. • Hot Soak (reduces actual cooking time and consistently produces tender beans) 1. Place beans in a pot and add 10 cups of water for every 2 cups of beans. 2. Heat to boiling and boil for an additional 2 to 3 minutes. 3. Remove beans from heat, cover and let stand for 4 to 24 hours. 4. Drain beans, discard soak water and rinse with fresh, cool water.
  12. 12. What is the difference between soluble and insoluble fiber, and which of the two do beans contain? • Neither soluble nor insoluble fiber is digested or absorbed into the bloodstream. • The difference between the two is that soluble fiber forms a gel when mixed with liquid, while insoluble fiber does not. • Soluble Fibers + Liquid Gel formation • Insoluble Fibers + Liquid No Gel formation • Soluble fiber binds with fatty acids, prolonging stomach emptying time so that sugar is released and absorbed more slowly. • Its benefits include lowering total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (the bad cholesterol), therefore reducing the risk of heart disease, and regulating blood sugar for people with diabetes.
  13. 13. • Insoluble fiber, on the other hand, passes through our bodies largely intact, moving bulk through and balancing the acidity of the intestines. • It promotes regular bowel movement, helping to remove toxic waste through the colon in less time, and helps prevent colon cancer by keeping an optimal pH in intestines, which prevent microbes from producing cancerous substance. • While beans contain both types of fiber, they are particularly high in soluble fiber content.
  14. 14. Fava Beans • Vicia faba, also known as the broad bean, fava bean, faba bean, field bean, bell bean, or tic bean, is a species of bean (Fabaceae) native to North Africa, southwest and south Asia, and extensively cultivated elsewhere
  15. 15. • Fava beans are very high in protein and energy as in other beans and lentils. • 100 g beans contain 341 calories. • The beans, however, compose plentiful of health benefiting antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and plant-sterols. • The beans are very rich source of dietary fiber (66% per100g RDA) which acts as a bulk laxative that helps to protect the mucous membrane of the colon by decreasing its exposure time to toxic substances as well as by binding to cancer-causing chemicals in the colon. • Dietary fiber has also been shown to reduce blood cholesterol levels by decreasing re-absorption of cholesterol binding bile acids in the colon
  16. 16. • Broad beans are rich in phyto-nutrients such as isoflavone and plant-sterols. • Isoflavone such as genistein and daidzein have been found to protect breast cancer in laboratory animals. • Phytosterols, especially ß- sitosterol, help lower cholesterol levels in the body. • Fava beans contain Levo-dopa or L-dopa, a precursor of neuro-chemicals in the brain such as dopamine, epinephrine and nor-epinephrine. • Dopamine in the brain is associated with smooth functioning of body movements. • Getting adequate fava beans in the diet may help prevent Parkinson's disease and dopamine responsive dystonia disorders.
  17. 17. • Fresh fava beans are an excellent source of folates. • 100 gm. beans provide 423 µg or 106% of folates. • Folate along with vitamin B-12 is one of the essential components of DNA synthesis and cell division. • Adequate folate in the diet around conception and during pregnancy may help prevent neural-tube defects in the newborn baby.
  18. 18. • They also contain good amounts of vitamin-B6 (pyridoxine), thiamin (vitamin B-1), riboflavin and niacin. • These vitamins function as co-enzymes in cellular metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. • In addition, broad beans are one of the fine sources of minerals like iron, copper, manganese, calcium, magnesium. • At 1062 mg or 23% of daily recommended levels, fava are one of the highest plant sources of potassium. • Potassium is an important electrolyte of cell and body fluids. • It helps counter pressing effects of sodium on heart and blood pressure.
  19. 19. • Fava beans are a good source of vitamin C, magnesium, iron, and protein. • There is a hereditary condition of glucose-6phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in males predominantly of African, Mediterranean or Asian decent called favism. • If not controlled, this condition can cause a serious breakdown of red blood cells called hemolytic anemia. • Episodes can be triggered by illness, certain medicines and fava beans.
  20. 20. Fava beans (Faba vicis), Raw, Nutritive value per 100 g. (Source: USDA National Nutrient data base) Principle Nutrient Value Percentage of RDA Electrolytes Sodium 13 mg 1% Potassium 1062 mg 23% Phyto-nutrients Carotene-ß Carotene-α 32 µg 00 µg ---
  21. 21. • The following general principles must be understood when considering fava beans for your Parkinson’s symptoms: 1. The proposed active compound, levodopa, found in these seeds is chemically the same as that in standard medicine carbidopa/Levodopa. Fava beans, therefore, can have the same side effects, long term effects and drug interactions that are seen with levodopa. 2. The amount of levodopa in consumed bean or bean pod is variable. Therefore, unlike levodopa in the pill it is not possible to determine the precise amount that is ingested.
  22. 22. Spinach • Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) has a big nutritional value for the human body. • It is a rich source of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, calcium, iodine, magnesium, and several vital antioxidants, number one source of iron among all other vegetables. • Spinach is easily absorbed by our body, improves pancreatic and salivary glands activity, and adjusts intestinal motility.
  23. 23. • Spinach is known as a rich source of iron and calcium. • According to the United States Department of Agriculture, a 180 gram serving of boiled spinach contains 6.43 mg of iron • whereas one 170 gram ground hamburger patty contains at most 4.42 mg. • Thus spinach does contain a relatively high level of iron, compared to other vegetable and meat sources. • The iron in spinach is poorly absorbed by the body unless eaten with calcium.
  24. 24. • The type of iron found in spinach is non-blood (nonheme), a plant iron, which the body does not absorb as efficiently as blood (heme) iron, found in meat. • The bioavailability of iron is dependent on its absorption. • This is influenced by a number of factors. • Iron enters the body in two forms: nonheme iron and heme iron. • All of the iron in grains and vegetables, and about three fifths of the iron in animal food sources (meats), is nonheme iron. • The much smaller remaining portion from meats is heme iron.
  25. 25. • The larger portion of dietary iron (nonheme) is absorbed slowly in its many food sources, including spinach. • This absorption may vary widely depending on the presence of binders such as fiber or enhancers, such as vitamin C. • Therefore, the body's absorption of non-heme iron can be improved by consuming foods that are rich in vitamin C. However, spinach contains high levels of oxalate. • Oxalates bind to iron to form ferrous oxalate, thus making the iron in spinach unavailable, plus high amounts of oxalates remove iron from the body. • Therefore, a diet high in oxalate (or phosphate or phytate) leads to a decrease in iron absorption. • As a result around 90% of the iron content in Spinach will be released in urine, and not absorbed in the body
  26. 26. • Spinach also has a high calcium content. • However, the oxalate content in spinach binds with calcium decreasing its absorption. • By way of comparison, the body can absorb about half of the calcium present in broccoli, yet only around 5% of the calcium in spinach. • Oxalate is one of a number of factors that can contribute to gout and kidney stones.
  27. 27. • Equally or more notable factors contributing to calcium stones are: 1. Genetic tendency. 2. High intake of animal protein. 3. Excess calcium intake. 4. Excess vitamin D. 5. Prolonged immobility. 6. Hyperparathyroidism. 7. Renal tubular acidosis. 8. And excess dietary health fiber.
  28. 28. • Spinach is an excellent source of nutrition vitamins and minerals health: vitamin K, vitamin A, manganese, folate, magnesium, iron, vitamin C, vitamin B2, calcium, potassium, and vitamin B6. • It is a very good source of dietary health fiber, copper, protein, phosphorus, zinc and vitamin E. • In addition, it is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids, niacin and selenium.
  29. 29. • Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Cancer Benefits from Spinach Phytonutrients • Even though virtually all vegetables contain a wide variety of phytonutrients—including flavonoids and carotenoids—spinach can claim a special place among vegetables in terms of its phytonutrient content. • Researchers have identified more than a dozen different flavonoid compounds in spinach that function as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agents. • (Some of these substances fall into a technical category of flavonoids known as methylenedioxyflavonol glucuronides.)
  30. 30. • The anticancer properties of these spinach flavonoids have been sufficiently impressive to prompt researchers to create specialized spinach extracts that could be used in controlled laboratory studies. • These spinach extracts have been shown to slow down cell division in human stomach cancer cells (gastric adenocarcinomas), and in studies on laboratory animals, to reduce skin cancers (skin papillomas). • A study on adult women living in New England in the late 1980s also showed intake of spinach to be inversely related to incidence of breast cancer.
  31. 31. • Excessive inflammation, of course, typically emerges as a risk factor for increased cancer risk. • (That's why many anti-inflammatory nutrients can also be shown to have anti-cancer properties.) • But even when unrelated to cancer, excessive inflammation has been shown to be less likely following consumption of spinach. • Particularly in the digestive tract, reduced inflammation has been associated not only with the flavonoids found in spinach, but also with its carotenoids.
  32. 32. • Neoxanthin and violaxanthin are two antiinflammatory epoxyxanthophylls that are found in plentiful amounts in the leaves of spinach. • While these unique carotenoids may not be as readily absorbed as carotenoids like betacarotene or lutein, they still play an important role in regulation of inflammation and are present in unusual amounts in spinach
  33. 33. • Decreased risk of aggressive prostate cancer is one health benefit of spinach consumption that should not be overlooked when talking about the anti-cancer properties of spinach. • "Aggressive prostate cancer" is defined as stage III or IV prostate cancer which carries with it a Gleason score of at least 7. (Gleason scores are prostate cancer rating measurements that require lab studies of prostate tissue and evaluation of common tumor-related patterns.) • Interestingly, in a recent study that evaluated possible prostate cancer-prevention benefits from a variety of vegetables including spinach, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, mustard and turnip greens, collards, and kale — only spinach showed evidence of significant protection against the occurrence of aggressive prostate cancer.
  34. 34. • Antioxidant Benefits of Spinach • Most of the flavonoid and carotenoid nutrients found in spinach that provide anti-inflammatory benefits provide antioxidant benefits as well. • Given the fact that spinach is an excellent source of other antioxidant nutrients — including vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and manganese — as well as a very good source of the antioxidant zinc and a good source of the antioxidant selenium — it's no wonder that spinach helps lower risk of numerous health problems related to oxidative stress. • Our blood vessels, for example, are especially susceptible to damage from oxidative stress, and intake of spinach has been associated with decreased risk of several blood vessel-related problems, including atherosclerosis and high blood pressure.
  35. 35. • (Interestingly, the blood pressure benefits of spinach may be related not only to its antioxidants, but also to some of its special peptides. • Peptides are small pieces of protein, and researchers have discovered several peptides in spinach that can help lower blood pressure by inhibiting an enzyme called angiotensin Iconverting enzyme.) • Two of the carotenoids that are especially plentiful in spinach — lutein and zeaxanthin — are primary antioxidants in several regions of the eye, including the retina and the macula
  36. 36. • Although we haven't seen specific studies on spinach intake and prevention of eye-related problems like macular degeneration, some studies showing that human blood levels of lutein can be increased by consumption of spinach in everyday amounts. • Thus spinach has a likely role to play in prevention of eye problems, including agerelated macular degeneration.
  37. 37. Dates • Wonderfully delicious, dates are one of the most popular fruits packed with an impressive list of essential nutrients, vitamins, and minerals that are required for normal growth, development and overall well-being. • Fresh dates compose of soft, easily digestible flesh and simple sugars like fructose and dextrose, when eaten, they replenish energy and revitalize the body instantly. For these qualities, they are being used to break the fast during Ramadan month since ancient times. • The fruit is rich in dietary fiber, which prevents LDL cholesterol absorption in the gut. Additionally, the fiber works as a bulk laxative. It, thus, helps to protect the colon mucous membrane by decreasing exposure time and as well as binding to cancer-causing chemicals in the colon.
  38. 38. • They contain health benefiting flavonoid polyphenolic antioxidants known as tannins. • Tannins are known to possess anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hemorrhagic (prevent easy bleeding tendencies) properties. • They are moderate sources of vitamin-A (contains 149 IU per 100 g), which is known to have antioxidant properties and essential for vision. Additionally, it is also required maintaining healthy mucus membranes and skin. Consumption of natural fruits rich in vitamin A is known to help to protect from lung and oral cavity cancers.
  39. 39. • They compose antioxidant flavonoids such as ßcarotene, lutein, and zea-xanthin. These antioxidants found to have the ability to protect cells and other structures in the body from harmful effects of oxygen-free radicals. Thus, eating dates found to offer some protection from colon, prostate, breast, endometrial, lung, and pancreatic cancers. • Zea-xanthin is an important dietary carotenoid that selectively absorbed into the retinal macula lutea, where it thought to provide antioxidant and protective light-filtering functions. It thus offers protection against age-related macular degeneration, especially in elderly populations.
  40. 40. • Zeaxanthin is one of the most common carotenoid alcohols found in nature. • It is important in the xanthophyll cycle. Synthesized in plants and some microorganisms, it is the pigment that gives paprika (made from bell peppers), corn, saffron, wolfberries, and many other plants and microbes their characteristic color. Zeaxanthin structure
  41. 41. • is a strongly-colored red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits. It is an organic compound and chemically is classified as a hydrocarbon and specifically as a terpenoid (isoprenoid), reflecting its derivation from isoprene units. β-Carotene is biosynthesized from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate.[3] It is a member of the carotenes, which are tetraterpenes, synthesized biochemically from eight isoprene units and thus having 40 carbons. Among this general class of carotenes, βcarotene is distinguished by having beta-rings at both ends of the molecule. Absorption of β-carotene is enhanced if eaten with fats, as carotenes are fat soluble β-Carotene
  42. 42. • Lutein from Latin luteus meaning "yellow" is a xanthophyll and one of 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids. • Lutein is synthesized only by plants and like other xanthophylls is found in high quantities in green leafy vegetables such as spinach, kale and yellow carrots. • In green plants, xanthophylls act to modulate light energy and serve as non-photochemical quenching agents to deal with triplet chlorophyll (an excited form of chlorophyll), which is overproduced at very high light levels, during photosynthesis. Lutein
  43. 43. • Dates are an excellent source of iron, contains 0.90 mg/100 g of fruits (about 11% of RDI). Iron, being a component of hemoglobin inside the red blood cells, determines the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. • Further, they are very good in potassium. 100 g contains 696 mg or 16% of dailyrecommended levels of this electrolyte. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that help controlling heart rate and blood pressure. They, thus, offers protection against stroke and coronary heart diseases.
  44. 44. • They are also rich in minerals like calcium, manganese, copper, and magnesium. Calcium is an important mineral that is an essential constituent of bone and teeth, and required by the body for muscle contraction, blood clotting, and nerve impulse conduction. Manganese is used by the body as a co-factor for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase. Copper is required for the production of red blood cells. Magnesium is essential for bone growth.
  45. 45. • Further, the fruit has adequate levels of Bcomplex group of vitamins as well as vitamin K. It contains very good amounts of pyridoxine (vitamin B-6), niacin, pantothenic acid, and riboflavin. • These vitamins are acting as cofactors help body metabolize carbohydrates, protein, and fats. • Vitamin K is essential for many coagulant factors in the blood as well as in bone metabolism.
  46. 46. Barley Approximate analysis of barley
  47. 47. Total amount of calories of barley Calories Serving Size: 1 cup (148g or 5.2 oz) kcal* kjoules* RDI% 511 kcal 2136 kJ 26% from Carbs 435.6 kcal 1822.73 kJ from Fat 19.8 kcal 82.93 kJ from Protein 55.2 kcal 230.82 kJ from Alcohol 0 kcal 0 kJ Total Calories *The unit "kcal" or kilocalories are what most American's think of as 1 Calorie. Other countries use the unit kilojoule (kJ) to measure Food Energy. 1 kcal is equal to 4.184 kilojoules. Source: Nutritional Data by SkipThePie.org
  48. 48. Vitamins RDI for barley The fig. shows how much of the recommended daily intake (RDI) of each vitamin that 148g (5.22 oz) of Barley flour (or meal) contains.
  49. 49. Vitamin Content of Barley Serving Size: 1 cup (148g or 5.2 oz) Vitamin A Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Vitamin B12, Added Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin D2 Vitamin D3 Vitamin D (D2 + D3) Vitamin E (Alpha-tocopherol) Vitamin E, Added Vitamin K Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Pantothenic Acid Folate Folate, Food Folate, DFE Choline Betaine *Daily Value not established for starred items. Amount 00.0000 IU 0.58608 mg 00.0000 mcg 00.0000 mcg 00.0000 mg 00.0000 IU ~ ~ 00.0000 mcg 0.8436 mg 00.0000 mg 3.256 mcg 0.5476 mg 0.16872 mg 9.27812 mg 0.2146 mg 11.84 mcg 11.84 mcg 11.84 mcg DFE 55.944 mg 96.94 mg RDI% 0% 29% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 4% 0% 4% 37% 10% 46% 2% 3% 3% 3% ~ ~
  50. 50. Amino acids in barley Fig. shows the balance of essential amino acids in 148g (5.22 oz) of Barley flour (or meal). The distance from the center shows how much each amino acid contributions to your recommended daily intake (RDI). Please note that this chart is for 148g (5.22 oz) of this food item. Increasing the weight will show a larger contribution to your RDI
  51. 51. Minerals RDI for barley flour Fig. shows how much of the recommended daily intake (RDI) of each mineral that 148g (5.22 oz) of Barley flour (or meal) contains.
  52. 52. Mineral Content in in flour barley Serving Size: 1 cup (148g or 5.2 oz) Amount RDI% Calcium 47.36 mg 5% Iron 3.9664 mg 22% Magnesium 142.08 mg 36% Phosphorus 438.08 mg 44% Potassium 457.32 mg 10% Sodium 5.92 mg 0% Zinc 2.96 mg 20% Copper 0.50764 mg 25% Manganese 1.53032 mg 77% Selenium 55.796 mcg 80% Fluoride ~ *Daily Value not established for starred items. ~Data not available for tilde (~) items. Mineral Data by SkipThePie.org
  53. 53. Carbohydrates in flour barley Table ( ) shows how much this food contributes to your recommended daily intake for different total daily calories consumed Serving Size: 1 cup (148g or 5.2 oz) Amount Total Carbohydrates 110.2896g Dietary Fiber 14.948g Starch ~ Sugars 1.184g Sucrose ~ Glucose ~ Fructose ~ Lactose ~ Maltose ~ Galactose ~ ~Data not available for tilde (~) items. Carbohydrate Data by SkipThePie.org RDI% 37% 60%
  54. 54. Calories in Carbohydrates in flour barley 148g (5.22 oz) grams of Barley flour (or meal) contains 110.2896 grams of carbohydrates which is 37% of your recommended daily carbohydrate intake according to the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for a 2000 calorie diet.
  55. 55. Fatty acids in barley
  56. 56. Fatty Acids & Fat Serving Size: 1 cup (148g or 5.2 oz) Amount Total Saturated Fats (Bad Fats) 0.4958g Arachidic Acid [Eicosanoic Acid] Behenic Acid [Docosanoic Acid] Butyric Acid [Butanoic Acid] Capric Acid [Decanoic Acid] Caproic Acid [Hexanoic Acid] Caprylic Acid [Octanoic Acid] Lauric Acid [Dodecanoic Acid] Lignoceric Acid [Tetracosanoic Acid] Margaric Acid [Heptadecanoic Acid] Myristic Acid [Tetradecanoic Acid] Palmitic Acid [Hexadecanoic Acid] Pentadecanoic Acid [Pentadecanoic Acid] Stearic Acid [Octadecanoic Acid] Tridecanoic Acid [Tridecanoic Acid] ~ ~ 0g 0g 0g 0g 0.00592g ~ ~ 0.01184g 0.42328g ~ 0.01776g ~ RDI% 2%
  57. 57. Fatty Acids & Fat Serving Size: 1 cup (148g or 5.2 oz) Amount Total Monounsaturated Fat (Good Fats) 0.3034g 16:1 c ~ 16:1 t ~ 18:1 c ~ 18:1 t ~ 18:1-11t (18:1t n-7) ~ 22:1 c ~ 22:1 t ~ Erucic Acid [Docosenoic Acid] 0g Gadoleic Acid [Eicosenoic Acid] 0g Heptadecenoic Acid [Heptadecenoic Acid] ~ Myristoleic Acid [Tetradecenoic Acid] ~ Nervonic Acid [Cis-Tetracosenoic Acid] ~ Oleic Acid [Octadecenoic Acid] 0.24864g Palmitoleic Acid [Hexadecenoic Acid] 0.00592g Pentadecenoic Acid [Pentadecenoic Acid] ~ RDI%
  58. 58. Fatty Acids & Fat Serving Size: 1 cup (148g or 5.2 oz) Amount Total Polyunsaturated Fat (Good Fats) 1.14108g 18:2 CLAs 18:2 i 18:2 n-6 c,c 18:2 t not further defined 18:2 t,t 18:3i 20:3 n-3 20:3 n-6 20:4 n-6 21:5 22:4 Alpha-Linolenic Acid Arachidonic Acid [Eicosatetraenoic Acid] Clupanodonic Acid [Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA)] ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0g 0g Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) [Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)] 0g Eicosadienoic Acid [Eicosadienoic Acid] Eicosatrienoic Acid [Eicosatrienoic Acid] Gamma-Linolenic Acid [Gamma-Linolenic Acid] ~ ~ ~ Linoleic Acid [Octadecadienoic Acid] Linolenic Acid [Octadecatrienoic Acid] Parinaric Acid [Octadecatetraenoic Acid] Timnodonic Acid [Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)] 1.0286g 0.11396g 0g 0g The common name for each fatty acid is shown with the systematic name in square parentheses. ~Data not available for tilde (~) items. RDI%
  59. 59. Fig. shows good fats in Hulled Barley in relation to bad fats. Read more about each type of fat and fatty acid below • Polyunsaturated Fats: Polyunsaturated fat can be found mostly in nuts, seeds, fish, algae, leafy greens, and krill. Whole food sources are always best, as processing and heating may damage polyunsaturated fats. • Monounsaturated Fats: Foods containing monounsaturated fats reduce LDL (bad) cholesterol, while possibly increasing HDL (good) cholesterol. ["You Can Control Your Cholesterol: A Guide to LowCholesterol Living". Merck & Co. Inc.]
  60. 60. • Trans Fatty Acids: The National Academy of Sciences has concluded there is no safe level of trans fat consumption. • This is because any incremental increase in trans fat intake increases the risk of coronary heart disease. • [Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). National Academies Press. p. 504]
  61. 61. • Saturated Fats: Consumption of saturated fat is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in the view of the Canadian Heart and Stroke Foundation, the American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the National Heart Foundation of Australia, the National Heart Foundation of New Zealand and the World Heart Federation. • In children, consumption of monounsaturated oils is associated with healthier serum lipid profiles (a group of tests that are often ordered together to determine risk of coronary heart disease.). ["A cross-sectional study of dietary habits and lipid profiles. The Rivas-Vaciamadrid study". Eur. J. Pediatr.].
  62. 62. • Omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil, fish and seafood have been shown to lower the risk of heart attacks. [National Institute of Health (August 1, 2005). "Omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil, alpha-linolenic acid"]. • Omega-6 fatty acids in sunflower oil and safflower oil may also reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. [Willett WC (September 2007). "The role of dietary n-6 fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease". Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine].
  63. 63. • In one study, Omega-3 fatty acids reduced prostate tumor growth, slowed histopathological progression, and increased survival. [Mihelin M, Trontelj JV, Stålberg E (August 1991). "Muscle fiber recovery functions studied with double pulse stimulation". Muscle & Nerve 1]. • A study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute showed that High levels of docosahexaenoic acid were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. [Pala V, Krogh V, Muti P, et al. (July 2001). "Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids and subsequent breast cancer: a prospective Italian study". Journal of the National Cancer Institute 93]
  64. 64. • Barley Controls Blood Sugar Better • Dutch researchers used a crossover study with 10 healthy men to compare the effects of cooked barley kernels and refined wheat bread on blood sugar control. The men ate one or the other of these grains at dinner, then were given a high glycemic index breakfast (50g of glucose) the next morning for breakfast. When they had eaten the barley dinner, the men had 30% better insulin sensitivity the next morning after breakfast. ___________________________________________ • American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, January 2010; 91(1):90-7. Epub 2009 Nov 4.
  65. 65. • Barley Lowers Glucose Levels • White rice, the staple food in Japan, is a high glycemic index food. • Researchers at the University of Tokushima found that glucose levels were lower after meals when subjects switched from rice to barley. ________________________________________ • Rinsho Byori. August 2009; 57(8):797-805
  66. 66. • Barley Beta-Glucan Lowers Glycemic Index • Scientists at the Functional Food Centre at Oxford Brookes University in England fed 8 healthy human subjects chapatis (unleavened Indian flatbreads) made with either 0g, 2g, 4g, 6g or 8g of barley beta- glucan fiber. • They found that all amounts of barley betaglucan lowered the glycemic index of the breads, with 4g or more making a significant difference. _____________________________________________ Nutrition Research, July 2009; 29(7):4806
  67. 67. Insulin Response better with Barley Beta-Glucan • In a crossover study involving 17 obese women at increased risk for insulin resistance, USDA scientists studied the effects of 5 different breakfast cereal test meals on subjects’ insulin response. • They found that consumption of 10g of barley beta-glucan significantly reduced insulin response. _______________________________________ European Journal of Nutrition, April 2009; 48(3):170-5. Epub
  68. 68. Barley Beats Oats in Glucose Response Study • USDA researchers fed barley flakes, barley flour, rolled oats, oat flour, and glucose to 10 overweight middle-aged women, then studied their bodies’ responses. • They found that peak glucose and insulin levels after barley were significantly lower than those after glucose or oats. • Particle size did not appear to be a factor, as both flour and flakes had similar effects. __________________________________________ • Journal of the American College of Nutrition, June 2005; 24(3):182-8
  69. 69. Barley Reduces Blood Pressure • For five weeks, adults with mildly high cholesterol were fed diets supplemented with one of three whole grain choices: whole wheat/brown rice, barley, or whole wheat/brown rice/barley. • All three whole grain combinations reduced blood pressure, leading USDA researchers to conclude that "in a healthful diet, increasing whole grain foods, whether high in soluble or insoluble fiber, can reduce blood pressure and may help to control weight.“ ___________________________________________________ • Journal of the American Dietetic Association, September 2006; 106(9):1445-9
  70. 70. Barley Lowers Serum Lipids • University of Connecticut researchers reviewed 8 studies evaluating the lipidreducing effects of barley. • They found that eating barley significantly lowered total cholesterol, LDL (“bad”) cholesterol, and triglycerides, but did not appear to significantly alter HDL (“good”) cholesterol. _______________________________________ • Annals of Family Medicine, March-April 2009; 7(2):157-63
  71. 71. Cholesterol and Visceral Fat Decrease with Barley • A randomized double-blind study in Japan followed 44 men with high cholesterol for twelve weeks, as the men ate either a standard white-rice diet or one with a mixture of rice and high-beta-glucan pearl barley. • Barley intake significantly reduced serum cholesterol and visceral fat, both accepted markers of cardiovascular risk. __________________________________________ • Plant Foods and Human Nutrition, March 2008; 63(1):21-5. Epub 2007 Dec 12.
  72. 72. Barley Significantly Improves Lipids • 25 adults with mildly high cholesterol were fed whole grain foods containing 0g, 3g or 6g of barley beta-glucan per day for five weeks, with blood samples taken twice weekly. • Total cholesterol and LDL (“bad”) cholesterol significantly decreased with the addition of barley to the diet. __________________________________ American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, November 2004; 80(5):1185-93
  73. 73. Barley Pasta Lowers Cholesterol • University of California researchers fed two test meals to 11 healthy men, both containing betaglucan. • One meal was a high-fiber (15.7g) barley pasta and the other was lower-fiber (5.0g) wheat pasta. • The barley pasta blunted insulin response, and four hours after the meal, barley-eaters had significantly lower cholesterol concentration than wheat-eaters. _______________________________________ • American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, January 1999; 69(1):55-63
  74. 74. Barley’s Slow Digestion may help Weight Control • Barley varieties such as Prowashonupana that are especially high in beta-glucan fiber may digest more slowly than standard barley varieties. • Researchers at USDA and the Texas Children’s Hospital compared the two and concluded that Prowashonupana may indeed be especially appropriate for obese and diabetic patients. __________________________________________ • Journal of Nutrition, September 2002; 132(9):2593-6
  75. 75. Greater Satiety, Fewer Calories Eaten with Barley • In a pilot study, six healthy subjects ate a 420-calorie breakfast bar after an overnight fast, then at lunch were offered an all-youcan-eat buffet. • When subjects ate a Prowashonupana barley bar at breakfast they subsequently ate 100 calories less at lunch than when they ate a traditional granola bar for breakfast.
  76. 76. Barley Side Effects • The side effects of barley are yet unknown. However, those with gluten allergy should strictly avoid this cereal. • Otherwise, it may lead to allergic reaction and upset stomach. • The fiber in barley decreases your risk of developing hemorrhoids and diverticular disease, but it also aids in preventing constipation and diarrhea. • But consuming too much barley before your body is prepared to process large quantities of fiber may produce the unpleasant side effect of abdominal bloating, gas and cramping
  77. 77. Nutritional Data for 100 g Libyan barley Bazeen • • • • • • • • • • • Calories 166 Moisture 65 gm Protein 7.8 g Fat 3.5 g Carbohydrate 22.5 g Fibers 0.02 g Calcium 26 mg Phosphors 20 mg Ferrous 1.2 mg Zinc 5.1 mg Niacin 11.4 mg
  78. 78. Nutritional Data for Macaroni, wholewheat, dry Calories Serving Size: 1 cup elbow shaped (105g or 3.7 oz) kcal* kjoules* RDI% Total Calories 365 kcal 1529 kJ 18% from Carbs 297.8 kcal 1245.97 kJ from Fat 12.3 kcal 51.48 kJ from Protein 55.1 kcal 230.74 kJ from Alcohol 0 kcal 0 kJ *The unit "kcal" or kilocalories are what most American's think of as 1 Calorie. Other countries use the unit kilojoule (kJ) to measure Food Energy. 1 kcal is equal to 4.184 kilojoules. Nutritional Data by SkipThePie.org
  79. 79. Macaroni Vitamin Content Serving Size: 1 cup elbow shaped (105g or 3.7 oz) Vitamins Amount Vitamin A 0 IU Vitamin B6 0.23415 mg Vitamin B12 0 mcg Vitamin B12, Added ~ Vitamin C 0 mg Vitamin D 0 IU Vitamin D2 ~ Vitamin D3 ~ Vitamin D (D2 + D3) 0 mcg Vitamin E (Alpha-tocopherol) ~ Vitamin E, Added ~ Vitamin K ~ Thiamin 0.5124 mg Riboflavin 0.15015 mg Niacin 5.3865 mg Pantothenic Acid 1.0332 mg Folate 59.85 mcg Folate, Food 59.85 mcg Folate, DFE 59.85 mcg DFE Choline ~ Betaine ~ *Daily Value not established for starred items. ~Data not available for tilde (~) items. Vitamin Data by SkipThePie.org RDI% 0% 12% 0% 0% 0% 0% 34% 9% 27% 10% 15% 15% 15%
  80. 80. Macaroni Approximate analysis
  81. 81. Macaroni Mineral Content Serving Size: 1 cup elbow shaped (105g or 3.7 oz) Amount Calcium 42 mg Iron 3.8115 mg Magnesium 150.15 mg Phosphorus 270.9 mg Potassium 225.75 mg Sodium 8.4 mg Zinc 2.4885 mg Copper 0.4767 mg Manganese 3.20775 mg Selenium ~ Fluoride ~ *Daily Value not established for starred items. ~Data not available for tilde (~) items. Mineral Data by SkipThePie.org RDI% 4% 21% 38% 27% 5% 0% 17% 24% 160%
  82. 82. Macaroni Protein & Amino acids Serving Size: 1 cup elbow shaped (105g or 3.7 oz) Amount Protein 15.3615g RDI%* 31% Essential Amino acid Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Phenylalanine Threonine Tryptophan Valine 0.3612 g 0.5985 g 1.04895 g 0.3402 g 0.2478 g 0.7644 g 0.4116 g 0.1974 g 0.66675 g 52% 43% 38% 16% 39% 70% 37% Non-essential Amino acid Arginine Alanine Aspartate Cystine Glutamate Glycine Hydroxyproline Proline Serine Tyrosine Methionine + Cystine† Phenylalanine + Tyrosine† 0.54285 g 0.47985 g 0.693 g 0.3213 g 5.32665 g 0.5565 g ~ 1.63905 g 0.74865 g 0.4011 g 0.5691 g 1.1655 g 54 111 * Amino acid RDI's are based on the World Health Organization's recommended daily intake for an adult human weighing 70 kg (154.3 pounds). "Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition". WHO Press, page 150. † The World Health Organization provides a single recommended daily intake for the combinations of Methionine and Cysteine and the combination of Phenylalanine and Tyrosine. ‡ Arginine, Cystine and Tyrosine are required by infants and growing children and we have therefore included them in the list of essential amino acids. [Imura K, Okada A (1998). "Amino acid metabolism in pediatric patients"] ~Data not available for tilde (~) items. Protein and Amino Acid Data by SkipThePie.org
  83. 83. Macaroni Carbohydrates Serving Size: 1 cup elbow shaped (105g or 3.7 oz) Amount RDI% Total 78.7815g Carbohydrates Dietary Fiber 8.715g Starch ~ Sugars ~ Glucose ~ Fructose ~ Lactose ~ Maltose ~ Galactose 35% ~ Sucrose 26% ~ ~Data not available for tilde (~) items. Carbohydrate Data by SkipThePie.org
  84. 84. Macaroni Content of Fatty Acids & Fat Serving Size: 1 cup elbow shaped (105g or 3.7 oz) Amount Total Fat 1.47g Total Omega-3 Fatty Acids 0.02835g Total Omega-6 Fatty Acids 0.55545g Total Trans Fatty Acids ~ Total Trans-monoenoic Fatty ~ Acids Total Trans-polyenoic Fatty Acids ~ 0.2709g Total Saturated Fats (Bad Fats) Arachidic Acid [Eicosanoic Acid] Behenic Acid [Docosanoic Acid] Butyric Acid [Butanoic Acid] Capric Acid [Decanoic Acid] Caproic Acid [Hexanoic Acid] Caprylic Acid [Octanoic Acid] Lauric Acid [Dodecanoic Acid] Lignoceric Acid [Tetracosanoic Acid] Margaric Acid [Heptadecanoic Acid] Myristic Acid [Tetradecanoic Acid] Palmitic Acid [Hexadecanoic Acid] Pentadecanoic Acid [Pentadecanoic Acid] Stearic Acid [Octadecanoic Acid] Tridecanoic Acid [Tridecanoic Acid] ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0.0021g 0.252g ~ 0.01365g ~ RDI% 2% 1%
  85. 85. Other Macaroni Nutrients Serving Size: 100g or 3.5oz Amount Alcohol Water Ash Caffeine Theobromine Cholesterol Phytosterols Campesterol Stigmasterol Beta-sitosterol ~Data not available for tilde (~) items. Nutritional Data by SkipThePie.org ~ 7.34g 1.6g ~ ~ 0mg ~ ~ ~ ~
  86. 86. Nutritional value for 100 g Libyan Macaroni Mobakbaka contains • • • • • • • • • • • Calories 149 Moistures 67 g Protein 5 g Fat 4.3 g Carbohydrate 23 g Fibers 0.01 g Calcium 27 mg Phosphors 27 mg Ferrous 1.1 mg Zinc 3.2 mg Niacin 0.8 mg
  87. 87. Couscous • Couscous may mean both the granules of semolina produced from the endosperm of durum wheat and the spicy North African stews that are commonly served on it. • The dried granules are a cluster of precooked semolina particles that come in coarse, medium and fine grades. Most North African countries consume couscous made from durum semolina; however, some produce it from pearled millet , barley and corn
  88. 88. • Nutritional value One serving (30 gms, about 3 tablespoons dry) contains: 1. Calories 95.0 2. Carbohydrate 20.0 g 3. Cholesterol 0.0 mg 4. Dietary Fiber 1.0 g 5. Fat (Total) 0.1 g 6. Potassium 49.5 mg 7. Protein 3.2 g 8. Sodium 4.3 mg 9. Selenium 3.4 mcg 10. Zinc .2 mg • Calories from: Carbohydrates 85 % Fat 1 % Protein 14 %
  89. 89. Nutritional value 100g for Libyan Couscous with vegetables stew contains: • • • • • • • • • • • Calories 241g Moisture 58 g Protein 7.4 g Fat 9 g Carbohydrate 44 g Fibers 0.01 g calcium 7 mg Phosphors 20 mg Ferrous 1.2 mg Niacin 40 mg Zinc 3.2 mg

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