Health and food situation in libya 2011

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Health and food situation in libya 2011

  1. 1. Health and Nutritional Situation in Libya Dr . Yousef M Elshrek
  2. 2. <ul><li>Libya has a population of 6.3 million (2008) and an area of 1,759,540 km 2 , of which 90% is desert. </li></ul><ul><li>Libyan economic depends on oil production with little non-oil economic activities contribution to the national economic framework, this meanly include agriculture, fishery and animal production </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The health situation in Libya is governed by three decisive factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>environmental and </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>health care. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The average actual consumption rates of energy according to food balance sheets ranges from 3346 to 4400 calories with an average of 3769 calories / day. </li></ul><ul><li>The nutritional content of the food intake was low in vitamin A, B 1 ,B 2 and C for females only but the food intake was low in calcium, and it was satisfactory for iron. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>This paper gives some basic information about Libya, like </li></ul><ul><li>geographical location, </li></ul><ul><li>climate factors, </li></ul><ul><li>land and the main water resources, </li></ul><ul><li>population, economic frame work and growth rate, </li></ul>Introduction
  5. 5. <ul><li>food situation, </li></ul><ul><li>human development, </li></ul><ul><li>food hygiene and health, and </li></ul><ul><li>contribution of food groups to the total per capita share of food products. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Geographical location: </li></ul><ul><li>Libya is located in the north of the African continent, on the southern coast of the Mediterranean, between 9 to 25 longitudes to the east, 33 north and south up to 18.45. </li></ul><ul><li>borders the Mediterranean Sea to the north (1,770 km of coastline) </li></ul><ul><li>The Mediterranean is to the north, Niger and Chad are to the south, Egypt and Sudan are to the east, and Tunisia and Algeria are to the west. </li></ul><ul><li>The total area of the country is 1.760.000 square km. </li></ul>Basic Information
  7. 7. <ul><li>On the bases of height above sea level, climate, type of soil, rainfall rate, and plantation cover, the country can be divided into five main ecological parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal plain regions </li></ul><ul><li>Northern mountain regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-desert regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Desert regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Southern mountain regions. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Climate factors <ul><li>Climate in Libya is a mix of Mediterranean and desert climate. </li></ul><ul><li>The influence of the former diminishes as we moved away from the coast southwards where the desert climate is dominant. </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical diversity is reflected in differences in temperature rates. </li></ul><ul><li>The most parts of the country are located in the hot climate regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas climate at coastal regions is moderate with an increase in humidity rate. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Wind blows in Summer and Autumn seasons, and average annual temperature rate ranges between 23 - 25º C at coastal regions, and 24-25º C at semi desert areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 30º C at desert regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Annual rainfalls at coastal areas are between 150- 400 mm/annually, and could reach </li></ul><ul><li>600 mm/annually at the Green Mountain regions to the east of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>About 75% of the rainfall are during seven months, i.e. between October and April. (Fig. 1). </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Area of agrarian land in Libya estimated at 2% of the country’s total area i.e. 3.6 million hectares. </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture crops particularly, several types of fruit trees depend on rainfalls. </li></ul><ul><li>The agriculture land within the rainfall range of + 300 mm /annually estimated at 220,000 hectares. </li></ul><ul><li>Areas within the rainfall range of 250mm per annually are about 2.172.000 hectares. </li></ul><ul><li>Areas under the waterfall range of 50-250 mm/year estimated at 13-14 million hectares (pasture land ) </li></ul>Land resources
  11. 12. <ul><li>The main water resources in Libya are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Underground water: </li></ul><ul><li>It is the most important water resource as it represents 95% of water resources. </li></ul><ul><li>The agriculture sector consumes over 80% of the total underground water consumption. </li></ul><ul><li>The rest is used as drinking water and for industry. </li></ul>Water resources
  12. 13. <ul><li>Underground water is concentrated in five main underground reservoirs: </li></ul><ul><li>Sahil al Jafara </li></ul><ul><li>Central region </li></ul><ul><li>Fazen, al-Kufra and Asarrie region. </li></ul><ul><li>Nufusa mountains. </li></ul><ul><li>Al-Jabel al- Akhdar region. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>2. Surface water </li></ul><ul><li>Surface water comprises rainwater stored by means of dams and tanks. </li></ul><ul><li>The quantities of water expected to be retained by dams, estimated at 120 million cubic m/annually. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Desalinated water </li></ul><ul><li>This source of water is obtained by desalination of seawater by means of desalination plants, located at the coastal strip. </li></ul><ul><li>The total annual production of such plants is estimated at 130 million cubic m. </li></ul><ul><li>but it cannot be relied on such resource in agriculture field due to the high production cost . </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>4. Recycled water </li></ul><ul><li>This is the sewage water recycled for irrigation of some agriculture projects adjacent to the community concentrations and cities. </li></ul><ul><li>The total production of treatment plants is estimated at 120 million cubic m/annually. and Fig. (2) shows total water resource in the Libya. </li></ul>
  15. 17. 5. Population <ul><li>According to the general census Fig. (3), The number of Libyan population has increased from 3,231,000 in 1984, to about (5.882667) in 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>It has a population of 6.3 million (2008) and an area of 1,759,540 km2 , of which 90% is desert. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the economically working population, over fifteen years of age, estimated in 2000 at 3.155,136. i.e. 62% of the total number of the population fig. (4) </li></ul>
  16. 19. Economic Framework and growth rate <ul><li>Industry is the strongest sector in Libya, representing approximately 78% of GDP in 2008, </li></ul><ul><li>followed by the services sector with 18% and, finally, agriculture . </li></ul><ul><li>The growth rate of the agriculture, forests and fishing sector has increased from (9.7%) in 1995 to about (11.5 %) in 1998, as explained in fig. (5). </li></ul><ul><li>The main source of Libya’s income is petroleum; it produced more than 650 million barrels in 2007 and represented almost 70% of GDP in 2009, whereas manufacturing represented only 1.4% </li></ul>
  17. 21. <ul><li>Income per capita </li></ul><ul><li>Income of the individual relative to his share of Gross domestic product, in current prices increased by more than three-fold from the mentioned period. i.e. from (656) dinars in 1970 to about 2462.5 dinars in 1998 and increased in the year 2000 to 3205.5 dinars. </li></ul><ul><li>The country’s nominal gross domestic product (GDP) is estimated at 82.26 billion Libyan </li></ul><ul><li>dinars (LYD) in 2007 (approximately 71 800 million dollars (USD) </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign debt remains moderate (6.5% of GDP), the financial situation is favourable (public debt is 10.5% of GDP) and the PPP (Purchasing Power Parity) per capita </li></ul>
  18. 22. <ul><li>In order to realize these and others goals, the agriculture sector allocated budgets during the period 1970 –2000, of 6626 million dinars. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. 17% of the total development budget for the same period. </li></ul><ul><li>Total expenditure on the sector during the same period reached about (5349) million dinars, thereby making total actual investment expenditure on the sector 81% of these allocation. </li></ul>
  19. 23. <ul><li>i.e. at average annual expenditure of 191 million dinars. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, due to these investments and the attaching of increasing importance to the agriculture sector, the annual growth rate complex realized in this sector during 1970/1998 was estimated at 11.6% at the current cost of income factors, </li></ul><ul><li>hence to increase its contribution to the Gross domestic product. from 2.6 in 1970 to 11.5% in 1998. </li></ul>
  20. 24. Employment <ul><li>Due to investments in various economic and social activities, the national economy managed to find solutions to 1323,000 jobs up to 1998 for Libyans, i.e. 87% </li></ul><ul><li>About 172,000 jobs for non-Libyans, i.e. (13%). </li></ul><ul><li>The number of those employed in the agriculture sector is about 225,000 in 1998, i.e. about (17%) from the total active working force in various fields . </li></ul><ul><li>Libya is a country with a young population, an acceptable level of education (82% of the population aged 15 years and over can read and write), but has a high unemployment rate (30% in 2004). </li></ul>
  21. 25. <ul><li>Food situation </li></ul><ul><li>Despite increase tendencies in cereal production in comparison to 1995, there is a still a deficit percentage of 89% for wheat. </li></ul><ul><li>Libya imports about (300,000 tons) of barely annually as feed, and increases as high as 800,000 per annum in draught seasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Where as vegetable production increased to cover all local demand, as vegetables production reached about 1,450,000 tons in 2003. </li></ul>
  22. 26. <ul><li>Fruits production in the year 2000 recorded about 660,000 tons including dates, and olives. </li></ul><ul><li>Libya, produces many fruits all the year around save a very short period, during which local produce is not enough, and in which case shortages is made up by importing some types of fruits such as apples. </li></ul>
  23. 27. <ul><li>The total production of fresh fish is 25718 tons for 1995, and 44829 tons for 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>Fish production has developed to reach about 50,000 tons in 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>The share of the individual of that production is still low. </li></ul><ul><li>Imported canned fish such as tuna supplements parts of the shortages. </li></ul>
  24. 28. <ul><li>Development of animal production </li></ul><ul><li>The local production of meat reached about 229,000 tons for the year 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. 88% of the production target estimated at about 261,000 tons. </li></ul><ul><li>The average per capita share of meat in the year 2000, about 40 kgs, whereas the per capita target is about 55 kgs, per capita </li></ul><ul><li>Egg production also reached 1.2 billion eggs for 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>This quantity is enough to cover all needs of the country, of eggs as the per capita share of eggs about 200 eggs per year. </li></ul>
  25. 29. <ul><li>share of milk is about 44 liters. </li></ul><ul><li>as total local production of milk totaled 250 million liters in the year 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>This quantity covers about 53% of local demand of milk which reaches 522 million liters, thereby </li></ul><ul><li>The increasing per capita share to about 90 liters / annually. </li></ul><ul><li>Egg production also reached 1.2 billion eggs for 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>This quantity is enough to cover all needs, of eggs as the per capita share about 200 eggs per year. </li></ul>
  26. 30. Human Development <ul><li>the average life rate expected at birth increased from 46 in 1964 to 72 years in 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>The average life rate expected at birth increased from 72 in 2003 to 77 in 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Illiteracy rate for the same period decreased from 26.6 to 21.9 %. </li></ul><ul><li>Enrollments to the three levels of education have increased from 88% in 1993 to 92% in 1998 . </li></ul>
  27. 31. <ul><li>Health Situation </li></ul><ul><li>The health situation of any country is governed by three decisive factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Social situation (Political system, state of national economy and pattern of production, distribution and consumption, and nature of development of prevailing educational and cultural system). </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental situation (water, air and soil hygiene or pollution). </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of health cares system. </li></ul>
  28. 32. <ul><li>It is internationally acknowledged that the first and the second factors have a greater impact on determining the state of public health, and that their impact amounts to 75-80 % of the total factors, where as the third factor contributes by the remaining 25-20%. </li></ul>
  29. 33. <ul><li>Health services including social and economic services within the framework of national development plans as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that comprehensive health and preventive service are provided particularly to remote areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide tools and the legislative, organizational and administrative means, which ensures integration and coordination between health services and other complementary and inter-related services. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing and upgrading free health services. </li></ul>
  30. 34. <ul><li>Vaccination of various individuals against contagious diseases, focusing on preventive health projects, and combat contagious diseases and epidemic. (TB, Trachoma, promotes health food awareness, and improves environmental programmers). </li></ul><ul><li>Develop local manpower of health sector, implement education programmers, and health training at various levels locally and abroad. </li></ul>
  31. 35. <ul><li>Develop and support existing health and medical institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Look after health education and guidance, as well as school health. </li></ul><ul><li>Look after studies, researches related to health services, as well as economic, food, and cultural and psychological </li></ul>
  32. 36. <ul><li>As a result of modernization process, economic, and social progress undergone by the country during the past years, changes in population phenomena have become reflected in one of its effects on improving health indexes in general. </li></ul><ul><li>As average life expectancy has risen and infant and mothers death rate declined. This is accompanied by decrease of fertility and birth rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Table (1) shows the most important indexes and health value in 1999, including birth, death rate, life expectancy, and hospital bed rates and other health indexes </li></ul>
  33. 38. <ul><li>It can be noted from table (1) the decrease of infant child death rate to 24.4/1000 lives neonatal for 1999 from 118/1000 live neonatal in 1973. </li></ul><ul><li>As regarding the basic outcome to improve the health situation, it can be recognized from the development of long life rate at birth. </li></ul><ul><li>The rate was less than 46 years in the beginning of the seventies, whereas, this rate according table (1) has sharply increased to 68 years for men and 71 years for females. </li></ul>
  34. 39. <ul><li>These national total indexes are tied up with other detailed indexes at regions level, </li></ul><ul><li>As it is noted through the analysis of geographical data, that the gap in child death rate between urban and rural areas has been reduced to a great extent. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimates indicate that death rate has in recent years been reduced by 67% in urban areas and to 62% in rural areas, indicating a great horizontal expansion in health services and its equal distribution among the regions. </li></ul>
  35. 40. <ul><li>Libya is considered among the leading countries that managed to go along way in covering vaccinations against contagious and infectious disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics indicate that vaccination rate against TB, paralysis, and smallpox amounts to more than 97% among children </li></ul><ul><li>The rates are not different between urban and rural areas. </li></ul>
  36. 42. <ul><li>Food hygiene and health </li></ul><ul><li>One of the important aspects that indicate high health standard level in Libya is the society’s food situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative studies of the outcome of national surveys conducted by the Arab League on child and mother health in Arab countries, showed that Libya on top of the list. </li></ul><ul><li>of countries concerning nutrition situation and its positive indexes characterized by low rate of underweight births, which does not exceed 4.7 % among children under five years old. </li></ul><ul><li>The same thing applies to debility, and short, as incidence of such cases in Libya does not exceed 2.7% and 15% respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>This rate increased in 1999 to 3787 calories </li></ul>
  37. 43. <ul><li>This rate exceeds the standard daily needs for all ages and all years. </li></ul><ul><li>Needless to say that the fundamental factor in improving the nutritional state of the Libyan society, is the measure of the degree of availability of food with all its basic elements, and the degree of self-sufficiency, and forms of its distribution among various population and social sectors. </li></ul><ul><li>Per capita share of available energy for consumption ranges from 3346 to 4400 calories with an average of 3769 calories/day. </li></ul>
  38. 44. <ul><li>In fact this increase dose not constitute any problem, as it expresses the energy available for consumption. </li></ul><ul><li>Besides it is appropriate for those undertaking hard labour. </li></ul><ul><li>the high percentage of food products wasted through marketing channels, and in the process of meal preparations and taking. </li></ul><ul><li>The percentage wasted can be estimated by subtracting the actual consumed calories from the calories available for consumption. It is estimated at 1572 calories/day, i.e. 46%. </li></ul>
  39. 45. <ul><li>According to field studies conducted in al-Fattah university for 2000, contribution of plant resources represents 70%, and animal resources 30%, table (14) . </li></ul><ul><li>However, field food surveys for 1999 showed that average actual consumption rates of energy could reach about 2072 and 1961 calories/ day for males and females respectively. </li></ul>
  40. 46. <ul><li>Contribution of food groups to the total per capitashare of food products : </li></ul><ul><li>Fig. (6) shows that there is a major reliance on cereals in the per capita share of food products available for consumption. </li></ul><ul><li>As it shows that cereals contribution could reach about 29%, followed by dairy products, 19%, then meat and sugar 5% and oil 3%, legumes, 2% and eggs 2% </li></ul>
  41. 48. <ul><li>A Few researches show that, the annual portion for each person during the period 90 – 1996, as follows:- </li></ul><ul><li>Meat, 34.7 kg. </li></ul><ul><li>Dairy and dairy products, 125 kg. </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs, 7.9 kg. </li></ul><ul><li>cereals, 182 kg. </li></ul><ul><li>Oils, 22 kg. </li></ul><ul><li>Legumes 10.7 kg. </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables, 116 kg. </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits, 110 kg. </li></ul>
  42. 49. <ul><li>The association of energy sources are:- </li></ul><ul><li>Fat 26.7 %. </li></ul><ul><li>Protein 12.2 %. </li></ul><ul><li>carbohydrate 60.9 %. </li></ul><ul><li>The nutritional contents mf the food was low in vitamin A, B1, B2 and Ca. But are good in Fe, K, Na and vitamin C. </li></ul>
  43. 50. <ul><li>Obesity and physical activity (2009):- </li></ul><ul><li>The distribution of Obesity rate among Libyans females and males were 41%, and 21%, respectively, </li></ul><ul><li>The body mass index found at 26.4 for males and 29 for females, </li></ul><ul><li>Libyans who suffering from overweight with the average of 57.5% for males , 69.8% for females, </li></ul>
  44. 51. <ul><li>It found that 36% and 51.7% of males and females had a low physical activity, respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>While those who engaged on a high physical activity were not exceeded more than 37.3% and 30% for males and females respectively,. </li></ul><ul><li>78.4%, are not engaged in hard physical activity. </li></ul>
  45. 52. <ul><li>Hypertension:- </li></ul><ul><li>those who are suffering from hypertension and they were not under treatment reached to 68.4% and 48.5% for males and females, respectively, </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes mellitus :- </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time, those who are suffering from diabetes mellitus among both sex were 23.4%, </li></ul><ul><li>Blood cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>The average of total value of blood cholesterol, including those who under treatment was 174.4 mg for both genders, </li></ul><ul><li>Total normal blood cholesterol for both exceed the normal values or under who under treatment was 19% for men and 22.7% for women </li></ul>
  46. 53. <ul><li>Smokers :- </li></ul><ul><li>Libyan men smokers are about 50% and 0.7% for females. </li></ul><ul><li>The average daily smokers are 48% for both sexes , (average of 17 cigarettes per day), </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking started at average age 19.3 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables and fruit consumption:- </li></ul><ul><li>97.4% of Libyans consume less than 5 serving of fruit and vegetables per day. </li></ul>

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