Chapt02
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Chapt02

on

  • 694 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
694
Views on SlideShare
694
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Chapt02 Chapt02 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 2
      • Hazards - Biological, Chemical, Physical
    • Objective
      • Awareness of:
        • Biological hazards
        • Chemical hazards
        • Physical hazards
      • Characteristics of certain microorganisms
    • Hazard
      • A biological, chemical or physical agent that is reasonably likely to cause illness or injury in the absence of its control
    • Hazards
      • In HACCP, “hazards” refer to conditions or contaminants in foods that can cause illness or injury. It does not refer to undesirable conditions or contaminants such as:
        • Insects
        • Hair
        • Filth
        • Spoilage
        • Economic fraud and
        • Violations of regulatory food standards not directly related to safety
    • Hazards
      • Biological
      • Chemical
      • Physical
    • Biological Hazards
      • Microorganisms
        • Yeast
        • Mold
        • Bacteria
        • Viruses
        • Protozoa
      • Parasitic worms
    • Microorganisms
      • Microorganisms can be beneficial, even essential
      • Some microorganisms can be pathogenic. It is this class that concerns food processors and public health officials
    • What do microorganisms (other than viruses) need?
      • Food
      • Water
      • Proper temperature
      • Air, no air, minimal air
    • Many pathogenic microorganisms reproduce by dividing in two
      • When they grow, microorganisms produce by-products
        • Yeast - bread, beverages, fruit
        • Lactic acid bacteria - yogurt, cheese, meats
        • Staphylococcus aureus - enterotoxin
      • Most spoiled foods do not present a health risk, and not all food that appears normal is safe to consume
    • Spoilage or Decomposition
      • Food spoilage or decomposition that can result in a food safety problem should be prevented or controlled by a HACCP program
    • Microbiological hazards include harmful:
      • Bacteria
      • Viruses, and
      • Protozoa
    • Bacterial Hazards
      • Food infection and food intoxication
      • Sporeforming and nonsporeforming bacteria
    • Sporeforming Bacteria (Pathogens)
      • Clostridium botulinum
        • Proteolytic
        • Nonproteolytic
      • Clostridium perfringens
      • Bacillus cereus
    • Nonsporeforming Bacteria
      • Brucella abortis , B. suis
      • Campylobacter spp.
      • Pathogenic Escherichia coli (e.g., E. coli O157:H7)
      • Listeria monocytogenes
      • Salmonella spp. (e.g., S. typhimurium , S. enteriditis )
      • Shigella spp. (e.g., S. dysinteriae )
      • Pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus ( e.g., coagulase positive S. aureus)
      • Streptococcus pyogenes
      • Vibrio spp. (e.g., V. cholerae , V. parahaemolyticus , V . vulnificus ,)
      • Yersinia enterocolitica
    • Hazards from Viruses in Foods
      • What are viruses?
      • Where do they come from?
      • How do they reproduce?
      • How can they be controlled?
      • What are some examples? (Table A)
    • Viral Hazards
      • Very small particles that cannot be seen with a light microscope
      • Do not need food, water or air to survive
      • Do not cause spoilage
      • Infect living cells and are species specific
      • Reproduce inside the host cell
      • Survive in human intestines, water or food for months
      • Transmission usually by fecal-oral route and related to poor personnel hygiene
    • Parasites in Foods
      • Parasites are organisms that need a host to survive
      • Thousands of kinds exist worldwide, but only about 100 types are known to infect people through food contamination
      • Two types of concern from food or water:
        • Parasitic worms [e.g., roundworms (nematodes), tapeworms (cestodes), flukes (trematodes)]
        • Protozoa
      • Role of fecal material in transmission of parasites
    • Parasitic Protozoa and Worms
      • Roundworms (nematodes)
        • Anisakis simplex
        • Ascaris lumbricoides
        • Pseudoterranova dicepiens
        • Trichinella spiralis
      • Tapeworms (cestodes)
        • Diphyllobothrium latum
        • Taenia solium , T. saginata
      • Flukes (trematodes)
      • Protozoa
        • Cryptosporidium parvum
        • Entamoeba histolytica
        • Giardia lamblia
    • Chemical Hazards
      • Naturally Occurring
      • Intentionally added
      • Unintentionally added
    • Types of Naturally Occurring Chemical Hazards
      • Mycotoxins (e.g., aflatoxin)
      • Scombrotoxin
      • Ciguatoxin
      • Shellfish toxins
        • Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP)
        • Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP)
        • Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP)
        • Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP)/Domoic Acid
    • Intentionally Added Chemicals - Food Additives
      • Direct (allowable limits under GMPs)
        • Preservatives (e.g., nitrite and sulfiting agents)
        • Nutritional additives (e.g., niacin, vitamin A)
        • Color additives (e.g., FD&C Yellow No. 5)
    • Unintentionally or Incidentally Added Chemicals
      • Agricultural chemicals
        • e.g., pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, fertilizers, antibiotics and growth hormones
      • Prohibited substances (21 CFR, Part 21.189)
      • Toxic elements and compounds
        • e.g., lead, zinc, arsenic, mercury, cyanide
      • Secondary direct and indirect
        • e.g., lubricants, cleaning compounds, sanitizers, paint
    • Physical Hazard
      • Any potentially harmful extraneous matter not normally found in food
        • Glass
        • Wood
        • Stones
        • Metal
        • Plastic
    •