Chapt02
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Chapt02 Chapt02 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 2
    • Hazards - Biological, Chemical, Physical
  • Objective
    • Awareness of:
      • Biological hazards
      • Chemical hazards
      • Physical hazards
    • Characteristics of certain microorganisms
  • Hazard
    • A biological, chemical or physical agent that is reasonably likely to cause illness or injury in the absence of its control
  • Hazards
    • In HACCP, “hazards” refer to conditions or contaminants in foods that can cause illness or injury. It does not refer to undesirable conditions or contaminants such as:
      • Insects
      • Hair
      • Filth
      • Spoilage
      • Economic fraud and
      • Violations of regulatory food standards not directly related to safety
  • Hazards
    • Biological
    • Chemical
    • Physical
  • Biological Hazards
    • Microorganisms
      • Yeast
      • Mold
      • Bacteria
      • Viruses
      • Protozoa
    • Parasitic worms
  • Microorganisms
    • Microorganisms can be beneficial, even essential
    • Some microorganisms can be pathogenic. It is this class that concerns food processors and public health officials
  • What do microorganisms (other than viruses) need?
    • Food
    • Water
    • Proper temperature
    • Air, no air, minimal air
  • Many pathogenic microorganisms reproduce by dividing in two
    • When they grow, microorganisms produce by-products
      • Yeast - bread, beverages, fruit
      • Lactic acid bacteria - yogurt, cheese, meats
      • Staphylococcus aureus - enterotoxin
    • Most spoiled foods do not present a health risk, and not all food that appears normal is safe to consume
  • Spoilage or Decomposition
    • Food spoilage or decomposition that can result in a food safety problem should be prevented or controlled by a HACCP program
  • Microbiological hazards include harmful:
    • Bacteria
    • Viruses, and
    • Protozoa
  • Bacterial Hazards
    • Food infection and food intoxication
    • Sporeforming and nonsporeforming bacteria
  • Sporeforming Bacteria (Pathogens)
    • Clostridium botulinum
      • Proteolytic
      • Nonproteolytic
    • Clostridium perfringens
    • Bacillus cereus
  • Nonsporeforming Bacteria
    • Brucella abortis , B. suis
    • Campylobacter spp.
    • Pathogenic Escherichia coli (e.g., E. coli O157:H7)
    • Listeria monocytogenes
    • Salmonella spp. (e.g., S. typhimurium , S. enteriditis )
    • Shigella spp. (e.g., S. dysinteriae )
    • Pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus ( e.g., coagulase positive S. aureus)
    • Streptococcus pyogenes
    • Vibrio spp. (e.g., V. cholerae , V. parahaemolyticus , V . vulnificus ,)
    • Yersinia enterocolitica
  • Hazards from Viruses in Foods
    • What are viruses?
    • Where do they come from?
    • How do they reproduce?
    • How can they be controlled?
    • What are some examples? (Table A)
  • Viral Hazards
    • Very small particles that cannot be seen with a light microscope
    • Do not need food, water or air to survive
    • Do not cause spoilage
    • Infect living cells and are species specific
    • Reproduce inside the host cell
    • Survive in human intestines, water or food for months
    • Transmission usually by fecal-oral route and related to poor personnel hygiene
  • Parasites in Foods
    • Parasites are organisms that need a host to survive
    • Thousands of kinds exist worldwide, but only about 100 types are known to infect people through food contamination
    • Two types of concern from food or water:
      • Parasitic worms [e.g., roundworms (nematodes), tapeworms (cestodes), flukes (trematodes)]
      • Protozoa
    • Role of fecal material in transmission of parasites
  • Parasitic Protozoa and Worms
    • Roundworms (nematodes)
      • Anisakis simplex
      • Ascaris lumbricoides
      • Pseudoterranova dicepiens
      • Trichinella spiralis
    • Tapeworms (cestodes)
      • Diphyllobothrium latum
      • Taenia solium , T. saginata
    • Flukes (trematodes)
    • Protozoa
      • Cryptosporidium parvum
      • Entamoeba histolytica
      • Giardia lamblia
  • Chemical Hazards
    • Naturally Occurring
    • Intentionally added
    • Unintentionally added
  • Types of Naturally Occurring Chemical Hazards
    • Mycotoxins (e.g., aflatoxin)
    • Scombrotoxin
    • Ciguatoxin
    • Shellfish toxins
      • Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP)
      • Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP)
      • Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP)
      • Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP)/Domoic Acid
  • Intentionally Added Chemicals - Food Additives
    • Direct (allowable limits under GMPs)
      • Preservatives (e.g., nitrite and sulfiting agents)
      • Nutritional additives (e.g., niacin, vitamin A)
      • Color additives (e.g., FD&C Yellow No. 5)
  • Unintentionally or Incidentally Added Chemicals
    • Agricultural chemicals
      • e.g., pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, fertilizers, antibiotics and growth hormones
    • Prohibited substances (21 CFR, Part 21.189)
    • Toxic elements and compounds
      • e.g., lead, zinc, arsenic, mercury, cyanide
    • Secondary direct and indirect
      • e.g., lubricants, cleaning compounds, sanitizers, paint
  • Physical Hazard
    • Any potentially harmful extraneous matter not normally found in food
      • Glass
      • Wood
      • Stones
      • Metal
      • Plastic
  •