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Conservation of groundwater

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  • 1. by- Shreet Mishra k.v. gomtinagar (2nd shift)
  • 2. Its human nature, Human understand the importance of something when it is far away from him, And one day that something will be Underground Water.
  • 3. PRESENTATION CONTAINS1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ground water – introduction Distribution of earth’s water Water budget Water cycle About some of the causes of groundwater depletion and sources of pollution. How to preserve and protect the groundwater – some common tips
  • 4. GROUND WATER Sub-surface water, or groundwater, is fresh water located in the pore space of soil and rocks. It is also water that is flowing within aquifers below the water table.
  • 5. CLASSIC STUDY 1982 In a classic study in 1982, Bredehoeft and colleagues modelled a situation where groundwater extraction in an intermontane basin withdrew the entire annual recharge, leaving ‘nothing’ for the natural groundwater-dependent vegetation community. Even when the borefield was situated close to the vegetation, 30% of the original vegetation demand could still be met by the lag inherent in the system after 100 years. By year 500 this had reduced to 0%
  • 6. WHAT IS A WATER BUDGET?    The water budget is the balance between the water that reaches the ground as precipitations, and the water that leaves the ground as evaporation, runoff, and consumption. If the amount of precipitation of a region is greater than the evaporation and consumption added together, then that region has a positive water balance, or surplus. If, the amount of precipitation is less than the usage and evaporation, then the region has a negative water balance, or deficit.
  • 7. FACTORS CONTROLLING THE WATER BUDGET OF A REGION The water budget of a region is influenced by many natural factors and human activity. Some of the natural factors are:  Climate conditions  The characteristics of soil  The type of vegetation  The type of underlying rocks, etc.
  • 8. THE WATER CYCLE
  • 9. GROUNDWATER CONSERVATION About 1% of the earth’s water is in the form of groundwater.  About 30.1% of the earth’s fresh water is in the form of groundwater.  Groundwater is a very valuable resource, and it is in great demand. 
  • 10. THREAT TO GROUNDWATER  Human use threatens the aquifers in two ways: 1. overuse- 2. pollution-
  • 11. OVERUSE OF GROUNDWATER If we take out more water than the aquifer can naturally recharge each year, then the consequences are dramatic, and in many cases irreversible:  Wells can dry, and human communities have no water!  In coastal areas, by pumping put the fresh water, salty water will take its place.  By removing the water, the rocks become more compact, and the surface of the ground sinks . This phenomenon is called subsidence.
  • 12. COASTAL WELLS SALINIZATION
  • 13. SUBSIDENCE By removing water from the subsoil the ground becomes more compacted. This is an unwanted phenomenon for two main reasons: - once the porosity of the rocks is lost, the aquifer can not be recharged. -secondly, if the ground loses some of its porosity, it reduces its volume, and sinks. San Joaquin Valley in California subsided in some places over 9 yards, only in half of century. 
  • 14. GROUNDWATER POLLUTION Groundwater is recharged by rain seeping down through the soil.  Virtually, any harmful chemical that is disposed at the surface of the ground will reach the groundwater.  Some common pollutants are: -fertilizers and pesticides -toxic wastes berried in the ground (common practice in the past) -accidental spills -farm wastes -sewage from septic tanks, etc 
  • 15. SOURCES OF GROUNDWATER POLLUTION
  • 16. GROUNDWATER USE AND POLLUTION
  • 17. MORE THAN ONE BILLION PEOPLE LACK CLEAN DRINKING WATER
  • 18. HOUSEHOLD TOXIC CHEMICALS WHAT SHOULD WE DO WITH THEM?
  • 19. CONSERVATION OF GROUNDWATER SOME COMMON TIPS 1. Dispose of chemicals properly. 2. Take used motor oil to a recycling center. 3. Limit the amount of fertilizer used on plants. 4. Take short showers. 5. Shut water off while brushing teeth.
  • 20. CONSERVATION OF GROUNDWATER SOME COMMON TIPS 6. Run full loads of dishes and laundry. 7. Check for leaky faucets and have them fixed. 8. Water plants only when necessary. 9. Keep a pitcher of drinking water in the refrigerator. 10. Get involved in water education
  • 21. CONSERVATION OF GROUNDWATER SOME COMMON TIPS 11. Reducing the use of pesticides and fertilizers 12. Using environmental friendly chemicals in agriculture. 13. The used household water is pumped back into the ground through wells. 14. Water is also pumped into ponds and allowed to seep back into the ground. 15. More awareness programmers through out the world.
  • 22. The End