Chapter 2 - is matter around us pure

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Chapter 2 - is matter around us pure

  1. 1. PRESENTED BY- SHREET MISHRA CLASS-9 TH B(2 ND SHIFT) 2012-2013 ROOL NO.-25 SCHOOL-KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA, GOMTINAGAR, LUCKNOW
  2. 2. WHAT IS MATTER?  ANY THING THAT OCCUPY SPACE AND HAVE MASS IS CALLED MATTER.  Ex- etc.
  3. 3. Pure SubstanceA pure substance is one which is made up of only one kind of particle.  EX- PLATINUM Pure substance are of two types1-Element 2-Compound
  4. 4. Element are also of three types Metals-  Nonmetals-  Metalloids- (semisolid) helium sulfur
  5. 5. CompoundA compound is a substance which is made up of two or more element chemically combined in a fixed ratio by mass. Ex-water(H2O) NOTE- A compound can be broken into two or more element but not by physical processes.
  6. 6. Mixture of salt and water Mixture are of two types- 1-Homogeneous Mixture 2-Heterogeneous Mixture
  7. 7. Homogeneous Mixture  Those mixture in which the substance are completely mixed together and particles are not distributed uniformly. Ex-mixture of sugar and water.
  8. 8. Heterogeneous Mixture  Those mixture in which the substance remains separated and the particles are uniformly distributed. Ex-Mixture of salt and water-
  9. 9. Solution  It is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.  It has two parts- 1-solute-substance in lesser quantity in solution. 2-solvent-substance in larger quantity in solution Solution of sugar and waterin this solution water is solvent and sugar is solute.
  10. 10. True Solution Characteristics of true solution are1-Particle size is less then 1mm. 2-The particle will show Brownian movement. 3-Electrophoresing will happen.
  11. 11. Types of solution1-Aqueous solution- solution having water as solvent. 2-Non-aqueous solution- solution having substance other than water as solvent. 3-Saturated solution-It is a solution in which no further solute can be dissolve at a given temperature. 4-Unsaturated solution-It is a solution in which more solute can be dissolve at a given temperature.
  12. 12. SOLUBILITY  The maximum amount of a solute which can be dissolved in 100 grams of a solvent at a specified temperature is known as solubility of that solute in that solvent(at a given temperature).
  13. 13. Colloid • A colloid is a solution in which the size of solute particles is 1nm-100nm.Ex-blood
  14. 14. Suspension • A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which the small particles of a solid are spread throughout a liquid without dissolving in it. Ex-muddy water-
  15. 15. processes of separation Some processes of separation are1-Evaporation 2-Sublimation 3-Centrifugation 4-seperating funnel 5-Distiallation 6-Fractinal Distillation 7-Cystalisation 8-Chromotography 9-Electrolysis 
  16. 16. 1-EVAPORATION  It is a process to separate volatile substance from non-volatile substance by heating them below their boiling point. Exsalt from sea water.
  17. 17. 2-Sublimation ◦ It is a process to separate sublimable substance from a non-sublimable substance by heating.
  18. 18. 3-Centrifugation ◦ It is a process to separate minute suspended particles from liquid when spun rapidly. The heavier particles are forced to bottom and lighter ones towards top. ◦ Ex- separation of ghee from curd
  19. 19.  It is a process to separate two miscible liquid from each other by using separating funnel. Ex- separation of oil from water.
  20. 20.  It is a process to separate two miscible liquid from each other by heating them at their boiling points followed by condensation. Note-The difference between the boiling points of two liquid must be more than 25 Kelvin(K).
  21. 21. 6-FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION  It is a process to separate two miscible substance from each other by heating them at their boiling points followed by condensation. Through fractional distillation, we can separate two substance having difference between their boiling points less than 25 Kelvin(K).Ex-refining of petroleum
  22. 22. 7-crystalisation  It is a process of separation by making pure crystals of a substance from its super saturated solution. Ex- crystals of copper sulphate (CUSO4).
  23. 23. ◦ It is a process to separate different colours soluble in same liquid. Ex- 1-Separation of drug from blood. 2-Separation of chlorophyll from leaves. 3-Separation of colours from die.
  24. 24.  It is a process of separation with the help of electricity. Through Electrolysis we can separate compounds also. In this process direct current(DC) is pass through the substance.
  25. 25. CONCENTRATION OF SOLUTION 1-Mass%- 2-Volume%-
  26. 26. PHYSICAL CHANGE  The change in which only transformation of state is happen, no new substance is made are called physical change. These changes are reversible. Ex- Melting of ice.
  27. 27. CHEMICAL CHANGE  It is a change in which a new substance is made.In this change the chemical properties of the substance is change. These changes are irreversible. Ex- Coking of food.
  28. 28. The END THANKYOU

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