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Role and relevance of endosulfan in agriculture
 

Role and relevance of endosulfan in agriculture

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The presentation describes the role and relevance of endosulfan in agriculture. It is the only insecticide which is soft on Pollinators such as honeybees and beneficial such as ladybird beetle. It is ...

The presentation describes the role and relevance of endosulfan in agriculture. It is the only insecticide which is soft on Pollinators such as honeybees and beneficial such as ladybird beetle. It is widely recommended for use during pollination and in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs. Farmers in Andhra Pradesh are the largest users of Endosulfan in the country and will stand to lose the most if there is a move to ban the use of Endosulfan in the country…http://www.whybanendosulfan.org

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    Role and relevance of endosulfan in agriculture Role and relevance of endosulfan in agriculture Presentation Transcript

    • Broad AcreLarge land holdings typically 2000 to 10,000 hectares. USA, Brazil, Argentina, South Africa, Australia is largely broad acre.  Aerial spraying  of pesticides is widely prevalent. Agriculture is intensive and yields high Small AcreSmall land holdings typically 1 to 10 hectares. Agriculture in India, China, Pakistan, large parts of Africa and Asia is small acre. Use and application of pesticides are manual with backpack sprayers and minimal mechanisation. Agriculture is sustainable with varying yields.
    • InsecticidesWeedicides (Herbicides)FungicidesPlant Growth Regulators
    • Crop Protection Chemicals are the last input in the agriculture chainFarmers spend on Tillage, Irrigation, Fertilizers, Farm labour etc. at last Agro chemicalsIf not used, entire lossCrop Protection Chemicals protect all investments farmers make in their crops
    • Widely used by the farmer to protect crops from insect attacks and infestations contact or systemic broad spectrum or selective soft on beneficial, pollinators and predators
    • SHARE OF LOSSES CAUSED BY DIFFERENT PESTS Rodents & Weeds 15% Others 33% Diseases 26% Insects 26%On an average 18% of the crop yield is lost due to pests(Annual monetary loss: Rs.60,000 CroresSource:Working Subgroup on Plant Protection, Planning Commission, 2001) NCIPM
    • Components of I.P.M.Integration of all the methods of Pest Management is essential as any single method will not be effective
    • Insects ◦ Harmful  : Vegetarian  “Pests” ◦ Beneficials : Non Vegetarian Endosulfan‐‐ Controls pests and spares beneficials Harmful insects are of two types ◦ Sucking ◦ Chewing Endosulfan controls both types
    • Beneficial Insects
    • NaturalEnemies, Beneficials,,   Parasites, Predators (Defenders)Pests and Defenders appear at the same time“Manage Pests” rather than “control”Use Selective Insecticides‐e.g. EndosulfanManage pests and save Parasites Predators
    • We have small farmsMixed CroppingDifferent stages of CropHot and humid climate Mixed pest population‐sucking chewingOur farmers need products that are versatileEndosulfan is recommended by Agricultural Universities as its best suited in these situations
    • Pest and Pollinator appear at the same timeChallenge is to manage the pest and allow bee visitsUse bee friendly insecticidesEndosulfan is soft on Honey bees
    • Multi PestMulti CropSafe to BeneficialsSafe to PollinatorsAvoids ResistanceBreaks ResistanceEconomical
    • Has been in use as a broad spectrum insecticide since the 70’s largely in cotton and other field cropsWas imported into India until 1980India begins manufacturing Endosulfan from the early 80’s. There are three Indian manufacturer’s of Endosulfan active including Hindustan Insecticides Ltd, a Govt. of India enterpriseEndosulfan is today the most widely used generic insecticide in India with usage in cotton, pulses, Tea, Mango, Vegetables and oilseedsThe only insecticide which is soft on Pollinators such as honeybees and beneficial such as ladybird beetle, chrysoperla etcWidely recommended for use during pollination Widely recommended for use in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Insect Resistance Management (IRM) programsFarmers in Andhra Pradesh are the largest users of Endosulfan in the country and will stand to lose the most if there is a move to ban the use of Endosulfan in the country
    • Performance of various insecticides against insect pests and safety to natural enemies of cottoInsecticide Insect Pests Natural  Remarkss J W PBW/ ABW TC enemie SBW Young Grow s n up A. OrganochlorinateEndosulfan Good Good Good Good Poor Very  Safe Safer to the  good natural enemies,  low resistance to  ABW early in the  season B. Synthetic pyrethroids Poor Poor Very  Poor Poor Poor Toxic Excessive use can  good cause resurgence  of whitefly and  ABW, high level of  resistance to ABW J= Jassid; W= Whitefly; SBW= Spotted bollworm; PBW= Pink bollworm; ABW= American bollworm;               TC= Tobacco caterpillar