Endosulfan key issues
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Endosulfan key issues

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Application of endosulfan is subjected to various factors that affect agriculture.The presentation gives a detailed understanding of major issues related to endosulfan, from the percentage of usage to ...

Application of endosulfan is subjected to various factors that affect agriculture.The presentation gives a detailed understanding of major issues related to endosulfan, from the percentage of usage to the Stockholm convention fallout, every aspect which proves endosulfan a safe pesticide to use.

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    Endosulfan key issues Endosulfan key issues Presentation Transcript

    • Endosulfan – Key Issues
    • Agriculture - Segmentation
      • Broad Acre
      • Large land holdings typically 2000 to 10,000 hectares. Agriculture in USA, Brazil, Argentina, South Africa, Australia is largely broad acre. Use and application of pesticides are mechanical with aerial spraying being widely prevalent. Agriculture is intensive and yields high
      • Small Acre
      • Small land holdings typically 1 to 10 hectares with holdings of 50 to 200 hectares in some cases. Agriculture in India, China, Pakistan, large parts of Africa and Asia is small acre. Use and application of pesticides are manual with backpack sprayers and minimal mechanisation. Agriculture is sustainable with varying yields
    • Chemical Crop Protection
      • Insecticides
      • Weedicides (Herbicides)
      • Fungicides
      • Plant Growth Regulators
    • World Agrochemicals Market ` 2 Lac Cr. Indian Agrochemicals Market ` 5200 Cr. Herbicides Insecticides Insecticides Fungicides Herbicides Fungicides $40.47 Billion $1.1 Billion (Reference:- Phillips McDougall)
    •  
    • Global Crop Protection
      • The global crop protection market is valued at US$ 40 billion
      • The top 6 companies, all multinationals, account for 75% of the total market
      • The top 3 companies, all European, account for over 50% of the total market
      • Over 67% of the market is either patented or proprietary and less than 33% of this market is generic
      • This market share has been built with a strong focus on patented and proprietary crop protection chemicals supported by strong regulations, driven by the European standards
      • There is a strong motivation for European multinationals to replace “low priced generics” with their “expensive patented alternatives”
    • Crop Protection: Usage
      • Worldwide over 1400 pesticide active ingredients have been registered and over 1055 active ingredients are currently in use
      • In India 805 products are listed in the schedule with only 228 active ingredients registered for use
      • Worldwide over 16,000 pesticide formulations based on the 1055 active ingredients are labeled for use
      • In India a little over 400 formulations based on the 228 active ingredients are labeled for use
      • In Europe over 1260 pesticide active ingredients are currently listed as per Annex 1
      • Contrary to public perception the usage of crop protection products is very low in India compared to most parts of the world
    • Insecticides
      • widely used by the farmer to protect crops from insect attacks and infestations
      • contact or systemic
      • broad spectrum or selective
      • soft on beneficial, pollinators and predators
    • Regulations
      • Use of pesticides is heavily regulated
      • Plant Protection & Quarantine dept. of most countries have clearly defined regulations which govern the use and application of plant protection products
      • Focus of regulatory authorities is on safe and correct use of plant protection products with clearly defined Maximum Residue Limits (MRL)
    • Endosulfan
      • A broad spectrum generic “contact” insecticide soft on pollinators such as honey bees and beneficial such as lady bird beetle, chrysoperla, trichograma etc.
      • Invented in Germany and in use in global agriculture for over 55 years. Used in India for over 40 years
      • Third largest selling generic insecticide worldwide with global market in excess of 40 million liters valued at over US$ 300 million (>Rs 1350 cores) with replacement cost of alternative estimated to be in excess of US$ 1 billion (>Rs 4500 crores)
      • India’s share in global Endosulfan market is over 70%
      • The Indian market of Endosulfan is approximately 12 million liters valued at US$ 60 million (Rs 270 crores)
      • Exports of Endosulfan from India is valued at US$ 40 million (Rs 180 crores)
      • Today in the eye of the storm in the battle of “patented” vs “generic” pesticides
    • Endosulfan – Journey in Europe
      • Manufactured and exported out of Europe for over 55 years. Used in Europe until 2005. No health issues in Europe relating to use of Endosulfan
      • Decision taken in 2001 by European manufacturer to phase out Endosulfan
      • In 2005 EU withdraws all authorisations for use of plant protection products containing Endosulfan
      • In 2007 the European manufacturer decides to stop manufacturing of Endosulfan but decides to continue sales of product
      • In 2007 the EU makes a submission to the Stockholm Convention recommending the consideration of Endosulfan as a Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP)
      • In 2010 the European manufacturer announced that they would stop selling Endosulfan by end of 2010
      • The POP Review Committee (POPRC) during its 6 th meeting in October 2010 recommends listing of Endosulfan as a POP
    • Endosulfan – Barriers to Trade
      • Once the use of Endosulfan was discontinued in Europe attempts were made to restrict the use of Endosulfan worldwide
      • The EU regulatory authorities made it mandatory that Endosulfan cannot be used in Cocoa cultivation in West Africa and refused to import if Cocoa farmers used Endosulfan
      • The MRL (Maximum Residue Limit) for use of Endosulfan in Tea was reduced from 30 ppm to 0 ppm. This effectively meant that the Indian Tea plantations could no longer use Endosulfan if they had to export their tea to Europe
      • The EU moved away from the international CODEX standards on MRL for tea and decided to have its own standards
      • If Endosulfan was used in fruits and vegetables they would not be imported into Europe
    • Endosulfan : Stockholm Convention
      • The Stockholm Convention is yet to take a final decision on the recommendation on Endosulfan. The Conference of Parties (COP) will meet in April 2011 to take a decision
      • On the basis of submissions made by the European Union, the Chemical Review Committee of POP in their 6 th meeting in October 2010 at Geneva have recommended Endosulfan for listing as a Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP) under Annex A of the with specific exemptions
      • The recommendation was made taking into account that a lack of full scientific certainty should not prevent a chemical from being considered for listing
      • All decisions by the POPRC taken so far on Endosulfan have been without consensus. All recommendations have been made by voting
    • Stockholm Convention: Irregularities
      • While considering the EU proposal to list Endosulfan there were serious procedural lapses:
      • The text of the convention, their articles and rules were not followed
      • The process was not transparent
      • There was conflict of interest as European Union the notifying party for Endosulfan also prepared the risk profile
      • The proposals to recommend Endosulfan lacked scientific merit and decisions were taken despite significant data gaps
      • India’s protest and dissent notes were ignored and all the decisions relating to Endosulfan were taken by voting in spite of serious objections from India, China, Argentina and other countries
    • Stockholm Convention: Fallout
      • While a final decision on Endosulfan is yet to be taken a general perception that Endosulfan is a Persistent Organic Pollutant has already been built and independent regulatory action is being triggered on the basis of the POPRC recommendations
      • Based on these recommendations a number of countries announce a ban or a phase out of Endosulfan over a 3 to 5 year period. Over 60 countries have joined the EU call for a ban on Endosulfan
      • The 60 countries include 27 EU member states and 21 countries in Africa and several other countries where Endosulfan was not widely used
      • None of the independent regulatory actions in many of these countries have been based on incidences of adverse human health in any of these countries
    • Endosulfan – Journey in India
      • Has been in use as a broad spectrum insecticide since the 70’s largely in cotton and other field crops
      • Was imported into India until 1980
      • India begins manufacturing Endosulfan from the early 80’s. There are three Indian manufacturer’s of Endosulfan active including Hindustan Insecticides Ltd, a Govt. of India enterprise
      • Endosulfan is today the most widely used generic insecticide in India with usage in cotton, pulses, Tea, Mango, Vegetables and oilseeds
      • The only insecticide which is soft on Pollinators such as honeybees and beneficial such as ladybird beetle, chrysoperla etc
      • Widely recommended for use during pollination
      • Widely recommended for use in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Insect Resistance Management (IRM) programs
    •  
    • Endosulfan – Cost Comparison MRP Cost / acre Product per Lt or Kg Cotton Veg Paddy           Endosulfan 35% EC 286 114 46 69         Flubendiamide 39.35 SC 13800 690   276 Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC 12280 737 246 737 Emamectin Benzoate 5% SG 8400 739 672   Flubendiamide 20% WG 7434 743   372 Thiamethoxam actera 4010 321 321 160 Indoxacarb 14.5 SC 3400 680 544   Imidacloprid 17.8% SL 2229 111 89 111
    • Endosulfan – Issues Involved
      • The WHO (World Health Organisation), FAO (Food & Agriculture Organisation), IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) have all stated that Endosulfan is non carcinogenic, non mutagenic and non genotoxic
      • Aerial spraying of Pesticides by Plantation Corporation of Kerala is reported to have caused adverse human health effects in Kasargod in Kerala
      • Endosulfan has been linked to be the cause for these health effects
      • Some Environmental NGO’s backed by EU funding unleashed a media campaign by propagating the EU call for a ban on Endosulfan blaming it for causing health problems. Some of them even went to the extent of generating false data to support their position
      • Successive committees appointed by the Govt. of India have concluded that there is no evidence linking Endosulfan to the reports of adverse human health effects
      • Thousands of workers of Endosulfan who have been exposed to Endosulfan and farmers who have used Endosulfan all over India have not had any issues relating to human health and have volunteered that their blood samples be tested for presence of Endosulfan residues
    • Endosulfan – Issues Involved
      • For India its about ensuring affordable agriculture for its farmers and food security for its people
      • For sustainable and marginal farmers, its about their right to choose, their right to affordable crop protection solutions
      • For millions of farmers its about the right to plant protection balanced with protecting their ecosystem
      • For workers its about their right to dignity, their right to be heard, their right to know the truth
      • For the Scientific community it’s the quest for truth
      • For Indian business its about their struggle for survival in the battle of “patented” vs “generics”
      • For the Indian consumer its about the cost of fresh fruits and vegetables
    • THANK YOU