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1.What is cement ?
2.History.
3.Overveiw of Cement
Manufacturing process.
4.Overveiw of Kiln process.
5.Why burn wastes ?
Portland Cement
. A hydraulic cement made by finely
powderising the clinker produced by
calcining to incipient fusion a
mi...
Concrete
It is prepared by:-
. Shovel powder…………Portland Cement
. Shovels sand…………Mineral Aggregate
. Shovels Rock………. Min...
Concrete
Concrete
• Mixture of ingredients into a paste &
triggers a chemical reaction – hydration.
• Reaction forms a gel which co...
Concrete
• The world’s most widely used building
material.
• Global production is 5 billion cubic yards
per year (using ap...
Concrete owes its strength and
durability to one essential ingredient -
Portland Cement.
Portland Cement
• Limestone + Shale/Clay + Heat = Clinker +
CKD + Exit Gas.
• Material Temperatures Exceed 2700 degrees F
...
Portland Cement (cont’d)
• Basic Chemical Components of Portland Cement:
– Calcium (Ca)
– Silicon (Si)
– Aluminum (Al)
– I...
Portland Cement (cont’d)
. Calcareous Component . Argillaceous Component
(providing Lime - CaO) (SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3)
–...
Portland Cement (cont’d)
• Clinker Chemistry
– Tricalcium silicate (3CaO.SiO2), (50-70%)
– Dicalcium silicate (2CaO.SiO2),...
Portland Cement (cont’d)
SiO2
CaO CaO
CaO CaO
CaO CaO
Al2O3
History of Portland Cement
• First cements produced by early Greeks and
Romans from volcanic ash mixed with slaked lime.
•...
History of Portland Cement
• First rotary kiln designed to produce Portland
cement patented in 1885 by Frederick Ransome.
...
Types of Cement Processes
• Wet Process.
• Dry Process - 74% of cement produced.
• Preheater/Precalciner Process.
Evolution of the cement
Process
• Wet process easiest to control chemistry & better
for moist raw materials.
• Wet process...
Cement Kilns
• High temperature
• Long residence time
• Natural alkaline
environment
• CKD is only by-product of the proce...
Kiln Process Control
• Critical Parameters: Fuel, Feed,
Kiln Speed, Gas Flow
• Kiln Temperatures - Burning Zone
• Kiln Sta...
Why Burn Wastes?
A cement kiln is a proven technology for
recycling by beneficial REUSE of solid and
hazardous wastes.
The...
Federal State Established Priorities
for Industrial Waste Disposal
• Reduction at the source.
• Recycling
• Energy recover...
Benefits of a recycling
Program
• Allows for reuse of waste materials.
• Conserves virgin fuels & raw materials.
• Regulat...
Waste Recycling Process
• Waste fuels are destroyed, releasing heat,
water and carbon dioxide.
• Solid materials are physi...
Cement Kilns Excellent Environment
for Destroying &Recycling Wastes
A Cement Kiln Provides:
• 3,000degreeF + Flame
• Long ...
A Cement Kiln Is A Proven
Technology For Beneficial REUSE of
Otherwise Waste Materials
The Benefits are:
• Energy Recovery...
Recycling Programs
Energy Replacement for Coal/Coke.
• Liquid fuels.
• Solid fuels.
Material Replacement for Raw Materials...
THAT WAS A BREIF ON MAJOR
CEMENT INDUSTRY’S WORK.
K.SHREENATH
BOHRA
Cement manufacturing process
Cement manufacturing process
Cement manufacturing process
Cement manufacturing process
Cement manufacturing process
Cement manufacturing process
Cement manufacturing process
Cement manufacturing process
Cement manufacturing process
Cement manufacturing process
Cement manufacturing process
Cement manufacturing process
Cement manufacturing process
Cement manufacturing process
Cement manufacturing process
Cement manufacturing process
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Cement manufacturing process

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Transcript of "Cement manufacturing process"

  1. 1. 1.What is cement ? 2.History. 3.Overveiw of Cement Manufacturing process. 4.Overveiw of Kiln process. 5.Why burn wastes ?
  2. 2. Portland Cement . A hydraulic cement made by finely powderising the clinker produced by calcining to incipient fusion a mixture of argillaceous and calcareous materials. .Portland cement is a powder that is the active ingredient in concrete.
  3. 3. Concrete It is prepared by:- . Shovel powder…………Portland Cement . Shovels sand…………Mineral Aggregate . Shovels Rock………. Mineral Aggregate . Add water & mix. . It is ready to mend .
  4. 4. Concrete
  5. 5. Concrete • Mixture of ingredients into a paste & triggers a chemical reaction – hydration. • Reaction forms a gel which coats & fills spaces between the stone/sand; • Hardens into a solid mass that gets stronger & stronger.
  6. 6. Concrete • The world’s most widely used building material. • Global production is 5 billion cubic yards per year (using approximately 1.25 billion tons of cement).
  7. 7. Concrete owes its strength and durability to one essential ingredient - Portland Cement.
  8. 8. Portland Cement • Limestone + Shale/Clay + Heat = Clinker + CKD + Exit Gas. • Material Temperatures Exceed 2700 degrees F • Pulverized Clinker + Gypsum = Portland Cement. • Cement is powder so fine that one pound contains 150 billion grains.
  9. 9. Portland Cement (cont’d) • Basic Chemical Components of Portland Cement: – Calcium (Ca) – Silicon (Si) – Aluminum (Al) – Iron (Fe) • Typical Raw Materials: – Limestone (CaCO3) – Sand (SiO2) – Shale, Clay (SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3) – Iron Ore/Mill Scale (Fe2O3)
  10. 10. Portland Cement (cont’d) . Calcareous Component . Argillaceous Component (providing Lime - CaO) (SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3) – limestone -clay – marly limestone -shale – chalk -calcareous marl – coral limestone -marl – marble -marly clay – lime-sand -tuff, ash – shell deposits - phyllite ,slate – lime sludge -glass
  11. 11. Portland Cement (cont’d) • Clinker Chemistry – Tricalcium silicate (3CaO.SiO2), (50-70%) – Dicalcium silicate (2CaO.SiO2), (15-30%) – Tricalcium aluminate (3CaO.Al2O3), (5- 10%) – Tetracalcium aluminoferrite (4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3), (5-15%)
  12. 12. Portland Cement (cont’d) SiO2 CaO CaO CaO CaO CaO CaO Al2O3
  13. 13. History of Portland Cement • First cements produced by early Greeks and Romans from volcanic ash mixed with slaked lime. • This art was lost during the Middle Ages. • Portland cement developed in England by bricklayer Joseph Aspdin in early 1800’s. • Called “Portland” because concrete made with it resembled natural stone from the Isle of Portland.
  14. 14. History of Portland Cement • First rotary kiln designed to produce Portland cement patented in 1885 by Frederick Ransome. • First economical U.S. kilns developed by Atlas Cement Company in 1895. • Thomas A. Edison first developed long kilns (150 feet compared to 60 to 80 feet).
  15. 15. Types of Cement Processes • Wet Process. • Dry Process - 74% of cement produced. • Preheater/Precalciner Process.
  16. 16. Evolution of the cement Process • Wet process easiest to control chemistry & better for moist raw materials. • Wet process high fuel requirements - fuel needed to evaporate 30+% slurry water. • Dry process kilns less fuel requirements • Preheater/Precalciner further enhance fuel efficiency & allow for high production rates.
  17. 17. Cement Kilns • High temperature • Long residence time • Natural alkaline environment • CKD is only by-product of the process. • Thermal stability
  18. 18. Kiln Process Control • Critical Parameters: Fuel, Feed, Kiln Speed, Gas Flow • Kiln Temperatures - Burning Zone • Kiln Stability • Chemistry • Instrumentation
  19. 19. Why Burn Wastes? A cement kiln is a proven technology for recycling by beneficial REUSE of solid and hazardous wastes. The benefits are: – energy recovery – material recovery – economics – environmental preservation
  20. 20. Federal State Established Priorities for Industrial Waste Disposal • Reduction at the source. • Recycling • Energy recovery • Incineration • Stabilization • Landfill
  21. 21. Benefits of a recycling Program • Allows for reuse of waste materials. • Conserves virgin fuels & raw materials. • Regulated stringently for Environmental Protection.
  22. 22. Waste Recycling Process • Waste fuels are destroyed, releasing heat, water and carbon dioxide. • Solid materials are physically and chemically combined in the clinker product.
  23. 23. Cement Kilns Excellent Environment for Destroying &Recycling Wastes A Cement Kiln Provides: • 3,000degreeF + Flame • Long retention times of gasses and materials. • Stability of a large dependable industrial process. • Many inherent safeguards.
  24. 24. A Cement Kiln Is A Proven Technology For Beneficial REUSE of Otherwise Waste Materials The Benefits are: • Energy Recovery •Material Recovery
  25. 25. Recycling Programs Energy Replacement for Coal/Coke. • Liquid fuels. • Solid fuels. Material Replacement for Raw Materials (Limestone, Shale and Sand). • Solids/sludge slightly contaminated with metals. • Solids/sludge slightly contaminated with Organics.
  26. 26. THAT WAS A BREIF ON MAJOR CEMENT INDUSTRY’S WORK.
  27. 27. K.SHREENATH BOHRA
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