Le corbusier architect
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Le corbusier architect

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Le corbusier architect Le corbusier architect Presentation Transcript

  • Architect History Of Modern Architecture
  • “Space and light and order. Those are the things that men need just as much as they need bread or a place to sleep.”
  •  Born :Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris October 6, 1887 La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland  Died : August 27, 1965 (aged 77)France  Nationality : Swiss, French (from 1930)  Awards : AIA Gold Medal (1961) BIOGRAPHY
  •  Buildings :Villa Savoye, Poissy  Villa La Roche, Paris  Unité d'Habitation, Marseille  Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp  Buildings in Chandigarh, India  Works
  • MASTERY Urban planner Painter Sculptor Writer Modern furniture desginer
  • Works of le Corbusier 1951: Buildings in Ahmedabad, India  1951: Sanskar Kendra Museum, Ahmedabad  1951: ATMA House  1951: Villa Sarabhai, Ahmedabad  1951: Villa Shodhan, Ahmedabad  1952–1959: Buildings in Chandigarh, India  1952: Palace of Justice  1952: Museum and Gallery of Art  1953: Secretariat Building  1953: Governor's Palace  1955: Palace of Assembly  1959: Government College of Art (GCA) and the Chandigarh College of Architecture(CCA)  1950–1954: Chapelle Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp,France
  • •Villa Savoye (French pronunciation: [sa'vwa]) is a modernist villa in Poissy, in the outskirts ofParis, France. •It was designed by Swiss architects Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret, and built between 1928 and 1931 •A manifesto of Le Corbusier's "five points" of new architecture, the villa is representative of the bases of modern architecture, and is one of the most easily recognizable and renowned examples of the International style. Villa Savoye
  • •The Villa Savoye is probably Corbusier's best known building from the 1920s, it had enormous influence on international modernism. •It was designed addressing his emblematic "Five Points", the basic tenets in his new architectural aesthetic: •Support of ground-level pilotis, elevating the building from the earth and allowed an extended continuity of the garden beneath. •Functional roof, serving as a garden and terrace, reclaiming for nature the land occupied by the building. •Free floor plan, relieved of load- bearing walls, allowing walls to be placed freely and only where aesthetically needed. •Long horizontal windows, providing illumination and ventilation. •Freely-designed facades, serving as only as a skin of the wall and windows and unconstrained by load-bearing considerations.
  • •Unlike his earlier town villas Corbusier was able to carefully design all four sides of the Villa Savoye in response to the view and the orientation of the sun. •On the ground floor he placed the main entrance hall, ramp and stairs, garage, chauffeur and maids rooms. •At first floor the master bedroom, the son's bedroom, guest bedroom, kitchen, salon and external terraces. •The salon was orientated to the north west whilst the terrace faced the south. •The son's bedroom faced the south east and the kitchen and service terrace were on the north east. •At second floor level were a series of sculpted spaces that formed a solarium.
  • Chandigarh In 1950 invited by Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to design the city. Chandigarh – Provisional capital of Punjab. Commencing of work started in 1951 until his death in 1965. Design • Grid Iron Plan • Hierarchy of movement from highways to pedestrian walkways. • Metaphor of a human being. • Head – Capital Complex. • Heart – Commercial Centre. • Arms – Academic and Leisure Facilities. • Incorporated his principles of light, space and greenary.
  • Contd…
  • Contd…  Divided the city into different sectors.  Each sector having the residential and commercial zones.  Planning was done in such a way that a tourist can also find his own way.  Maps displayed along the walkways and footpaths.  Roads  Designed and oriented in such a way that most of the time during the day, they are under shadow.  Huge parking areas for the commercial zones.  Parking lanes – broad as main roads.  Pedestrian walkways segregated from the main road with the help of wide lawn strip.  Huge gardens along the main roads.
  • High Court in Chandigarh La Ville radieuse also marks Le Corbusier's increasing dissatisfaction with capitalism and his turn to the right-wing syndicalism of Hubert Lagardelle. During the Vichy regime, Le Corbusier received a position on a planning committee and made designs for Algiers and other cities. The central government ultimately rejected his plans, and after 1942 Le Corbusier withdrew from political activity.[6] After World War II, Le Corbusier attempted to realize his urban planning schemes on a small scale by constructing a series of "unités" (the housing block unit of the Radiant City) around France. The most famous of these was the Unité d'Habitation of Marseilles (1946–52). In the 1950s, a unique opportunity to translate the Radiant City on a grand scale presented itself in the construction of the Union Territory Chandigarh, the new capital for the Indian states of Punjab and Haryana and India's first planned city. Le Corbusier designed many administration buildings, including a courthouse, parliament building, and a university. He also designed the general layout of the city, dividing it into sectors. Le Corbusier was brought on to develop the plan of Albert Mayer.
  • The Open Hand Monument in Chandigarh, India The Open Hand (La Main Ouverte) is a recurring motif in Le Corbusier's architecture, a sign for him of "peace and reconciliation. It is open to give and open to receive." The largest of the many Open Hand sculptures that Le Corbusier created is a 26 meter high version in Chandigarh, India known as Open Hand Monument.
  • •Besides determining the city's urban form, Le Corbusier, as the "Spiritual Director" of the entire Chandigarh Capitol Project, was also responsible for designing the key „Special Areas' of the city, each of which contains several individual buildings. •The most significant of these is the „Capitol Parc' - the „head' and la raison d'être of the entire enterprise. •A parallel undertaking - one of almost equal significance as the Capitol, was Le Corbusier's design of the city's „heart', the City Centre. In time, the design of the „Cultural Complex' along the „Leisure Valley', including the Government Museum and Art Gallery and the College of Art (L-C's Centre for Audio-visual Training), as well as some other smaller works (such as the Boat Club and parts of the Sukhna Lake, which essentially were seen as integral parts of the Capitol parc) were also undertaken by him.
  • National Museum of Western Art •The National Museum of Western Art is the premier public art gallery in Japan specializing in art from the Western tradition. •The Museum is located in the museum and zoo complex in Ueno Park in Taito, central Tokyo. •This popular Tokyo museum is also known by the English acronym NMWA (National Museum of Western Art). •Externally the building is clad in prefabricated concrete panels which sit on U-shaped frames supported by the inner wall. T •The building generally is constructed of reinforced concrete and the columns have a smooth concrete finish.
  • •The museum is square in plan with the main body of the galleries raised on piloti to first floor level. The layout is influenced by Le Corbusier's Sanskar Kendra museum in Ahmedabad which was being designed at the same time. •Entrance for visitors is at ground floor level via the 19th Century Hall. •This double height space is lit from above with a north glazed pyramidal skylight intersected with reinforced concrete beams and a column. •On the opposite side of the hall from the entrance, the ascent to the paintings gallery is via a promenade ramp which affords better views of Rodin's scupltures. •The paintings gallery wraps around 19th Century Hall, the ceiling is initially low but is raised to two storeys around the perimeter to display the paintings.
  • •There are also balconies at this level that push back into the 19th Century Hall to re-orient the visitor. •Le Corbusier designed the paintings gallery to be lit by natural daylight via four lighting troughs, but these are no longer used and the galleries are now artificially lit.
  • CITY CENTRE CHANDIGARH  THE MASTER PLAN OF CHANDIGARH WAS DEVELOPED BY LE CORBUSIER WHO ALSO DESIGNED THE CAPITOL COMPLEX,SECRETARIAT,MARTYR‟S MEMORIAL & THE HIGH COURT.
  • THE SECRETARIAT,1958
  • FREE FACADE RAMP ENCLOCURE ROUGH CONCRETE FINISH SQUARE WINDOWS PROJECTED PORTICOS SMALL ENTRANCE BIG ENTRANCE
  •  THE ROUGH CONCRETE AGAIN INTERPOSES IN THE FENESTRATION OF THE TWO MAIN FACADES ; MORE THAN 2000 UNITS OF UNIQUE DESIGN  APPRAOCH TO THE BUILDING IS THROUGH ROADWAYS BELOW GROUND LEVEL TO A LARGE PARKING AREA IN FRONT OF THE CENTRAL BLOCK, AND A FLOOR IS LEFT OPEN AT THIS LEVEL TO FORM AN ENTRANCE HALL  BLOCK 1 AND 2 RISES DIRECTLY FROM THE GROUND  BLOCK 3,4 AND PART OF 5 FACE ON THE EXCAVATED AREA OF THE PARKING LOT AND HAVE THE LOWER STOREY OPEN BETWEEN PILOTIS  FOR THE REST PART OF BLOCK 5 AND WHOLE OF 6 THE LEVEL GOES TILL PLAZA HEIGHT, AND LOWER PORTION OF THESE BLOCKS ARE LEFT OPEN TO A HEIGHT OF TWO STORYES  THE TOP OF THE BUILDING IS DEVELOPED AS A ROOF GARDEN CONTAINING THE SERVICE BLOCKS AND CAFETERIA FOR EMPLOYEES
  •  THE PLASTIC EMPHASIS IS GIVEN TO THE BUILDING BY FREE STANDING EXTERIOR RAMPS ENCLOSED IN ROUGH CONCRETE WALLS  FOR SUPPLEMENTARY COMMUNICATION WITHIN THE BUILDING , EACH OF SIX BLOCKS IS EQUIPPED WITH INTERIOR STAIRWAYS AND LIMITED ELEVATOR SERVICE  HORIZONTAL CIRCULATION IS BY MEANS OF A CENTRAL CORRIDORS  FOR MINISTER‟S BLOCK THE BAY SIZE IS INCREASED AND THE COLUMN IS THICKENED HT OF 2 STOREYS LEFT OPEN COLUMNS SUPPORTING 1 ½ BLOCK
  • THE HIGH COURT
  • THE HIGH COURT,  THE HIGH COURT FORMED A PART AS “ A GREAT ARCHITECTURAL VENTURE USING VERY POOR MATERIALS AND A LABOUR FORCEQUITE UNUSED TO MODERN BUILDING TECHNIQUES  AN ENTIRE STUCTURE HAS RESULTED IN THE USE OF DOUBLE ROOF  THE UPPER ROOF CANTILEVERED OUT OF THE OFFICE BLOCK IN THE MANNER OF PARASOL SHADING THE LOWER ROOF  THE SPACE BETWEEN THE TWO ROOFS IS LEFT OPEN TO ENABLE CURRENTS OF AIR TO MOVE BETWEEN THE FLAT ROOF OF THE OFFICE BLOCK AND THE UNDERSIDE OF THE PARASOL ROOF WHICH SLOPES TOWARDS CENTER IN THE FORM OF ROWS OF ARCHES  IN THE PLAN THE BUILDING TOOK THE FORM OF ABBREVIATED L – SHAPED WITH LONG FAÇADE FACING THE CAPITOL PLAZA TO CONTAIN COURT ROOMS  THE BUILDING IS A RECTILINEAR FRAME WITHIN WHICH THE INTERIOR FUNCTIONS ARE DEFINED
  •  THE EIGHT COURT ROOMS ARE IDENTICALLY EXPRESSED ON THE MAIN FAÇADE AND SEPARETED FROM THE LARGER HIGH COURT BY A MONUMENTAL COLUMNED ENTRANCE RISING THE HEIGHT OF THE BUILDING  BUILDING RISES DIRECTLY FROM THE EARTH  THE MAIN FAÇADE IS DEFINED BY A FULL HEIGHT CONCRETE BRISE SOLEIL  THE ARCH FORM IS RESTRICTED TO THE UNDERSIDE OF THE PARASOL ROOF  IT IS THE VISUAL DRAMA OF THE PIERS RISING SIXTY FEET FROM THE GROUND TO MEET THE HEAVY OUTWARD THRUST OF THE ROOF WHICH CREATES THE FOCAL EMPHASIS OF THE PRESENT PLAN  ON THE MAIN FAÇADE THE DEEP FIXED CONCRETE BRISE SOLEIL GIVES A STRONG AND SCALELESS PATTERN TO THE BUILDING  IT IS THE CONCRETE SCREEN WHICH GIVES THE MAIN FAÇADE ITS OVER ALL UNITY
  •  BEHIND THE BRISE SOLEIL , THE WINDOWS OF THE COURT ROOMS ARE OF FIXED GLASS, BUT BETWEEN ARE NARROW VERTICAL SPACES CONTAINING SHUTTERS WHICH OPEN AND CLOSE ON HINGES  IT IS NOTED THAT THE ORIENTATION OF THE HIGH COURT IS SUCH THAT THE MAIN FAÇADE FACES NORTH WEST , AND THIS DOES NOT RECEIVE DIRECT SUNLIGHT  THE ROUGH CONCRETE OF THE BUILDING IS TREATED IN VARIETY OF MANNERS FOR MUCH OF THE SURFACE INCLUDING THE UNDERSIDE OF THE PARASOL ROOF AND THE EXTERIOR SIDE WALLS , THE MASS OF SHEET METAL CHARACTERIZE THE SURFACE  IN PORTIONS OF THE INTERIOR AND ON THE RAMPS , WOODEN BOARDS HAVE BEEN INSERTED WITH IN THE METAL FORMS TO GIVE THE CONCRETE SURFACE THE IMPRESS OF THEIR JOINTED PATTERN, WHILE OTHER SURFACES, INCLUDING THOSE OF MASSIVE ENTRANCE PIERS ARE FINISHED WITH GUNNITE CEMENT
  • COLOURED MASSIVE PILLARS PARASOL ROOF FORMING ARCHES DOUBLE ROOF GAP LEFT BETWEEN TWO ROOFS FULL HT ENTRANCE ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES
  • REAR VIEW ROUGH CONCRETE FINISHED RAMP DOUBLE ROOF APPROACHED THROUGH ROADS
  •  THE ENTRANCE LOBBY IS PAVED WITH WHITISH FLAG STONE SET IN THE ROWS OF VARYING WIDTHS  NEW SCHEME FOR PAINTING THE COLUMNS AND PORTICO WALLS IN BRIGHT CONTRASTING COLOURS  THE INSIDE WALL TO THE LEFT OF THE PIERS WAS TO BE BLACK  THE ADJACENT PILLAR PAINTED GREEN  THE CENTER PIER WOULD BE YELLOW  THE RIGHT HAND PILLAR IS RED  AND THE REMAINING PORTICO WALL IS PRIMARY BLUE  THE GRAET ENTRANCE HALL OF THE HIGH COURT IS ALSO BEEN FOUND IN LACKING PROTECTION DURING THE MONSOON SEASON  THE NARROW CURVING RAMP AT THE END OF THE ENTRANCE HALL,WHICH FORMS THE MAIN VERTICAL CIRCULATION IS EXPOSED  THE HORIZONTAL CIRCULATION, CONSISTING OF POEN CORRIDORS ON THR REAR FACADE ,IS ALSO INEFFECTIVELY SHELTERED
  • THE ASSEMBLY HALL
  • THE ASSEMBLY HALL  THE ASSEMBLY WAS CONCEIVED AS A RECTILINEAR STRUCTURE  IT IS SQUARE IN PLAN WITH A MONUMENTAL PORTICO FACING THE MAIN PLAZA  ON THE LATERAL FACADES BOTH THE PORTICO AND THE OFFICE BLOCK WOULD BE DEFINED BY SOLID END WALLS  THE LARGE CHAMBER IS IN HYPERBOLIC FORM OF THE COOLING TOWER WITH AN AVERAGE THICKNESS OF 15 CMS  THE SMALL COUNCIL CHAMBER ARE IN RECTILINEAR FRAME  THE UPPER PORTION OF THE TOWER IS EXTENDING ABOVE THE ROOF LINE  AN ASSEMBLY CHAMBER IS 128 FT IN DIAMETER AT ITS BASE AND RISES TO 124 FT AT ITS HIGHEST POINT  THIS TOWER WAS DESIGNED TO INSURE THE NATURAL LIGHT, VENTILATION AND PROPER ACOUSTICS
  •  OF ALL BUILDINGS OF THE CAPITOL COMPLEX , THE ASSEMBLY IS THE MOST INTRICATE IN PLAN  SEPARATE CIRCULATION ACCOMMODATION OF ALL GROUPS IS PROVIDED  EMPLOYING A SYSTEM OF INDIVIDUAL ENTRANCES, STAIRWAYS, LIFTS AND RAMP A COMPLETE SEGREGATION OF MEMBERS IS PROVIDED  THER ARE TWO SEPARATE GALLERIES FOR MEN AND WOMEN IN COUNCIL CHAMBER INTERIOR VIEW OF A CHAMBER MUSHROOM COLUMN SUPPORTIN G ROOF
  • SECTOR-17,CHANDIGARH  THE CITY CENTER CONSISTS OF DIFFERENT SQUARES TIED TOGETHER BY BROAD AVENUES.  AT THE PRESENT TIME,WHEN THIS CENTER IS STILL DEVOID OF ANY SORT OF VEGETATION,THE UNSHADED OPEN AREAS CAN BE QUITE UNPLEASANT.  THIS SECTOR-17 IS VIRTUALLY UNINHABITED,BUT IT IS ENLIVENED DURING THE DAYTIME BY THE MANY SHOPS,BAZARS, RESTAURANT,CAFES,BANKS AND DEPARTMENT STORES.
  •  THERE IS DOUBT THAT AT PRESENT THE CITY CENTER STILL LOOKS LIKE AN EXPERIMENT .  THE URBAN CIRCULATION HERE IS IN SHARP CONTRAST TO THE „ORIENTAL‟ BAZAAR STREETS,THE NARROW ALLEYS FUL OF NOISE AND PLUNGED IN SHADOW .  OF ALL THE CITIES OF INDIA , ONLY CHANDIGARH CAN CLAIM TO BE AN ABSOLUTELY MODERN TOWN , ”UNTOUCHED BY THE TRADITION OF THE PAST,” AS JAWAHARLAL NEHRU SO APTLY REMARKED .