“Space and light and order. Those are the things that men
need just as much as they need bread or a place to sleep.”
October 6, 1887 La
Died : August 27,
1965 (aged 77)France
Nationality : Swiss,
French (from 1930)
Awards : AIA Gold
Villa La Roche, Paris
Notre Dame du Haut,
Buildings in Chandigarh,
Works of le
Corbusier 1951: Buildings in Ahmedabad, India
1951: Sanskar Kendra Museum, Ahmedabad
1951: ATMA House
1951: Villa Sarabhai, Ahmedabad
1951: Villa Shodhan, Ahmedabad
1952–1959: Buildings in Chandigarh, India
1952: Palace of Justice
1952: Museum and Gallery of Art
1953: Secretariat Building
1953: Governor's Palace
1955: Palace of Assembly
1959: Government College of Art (GCA) and the Chandigarh
College of Architecture(CCA)
1950–1954: Chapelle Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp,France
•Villa Savoye (French
pronunciation: [sa'vwa]) is
a modernist villa in Poissy, in
the outskirts ofParis, France.
•It was designed
by Swiss architects Le
Corbusier and Pierre
Jeanneret, and built between
1928 and 1931
•A manifesto of Le Corbusier's
"five points" of new architecture,
the villa is representative of the bases of
modern architecture, and is one of the
most easily recognizable and renowned
examples of the International style.
•The Villa Savoye is probably Corbusier's
best known building from the 1920s, it had
enormous influence on international
•It was designed addressing his
emblematic "Five Points", the basic tenets
in his new architectural aesthetic:
•Support of ground-level pilotis,
elevating the building from the earth
and allowed an extended continuity of
the garden beneath.
•Functional roof, serving as a garden
and terrace, reclaiming for nature the
land occupied by the building.
•Free floor plan, relieved of load-
bearing walls, allowing walls to be
placed freely and only where
•Long horizontal windows, providing
illumination and ventilation.
•Freely-designed facades, serving as
only as a skin of the wall and windows
and unconstrained by load-bearing
•Unlike his earlier town villas Corbusier was able to
carefully design all four sides of the Villa Savoye in
response to the view and the orientation of the sun.
•On the ground floor he placed the main entrance hall,
ramp and stairs, garage, chauffeur and maids rooms.
•At first floor the master bedroom, the son's bedroom,
guest bedroom, kitchen, salon and external terraces.
•The salon was orientated to the north west whilst the
terrace faced the south.
•The son's bedroom faced the south east and the kitchen
and service terrace were on the north east.
•At second floor level were a series of sculpted spaces that
formed a solarium.
In 1950 invited by Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to design the
Chandigarh – Provisional capital of Punjab.
Commencing of work started in 1951 until his death in 1965.
• Grid Iron Plan
• Hierarchy of movement from highways to pedestrian walkways.
• Metaphor of a human being.
• Head – Capital Complex.
• Heart – Commercial Centre.
• Arms – Academic and Leisure Facilities.
• Incorporated his principles of light, space and greenary.
Divided the city into different sectors.
Each sector having the residential and commercial zones.
Planning was done in such a way that a tourist can also find his own way.
Maps displayed along the walkways and footpaths.
Designed and oriented in such a way that most of the time during the day, they are under shadow.
Huge parking areas for the commercial zones.
Parking lanes – broad as main roads.
Pedestrian walkways segregated from the
main road with the help of wide lawn strip.
Huge gardens along the main roads.
High Court in Chandigarh
La Ville radieuse also marks Le Corbusier's
increasing dissatisfaction with capitalism and his
turn to the right-wing syndicalism of Hubert
Lagardelle. During the Vichy regime, Le Corbusier
received a position on a planning committee and
made designs for Algiers and other cities. The
central government ultimately rejected his plans,
and after 1942 Le Corbusier withdrew from political
After World War II, Le Corbusier attempted to
realize his urban planning schemes on a small
scale by constructing a series of "unités" (the
housing block unit of the Radiant City) around
France. The most famous of these was the Unité
d'Habitation of Marseilles (1946–52). In the 1950s,
a unique opportunity to translate the Radiant City
on a grand scale presented itself in the
construction of the Union Territory Chandigarh, the
new capital for the Indian states of Punjab and
Haryana and India's first planned city. Le Corbusier
designed many administration buildings, including
a courthouse, parliament building, and a university.
He also designed the general layout of the city,
dividing it into sectors. Le Corbusier was brought
on to develop the plan of Albert Mayer.
The Open Hand Monument in
The Open Hand (La Main
Ouverte) is a recurring motif in
Le Corbusier's architecture, a
sign for him of "peace and
reconciliation. It is open to give
and open to receive." The
largest of the many Open Hand
sculptures that Le Corbusier
created is a 26 meter high
version in Chandigarh, India
known as Open Hand
•Besides determining the city's urban form, Le Corbusier, as the "Spiritual
Director" of the entire Chandigarh Capitol Project, was also responsible for
designing the key „Special Areas' of the city, each of which contains several
•The most significant of these is the „Capitol Parc' - the „head' and la raison
d'être of the entire enterprise.
•A parallel undertaking - one of almost equal significance as the Capitol, was
Le Corbusier's design of the city's „heart', the City Centre. In time, the design
of the „Cultural Complex' along the „Leisure Valley', including the Government
Museum and Art Gallery and the College of Art (L-C's Centre for Audio-visual
Training), as well as some other smaller works (such as the Boat Club and
parts of the Sukhna Lake, which essentially were seen as integral parts of
the Capitol parc) were also undertaken by him.
National Museum of Western Art
•The National Museum of Western
Art is the premier public art
gallery in Japan specializing in art from
the Western tradition.
•The Museum is located in the museum
and zoo complex in Ueno Park in Taito,
•This popular Tokyo museum is also
known by the English acronym NMWA
(National Museum of Western Art).
•Externally the building is clad in
prefabricated concrete panels which sit on
U-shaped frames supported by the inner
•The building generally is constructed of
reinforced concrete and the columns have
a smooth concrete finish.
•The museum is square in plan with the main
body of the galleries raised on piloti to first
floor level. The layout is influenced by Le
Corbusier's Sanskar Kendra museum in
Ahmedabad which was being designed at the
•Entrance for visitors is at ground floor level
via the 19th Century Hall.
•This double height space is lit from above
with a north glazed pyramidal skylight
intersected with reinforced concrete beams
and a column.
•On the opposite side of the hall from the
entrance, the ascent to the paintings gallery is
via a promenade ramp which affords better
views of Rodin's scupltures.
•The paintings gallery wraps around 19th
Century Hall, the ceiling is initially low but is
raised to two storeys around the perimeter to
display the paintings.
•There are also balconies at this level that push back into the 19th Century Hall to
re-orient the visitor.
•Le Corbusier designed the paintings gallery to be lit by natural daylight via four
lighting troughs, but these are no longer used and the galleries are now artificially lit.
THE MASTER PLAN OF CHANDIGARH WAS DEVELOPED
BY LE CORBUSIER WHO ALSO DESIGNED THE CAPITOL
COMPLEX,SECRETARIAT,MARTYR‟S MEMORIAL & THE
THE ROUGH CONCRETE AGAIN INTERPOSES IN THE FENESTRATION
OF THE TWO MAIN FACADES ; MORE THAN 2000 UNITS OF UNIQUE
APPRAOCH TO THE BUILDING IS THROUGH ROADWAYS BELOW
GROUND LEVEL TO A LARGE PARKING AREA IN FRONT OF THE
CENTRAL BLOCK, AND A FLOOR IS LEFT OPEN AT THIS LEVEL TO
FORM AN ENTRANCE HALL
BLOCK 1 AND 2 RISES DIRECTLY FROM THE GROUND
BLOCK 3,4 AND PART OF 5 FACE ON THE EXCAVATED AREA OF THE
PARKING LOT AND HAVE THE LOWER STOREY OPEN BETWEEN
FOR THE REST PART OF BLOCK 5 AND WHOLE OF 6 THE LEVEL
GOES TILL PLAZA HEIGHT, AND LOWER PORTION OF THESE BLOCKS
ARE LEFT OPEN TO A HEIGHT OF TWO STORYES
THE TOP OF THE BUILDING IS DEVELOPED AS A ROOF GARDEN
CONTAINING THE SERVICE BLOCKS AND CAFETERIA FOR
THE PLASTIC EMPHASIS IS
GIVEN TO THE BUILDING BY
FREE STANDING EXTERIOR
RAMPS ENCLOSED IN ROUGH
COMMUNICATION WITHIN THE
BUILDING , EACH OF SIX
BLOCKS IS EQUIPPED WITH
INTERIOR STAIRWAYS AND
LIMITED ELEVATOR SERVICE
HORIZONTAL CIRCULATION IS
BY MEANS OF A CENTRAL
FOR MINISTER‟S BLOCK THE
BAY SIZE IS INCREASED AND
THE COLUMN IS THICKENED
HT OF 2
1 ½ BLOCK
THE HIGH COURT,
THE HIGH COURT FORMED A PART AS “ A GREAT ARCHITECTURAL
VENTURE USING VERY POOR MATERIALS AND A LABOUR
FORCEQUITE UNUSED TO MODERN BUILDING TECHNIQUES
AN ENTIRE STUCTURE HAS RESULTED IN THE USE OF DOUBLE
THE UPPER ROOF CANTILEVERED OUT OF THE OFFICE BLOCK IN
THE MANNER OF PARASOL SHADING THE LOWER ROOF
THE SPACE BETWEEN THE TWO ROOFS IS LEFT OPEN TO ENABLE
CURRENTS OF AIR TO MOVE BETWEEN THE FLAT ROOF OF THE
OFFICE BLOCK AND THE UNDERSIDE OF THE PARASOL ROOF WHICH
SLOPES TOWARDS CENTER IN THE FORM OF ROWS OF ARCHES
IN THE PLAN THE BUILDING TOOK THE FORM OF ABBREVIATED L –
SHAPED WITH LONG FAÇADE FACING THE CAPITOL PLAZA TO
CONTAIN COURT ROOMS
THE BUILDING IS A RECTILINEAR FRAME WITHIN WHICH THE
INTERIOR FUNCTIONS ARE DEFINED
THE EIGHT COURT ROOMS ARE IDENTICALLY EXPRESSED ON THE
MAIN FAÇADE AND SEPARETED FROM THE LARGER HIGH COURT BY
A MONUMENTAL COLUMNED ENTRANCE RISING THE HEIGHT OF THE
BUILDING RISES DIRECTLY FROM THE EARTH
THE MAIN FAÇADE IS DEFINED BY A FULL HEIGHT CONCRETE BRISE
THE ARCH FORM IS RESTRICTED TO THE UNDERSIDE OF THE
IT IS THE VISUAL DRAMA OF THE PIERS RISING SIXTY FEET FROM
THE GROUND TO MEET THE HEAVY OUTWARD THRUST OF THE
ROOF WHICH CREATES THE FOCAL EMPHASIS OF THE PRESENT
ON THE MAIN FAÇADE THE DEEP FIXED CONCRETE BRISE SOLEIL
GIVES A STRONG AND SCALELESS PATTERN TO THE BUILDING
IT IS THE CONCRETE SCREEN WHICH GIVES THE MAIN FAÇADE ITS
OVER ALL UNITY
BEHIND THE BRISE SOLEIL , THE WINDOWS OF THE COURT ROOMS
ARE OF FIXED GLASS, BUT BETWEEN ARE NARROW VERTICAL
SPACES CONTAINING SHUTTERS WHICH OPEN AND CLOSE ON
IT IS NOTED THAT THE ORIENTATION OF THE HIGH COURT IS SUCH
THAT THE MAIN FAÇADE FACES NORTH WEST , AND THIS DOES NOT
RECEIVE DIRECT SUNLIGHT
THE ROUGH CONCRETE OF THE BUILDING IS TREATED IN VARIETY
OF MANNERS FOR MUCH OF THE SURFACE INCLUDING THE
UNDERSIDE OF THE PARASOL ROOF AND THE EXTERIOR SIDE
WALLS , THE MASS OF SHEET METAL CHARACTERIZE THE SURFACE
IN PORTIONS OF THE INTERIOR AND ON THE RAMPS , WOODEN
BOARDS HAVE BEEN INSERTED WITH IN THE METAL FORMS TO GIVE
THE CONCRETE SURFACE THE IMPRESS OF THEIR JOINTED
PATTERN, WHILE OTHER SURFACES, INCLUDING THOSE OF
MASSIVE ENTRANCE PIERS ARE FINISHED WITH GUNNITE CEMENT
COLOURED MASSIVE PILLARS
GAP LEFT BETWEEN
FULL HT ENTRANCE
THE ENTRANCE LOBBY IS PAVED WITH WHITISH FLAG STONE SET IN
THE ROWS OF VARYING WIDTHS
NEW SCHEME FOR PAINTING THE COLUMNS AND PORTICO WALLS IN
BRIGHT CONTRASTING COLOURS
THE INSIDE WALL TO THE LEFT OF THE PIERS WAS TO BE BLACK
THE ADJACENT PILLAR PAINTED GREEN
THE CENTER PIER WOULD BE YELLOW
THE RIGHT HAND PILLAR IS RED
AND THE REMAINING PORTICO WALL IS PRIMARY BLUE
THE GRAET ENTRANCE HALL OF THE HIGH COURT IS ALSO BEEN
FOUND IN LACKING PROTECTION DURING THE MONSOON SEASON
THE NARROW CURVING RAMP AT THE END OF THE ENTRANCE
HALL,WHICH FORMS THE MAIN VERTICAL CIRCULATION IS EXPOSED
THE HORIZONTAL CIRCULATION, CONSISTING OF POEN CORRIDORS
ON THR REAR FACADE ,IS ALSO INEFFECTIVELY SHELTERED
THE ASSEMBLY HALL
THE ASSEMBLY WAS CONCEIVED AS A RECTILINEAR
IT IS SQUARE IN PLAN WITH A MONUMENTAL PORTICO
FACING THE MAIN PLAZA
ON THE LATERAL FACADES BOTH THE PORTICO AND THE
OFFICE BLOCK WOULD BE DEFINED BY SOLID END WALLS
THE LARGE CHAMBER IS IN HYPERBOLIC FORM OF THE
COOLING TOWER WITH AN AVERAGE THICKNESS OF 15 CMS
THE SMALL COUNCIL CHAMBER ARE IN RECTILINEAR FRAME
THE UPPER PORTION OF THE TOWER IS EXTENDING ABOVE
THE ROOF LINE
AN ASSEMBLY CHAMBER IS 128 FT IN DIAMETER AT ITS BASE
AND RISES TO 124 FT AT ITS HIGHEST POINT
THIS TOWER WAS DESIGNED TO INSURE THE NATURAL
LIGHT, VENTILATION AND PROPER ACOUSTICS
OF ALL BUILDINGS OF THE
CAPITOL COMPLEX , THE
ASSEMBLY IS THE MOST
INTRICATE IN PLAN
ACCOMMODATION OF ALL
GROUPS IS PROVIDED
EMPLOYING A SYSTEM OF
STAIRWAYS, LIFTS AND
RAMP A COMPLETE
SEGREGATION OF MEMBERS
THER ARE TWO SEPARATE
GALLERIES FOR MEN AND
WOMEN IN COUNCIL
VIEW OF A
THE CITY CENTER
CONSISTS OF DIFFERENT
SQUARES TIED TOGETHER
BY BROAD AVENUES.
AT THE PRESENT
TIME,WHEN THIS CENTER IS
STILL DEVOID OF ANY SORT
UNSHADED OPEN AREAS
CAN BE QUITE
THIS SECTOR-17 IS
UNINHABITED,BUT IT IS
ENLIVENED DURING THE
DAYTIME BY THE MANY
AND DEPARTMENT STORES.
THERE IS DOUBT THAT AT
PRESENT THE CITY
CENTER STILL LOOKS LIKE
AN EXPERIMENT .
THE URBAN CIRCULATION
HERE IS IN SHARP
CONTRAST TO THE
ALLEYS FUL OF NOISE AND
PLUNGED IN SHADOW .
OF ALL THE CITIES OF
INDIA , ONLY CHANDIGARH
CAN CLAIM TO BE AN
TOWN , ”UNTOUCHED BY
THE TRADITION OF THE
PAST,” AS JAWAHARLAL
NEHRU SO APTLY