Project on Women entrepreurnship


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Project on Women entrepreurnship

  1. 1. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTIONThis report is an attempt to analyze the role played by Confederation of WomenEntrepreneurs (COWE) - a NGO which helps the women to face and tackle various problemsand the factors which prevent growth and development of women to start their business .Thisproject also throws light on the role of this organization in promoting womenentrepreneurship in Hyderabad.Women empowerment has been increasing so rapidly all over the world and women arestarting their own business to seek greater control over their personal and professional lives.The rapid change in socioeconomic circumstances has led to the emergence of womenentrepreneurs.Over the last decade, the role of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in developmentof the women has been widely recognized. The NGOs play an important role in bridging thegap between the human and physical resources. Thus creating appropriate entrepreneurialenvironment and generating new opportunities. Recent studies suggest that women face morehurdles of different magnitude when compared to men entrepreneurs.The NGO‟s should strive to help the women in less developed countries especially thosewomen who are seriously faced with poverty and for these women entrepreneurship is one ofthe practical solutions to survive. The NGO‟s and the private sector should take up thisobjective domestically as well as globally to promote women entrepreneurship.COWE provides vivid illustration of financial assistance, training and emotional support towomen entrepreneurs. The goal of the organization is to expand womens opportunitiesthrough the promotion of access to and participation in economic processes like their TradeCarnivals. NGO‟s such as COWE are simultaneously strengthening Indian society by helpingthe socioeconomic circumstances and autonomy of women. 1
  2. 2. 1.1 RESEARCH PROBLEM The research problem in view is the role of the NGO in promoting women entrepreneurship. The activities performed by COWE in solving the problems of women in setting up the business. The project also determines the motivators for women in venturing into entrepreneurship.1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT This report gives an overview on the role of a NGO in promoting the women entrepreneurship. The report analyses the problems faced the women in setting up a business and also the motivational factors for the women. The significance of this report is that it will help COWE in better understanding the women and empowering the women.1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY a. To know the historical background of COWE b. To understand the role of the organization in encouraging the women c. To determine the marketing strategies and awareness of COWE d. To analyze problems unique to women in setting up and running their enterprises. e. To give relevant suggestions and conclusions1.4 METHODOLOGY In view of the objectives of this report which are listed above, a simple random sample as research design has been adopted to study the problems faced by women entrepreneurs, a structured questionnaire covering different aspects of women entrepreneurs was shaped and sent to the sample women entrepreneurs. 2
  3. 3. 1.4.1 SAMPLE DESIGN Out of the 500 women registered with COWE, only 150 women were approached by the way of questionnaire, out of which 100 responses were recorded. The research methodology by the way of the questionnaire was hindered by the reluctance of the women to receive any E-Mails and also the remaining women could not be approached due to lack of technical know-how, i.e. E-mail. 1.4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION This report includes collection of data from both primary and secondary sources. The primary data has been collected by conducting a survey among the sample women entrepreneurs with the help of a well-structured questionnaire. The secondary data has been collected from various NGO‟s journals, newspapers, research projects, research papers, articles and internet. 1.4.2 TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF ANALYSIS The data collected for this report has been analyzed to arrive at meaningful conclusions. The statistical tools like simple percentages have been used to prepare various graphs and pie-chart. Three factors have been structured in the questionnaire, which are the obstacles faced by the women in staring their enterprise, the role of the NGO and the problems faced by the women presently in running their business. Then these factors with their sub classification are rated on Five point Likert rating scale (invented by Rensis Likert), where 1 denotes least important & 5 denote most important.1.5 SCOPEThis report is mainly limited to the women entrepreneurs engaged with COWE in Hyderabad.It provides the details of the problems faced by women in starting an enterprise and thefactors motivating women to become women entrepreneurs. The NGO has around 500members out of which only 100 responses were collected for this project. 3
  4. 4. CHATPER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE2.1 THEORETICAL BACKGROUNDThis chapter will give an overview of the women entrepreneurship, the problems faced by thewomen in starting a business and the different motivational factors which influence thewomen to start their own business. This chapter also includes one of the report‟s objectives,which is to know the historical background of the NGO.The word „entrepreneur‟ first appeared in the French language at the beginning of 16thcentury and was applied to leaders of military expeditions. Richard Cantillon, the first personwho introduced the term, „entrepreneur‟ to mean “an agent who buys means of production atcertain prices in order to combine them into a product, which he is going to sell at prices thatare uncertain at the moment at which he commits himself to his costs”. “You can tell the condition of a nation by looking at the status of its women” - Jawaharlal NehruThe emergence of women entrepreneurs and their contribution to the national economy isquite visible in India. The number of women entrepreneurs has grown over a period of time.While women entrepreneurs have demonstrated their potential, the fact remains that they arecapable of contributing much more than what they already are as women contributesignificantly to the running of family businesses mostly in the form of unpaid effort and skillsIn most of the countries, regions and sectors, the majority of business owner/managers aremale. However, there is increasing evidence that more and more women are becominginterested in business ownership and actually starting up in business, especially in countrieslike Asia.The motivational factor to start a business enterprise differs from woman to woman. Womenface a lot of problems in starting a business and there are many NGO‟s which help thesewomen to eliminate the obstacles. 4
  5. 5. Motivational factors for women entrepreneurshipIn recent years there has been a lot of debate about the development of entrepreneurshipamongst women. Due to various cultural and social reasons, women in different parts of Indiahave different motives, aspirations, social status, needs and urges for starting a business.Varied motivation needs and interests force women entrepreneurs for establishing anenterprise. The main motives are fulfilment of ambition and pursuits of own interests whichis evident in almost all women entrepreneurs. Factors that normally make women to beentrepreneurs include: 1. To earn money, 2. Power and Self Achievement 3. Family occupation (Second generation entrepreneurs) 4. Social Status 5. Did not want to work for others 6. Want to take independent decisionsIt is essential for every women entrepreneur to assess the business management skill beforeshe starts her business as it provides the knowledge of one‟s strengths and weaknesses.Management skills required for women entrepreneurs are she need to know how to deal withpeople (especially the trade unions), manage day to day operations, organizing and planningbusiness strategy, be good at idea generation and product innovation. The other things whichare required are securing the capital required for the business, product promotional strategieswith proper market research and management development and training.A woman with challenging attitude and firm determination will certainly manage herenterprise successfully. Women are dreamers and confident of their abilities to deal withproblems and they believe that hard work is a sure ingredient to success in entrepreneurialventures. Successful women entrepreneurs have high need for achievement; they are risktakers and have high personnel efficiency. Women are initiative and independent withcommitment of conviction. 5
  6. 6. Success depends on one‟s ability to prove the best by putting more efforts to succeed. Thoughwomen have the traits of being an entrepreneur such as achievement-oriented, responsible,moderate risk factor, success-oriented, energetic, forward looking, organized, still the numberof women entering the entrepreneurship is very low. The reason for the minimum number ofwomen entrepreneurs is because a woman is given lower status in the society. Thoughwomen are considered as weaker gender physically, mentally they are more capable and alertin managing things. Women are easily accessible to management techniques and they adoptthem quickly with utmost sincerity and honesty. The Governments is also utmost importanceto the enhancement of women status in all sectors and walks of life. Effective strategies,policies are being formulated and implemented to encourage women entrepreneurship.Problems faced by the womenWomen entrepreneurs face a series of problems right from the beginning till the enterprisefunctions. Being a woman itself poses various problems to a woman entrepreneur.The problems of Indian women pertain to her responsibility towards family, society andwork. The tradition, customs, socio cultural values, ethics, motherhood, subordinates,physically weak, feelings of insecurity are some peculiar problems that the Indian women arecoming across while they jump into entrepreneurship. 1. Family ties: Women in India are very emotionally attached to their families. They are supposed to attend to all the domestic work, to look after the children and other members of the family. They are over burden with family responsibilities which take away a lot of their time and energy and hence it becomes difficult for the women to devote more time to the business. 2. Male dominated society: Even though our constitution speaks of equality between sexes, male chauvinisms still the order of the day. Women are not treated equal to men. All these factors put a break in the growth of women entrepreneurs. 3. Lack of education: Women in India are lagging far behind in the field of education. Most of the women are illiterate. Due to lack of proper education, women entrepreneurs remain in dark about the development of new technology, new methods of production, marketing and other governmental support which will encourage them to flourish. 6
  7. 7. 4. Social barriers: The traditions and customs prevailing in Indian societies towards women sometimes stand as an obstacle for them to grow and prosper. 5. Problem of finance: Women entrepreneurs suffer a lot in raising and meeting the financial needs of the business. Financial institutes don‟t come forward to provide financial assistance to women borrowers on the ground of their less credit worthiness and more chances of business failure. 6. Low risk-bearing capacity: Women in India are by nature weak, shy and mild. They cannot bear the amount risk which is essential for running an enterprise. 7. Limited mobility: Women mobility in India is highly limited and has become a problem due to traditional values and inability to drive vehicles. 8. Exploitation by middle men: Since women cannot run around for marketing, distribution and money collection, they have to depend on middle men for the above activities. Middle men tend to exploit them in the guise of helping. They add their own profit margin which results in less sales and lesser profit. 9. Lack of self confidence: Women entrepreneurs because of their inherent nature, lack of self-confidence which is essentially a motivating factor in running an enterprise successfully.There has been a tremendous change in the women entrepreneurs in last five decades, thewomen entrepreneurs of the fifties where compulsive factors led to the creation of womenentrepreneurs. Women entrepreneurs of the sixties were where women began to aspire butalso accepted the social cultural traditions. In the seventies, the women opened upnew frontier as they had not aspirations but ambition. In eighties women were educated inhighly sophisticated technological and professional education and they became equallycontributing partners. In the nineties the concept of women heir was talked about for the veryfirst time. And women entrepreneurs of the 21stcentury are considered to “Jill of all trades”. 7
  8. 8. HISTORICAL BACKGROUNDConfederation of Women Entrepreneurs (COWE), a Hyderabad-based national levelorganization and countrys premier institution for women thoroughly devoted towardsentrepreneurship development.COWE was inaugurated on 22nd November, 2004 by honorable chief minister of AndhraPradesh then, Dr. Y.S.R. Reddy. The NGO has emerged as a well organized and establishedorganization working towards their goal of liberating women by making them financiallyindependent and vibrant.COWE in a short span has achieved recognition with Government, bankers and industrialassociations & bodies. From 20 members as on the date of commencement, today themembership is over 500 women. Altruism or selfless concern for the well being of womenprompted the founders to come together and start the organization. The NGO is a not forprofit organization was launched to empower women through entrepreneurship, believing inthe philosophy „Of the women, for the women & by the women‟.The women achieve the following as the members of the organization. Networking amongst members Negotiating with large retailing chains The best incentives from the state & central governments which help the women to reach world markets. By being a part of COWE portal the women earn global mileage.The main objective is to enhance women‟s opportunities in achieving the vision by creating aresource base of technical know-how, management, marketing skills, finance, infrastructureand equipment to promote entrepreneurship. COWE is in the process of strengthening thedata base by setting up a Business Consultancy Cell at Hyderabad.The vision of COWE is to build a women force that is economically empowered, valuedcitizens of the nation. By pooling the dormant talent, skills, practical knowledge andresources of a woman and combining it with her intrinsic quality of dedication andcommitment, we will achieve this. They reach out to women from all sectors and all 8
  9. 9. segments and all ages by awareness building workshops both in the COWE office and incolleges.COWE, with an unstinting support from the government of Andhra Pradesh, banks like SBI,SBH, SIDBI, ZDH /SEQUA partnership program of Indo German Chamber of Commercehas conducted many training programs, seminars / conferences, exhibitions. Some megaprojects like developing industrial clusters for engineering and food sectors in modelindustrial estates are also being a reality with COWE.COWE has 30 Acres of industrial estate near Medchal, Medak District, 1000 sq yards &2000 sq yards plots are available for general industries. It is the first of its kind in Asia and in-turn COWE completing the Sale Agreement with all the women entrepreneur allottees of theindividual plots in COWE‟s industrial and engineering estate.COWE has received the In-Principle sanction from the department of MSME for a grantapplied under the Integrated Infrastructure Development (IID) scheme to develop theengineering Park at Toopran, Medak District. COWE earning a member seat on the Board ofDepartment of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprise (MSME) Ministry of MSME, andGovernment of India. The NGO has signed an MOU with National Small IndustriesCorporation (NSIC) on 12th October 2010. University of London and COWE are joiningforces to create a trusted circle of cooperation to support female ventures to trade in theglobal market place. The successful female owned venture in London (UK)has donated the fully functioning online innovative platform to support the cooperation ofCOWE and the BRIC centers of excellence, to ensure access to the global market place forfemale designs, artifacts and or services. COWE has also extended a Branch at New Delhi.COWE Umbrella constitutes the activities initiated since inception with certain ultimateobjectives for the benefit of women. Some of them are briefed below.COWE members participated in many seminars, both National and International. They haveinteracted with CII, BYST, ZDH-SEQUA, GOAP-IT, NCEAR, World Bank, HYSEA,NASSCOM and so on.COWE has conducted International seminars in big forums like GITEX which was supportedby IT&C department. Government of Andhra Pradesh, parallel to sessions being conductedby NASSCOM, HYSEA, & CII. 9
  10. 10. Delegates have visited other countries to participate/learn from the workshops, seminars andtrade fairs there with the support of ZDH-SEQUA, MSME & NSIC. COWE members havemade their presence in Australia, Germany, Italy, Srilanka, Egypt, Malaysia, Thailand,Slovenia, Spain and United States of America. The varied profile of the delegates has beenappreciated. COWE members also benefited from the B2B contacts, meeting with variouschambers and officials of important government bodies of the respective countries. Thewealth of information is passed on to the COWE office and it percolates down to memberswho want specific information.One of the major activity of the COWE is a yearly Trade Carnival which is a platform forWomen Entrepreneurs to display and market the products to a wider and large section of thesociety. The trade carnival has been a great support to small women entrepreneurs. The majorfeature of this trade carnival is that it not only is a platform to exhibit & market the products,but it also creates an environment to interact with the people who can guide and lead them tobe a leading entrepreneur. They have conducted the carnivals successfully from 2007 to2011. The amount of the stalls was subsidized for COWE Members enabling even smalltraders/manufacturers to participate. This facilitated a market for the products and providedyear long B2B contacts. Promotion and publicity improved their visibility. Other states havealso participated and women organizations have sent their delegates to study the organizationof Trade Fairs.Bio-Technology Park and Food Park are in the offing. COWE assists members by providingincubators. A few members started their business through these incubator facilities and latershifted into their own offices. Incubator facilities have facilitated easy start-ups.COWE initially financed 5 looms in Dharmavaram and they have with their repayments setup 24 more looms. The NGO also provided marketing support to them besides giving themthe designs and advice. COWE also facilitated micro-finance in Jadcherla. 10
  11. 11. 2.1CITING OF PAST WORKThe first part of the literature review provides a glimpse of the socioeconomic factors thathinder the growth of women entrepreneurs. The second part reviews studies on the role ofNGOs in promoting and helping the women entrepreneurship development. It also gives aninsight on the motivational factors for women to start an enterprise.OBSTACLESRathore and Chabra,1 (1991) in the paper on “Promotion of Women EntrepreneurshipTraining Strategies” states that Indian women find it increasingly difficult to adjustthemselves to the dual role that they have to play as traditional housewives and compete withmen in the field of business and industry. Working women are often tossed between homeand work and experience mental conflicts as they are not able to devote the necessary amountof time and energy to their home and children and find it mostly difficult and sometimesimpossible to pursue as a career. It showed that the married migrated women entrepreneurscoming from nuclear families experience greater role stress than the unmarried local womenentrepreneurs coming from joint families. The paper also lists economic backwardness, lackof family and community support, ignorance of opportunities, lack of motivation, shynessand inhibition, preference for traditional occupation and preference for secure jobs as thefactors that inhibit promotion of grass root entrepreneurship among rural women.Carter et al2 (2001) in his “Women Business Ownership: A Review of the Academic” statesthat women entrepreneurs experience many obstacles, which include traditional culturalbarriers. They are treated differently and the level of their education, way of life and positiongiven to them also varies than men. Women in India are confined to household activities andtheir involvement at workplace is also limited. In our society, the male child is given morepriority; hence, there is lack of schooling and proper training of females. Also, women face alack of confidence as they do not get the appropriate support from their friends and familywhich obstructs their growth in the corporate world. They do not get access to manyresources such as transportation, education and literacy, technology and financial resourcesfor carrying on their entrepreneurial activities. According to the article, the main barrier facedby women entrepreneurs is male domination, excluding the women from variouscommunication networks, due to which they are not able to develop contacts with other 11
  12. 12. individuals and organizations which affects their working. Also, family responsibilities uponthem adds to the lack of experience in the particular field and also gets in the way of thegrowth female entrepreneursROLE OF NGO’SKirve and Kanitkar3 (1993) the article "Entrepreneurship at the Grass Roots: Developing theIncome Generating Capabilities of Rural Women", talks about the experience of a Pune-based Non-Government Organization (NGO) Jana Probodhini (JP) in helping the ruralwomen through skill training in technical and business areas. The study revealed that thetechniques, which were incorporated as part of the training input, proved extremely useful forthe trainees. Later interactions with trainees during the evaluation showed a definite changein most of the trainees. It was also found that certain issues, apparently small, assumesignificance in the dynamics operating in the villages, for example the refusal of the familymembers to encourage the purchase of an asset by unmarried women in the house points toslight but invisible gender-related discrimination. In conclusion the author recommends thatEntrepreneurship Development Agencies need to get involved in income-generatingactivities. Nothing else would serve the cause of entrepreneurship better than thedevelopment of the rural sector.Arvinda4 (2001) in the report “Women Entrepreneurs: An Exploratory Study” takes a sampleof 100 women entrepreneurs who were selected by random sampling technique. The twincities Hyderabad and Secundarabad were chosen for the study, as the area is the capital of thestate. The report covered women entrepreneurs who are involved in different kinds ofenterprises. The selected respondents were divided into three basic groups – service, tradingand manufacturing sector. The results concluded that 37 respondents were in service andtrading sectors, 26 respondents were in the manufacturing sector. The responses obtained inthis study in a way suggest that there is an absolute need for more entrepreneurshipdevelopment programmes and societal support for women. Women entrepreneurs in generalface conflicts of work and home roles. The main conflicts in work role pertained to, failure toexpand the enterprise and utilize optimum skills which are available. Non-availability of timeto spend with family and being a good spouse were the conflict areas faced by many of thewomen. The report concluded that women entrepreneurship requires help from the 12
  13. 13. government in the form of NGO‟s to help the women in motivating and facilitating them totake up entrepreneurial careers.MOTIVATIONAL FACTORSEleanor Brantley Schwartz‟s 5 (1976) the article, “Entrepreneurship, A New Female Frontier”is based on the interviewing 20 female entrepreneurs. In the article Eleanor combinedexploratory and descriptive research in her efforts to identify individual characteristics,motivations, and attitudes that these women had in common. She concluded that themotivators for the women to start a business in this sample were the need to achieve, jobsatisfaction, profit generation and independence to take own decisions. This was the firstnotable article on women‟s entrepreneurship which appeared in the mid-1970.Rani6 (1986) in her study “Potential Women Entrepreneurs”, found that the desire to dosomething independently was the prime motivation factor to start a business activity amongstthe 30 sample respondents. For study purpose the respondents were selected during a trainingprogramme for potential wom]]raen entrepreneurs, held at Hyderabad in October 1985,organized by APITCO. The respondents were mostly from the twin cities of Hyderabad andSecundarabad. Most of the respondents were in the age group of 21-30 years and therespondents came from middle class families. The objective of her study was to find out thefactors that prompted women to start their own businesses. She concluded that the desire todo something independent was observed as the prime motivating factor, some women viewedentrepreneurship as a tool for earning money. Other factors were that women wanted to takeindependent decisions.It can be concluded that the women face a lot of problems for starting an enterprise. Some ofthe problems are lack of family support, lack of motivation and securing finance. NGOs playa major role in helping the women in motivating and facilitating them to take upentrepreneurial careers. Also the prime motivating factors many women took upentrepreneurship for earning money and also take independent decisions. 13
  14. 14. CHAPTER III COMPANY PROFILEThis chapter gives the profile of the NGO- COWE (Confederation of WomenEntrepreneurs).It also gives an insight to the role of the organization and the differentmarketing strategies adopted by the organization. Later in the project the data analysis alsoshow the extent to which the organization helps the women in setting up a businessenterprise.COWE is a benchmark platform for women entrepreneurs in the country. The objective of theorganization is to foster the Economic Empowerment of Women, particularly the SMEsegment, by helping them to become successful entrepreneurs and to become a part of themain stream industry. The NGO is engaged in the social and economic upliftment of womenthrough entrepreneurship. The slogan “Gearing women power” stands for the democraticstructure of COWE and stands for “Of the women, for the women and by the women”Entrepreneurs from varied fields and those dedicated to the promotion of entrepreneurshipamongst women, got together to form COWE. They work un-relentlessly towards providingopportunities for women in Industry, Trade, Retail, Franchising and Service sectors.Traditional professions are also encouraged and hand holding support is given whereverrequired. The expertise and experience of seniors in the field is sought and passed on to themembers. 14
  15. 15. The following table 3.1 gives an insight about the company profile. Table 3.1 Company ProfileINAUGURATION 22nd November, 2004LOCATION Hyderabad, India Mission of the NGO is to enhance womens opportunities in achieving the vision byMISSION creating a resource base of technical knowhow, management, marketing skills, finance, infrastructure and equipment to promote entrepreneurship. The Vision is to build a women force that isVISION economically empowered, valued citizens of the nation. By pooling the dormant talent, skills, practical knowledge and resources of a woman and combining it with her intrinsic quality of dedication and commitment.MEMBERS Above 500PARTNERS ZDH &SEQUA,SICAN and WECAN The founding members of the organization are Ms Shylaja Reddy, Ms Suman Kumar, MsFOUNDING MEMBERS Uma Ghurkha, Ms Sandhya Reddy, Ms P. Soudamini, Ms P. Girija and Ms Sangeeta Reddy.*Source – Official COWE Website 15
  16. 16. COWE was inaugurated by honorable chief minister of Andhra Pradesh then, Dr. Y.S.R.Reddy. They have emerged as a well organized and established organization working towardstheir goal of liberating women by making them financially independent and vibrant.COWE has in a short span, achieved recognition with Government, Bankers and IndustrialAssociations & Bodies. From 20 members as on the date of commencement, today themembership is over 500 women. Altruism or selfless concern for the well being of womenprompted the founders to come together and start the organization.COWE has partnership with associations to better help the women to enhance businessopportunities for them. COWE has partnership and MOU‟s with the following:ZDH and SEQUAThe ZDH/SEQUA partnership programme in India supports the development of small andmedium enterprises (SMEs) by building up the capacities of business membershiporganizations ‚ Chambers of Commerce & Industry, Associations and Federations of businessorganizations to provide improved and sustainable services to their members especially to theSMEs. COWE has been supported by ZDH through its programmes in strengthening COWEby part funding its programmes – GITEX, Trade Carnival, Seminars and Workshops andStudy Tours. Experts in Consultancy and Training have been hired by ZDH in assisting andupgrading the member partners.SEQUA - The main project focus is the promotion of small and medium-sized enterprises,the development of private sector organizations and the support of vocational training in thepartner countries. ZDH-SEQUA Partnership programmes have been immense support tomember associations and chambers like COWE.SICANCOWE is in the forefront to form a group of 14 partners association – South Indian Chambersand Associations Network (SICAN) and start a common portal, which will promote exchange 16
  17. 17. and interactive communication and programmes and provide a marketing tool to reach out.This is aimed at facilitating not only intra and inter communication between and amongstmembers but would enhance the opportunities for individual entrepreneurs in each byreaching out to a wider segment. Common problems would be addressed and solutionsworked at as a group utilizing the experience and expertise of the chambers and association.WECANWomen Entrepreneurs & Associations India (WECAN) is a consortium of 4 womanassociation partners of ZDH – COWE (Hyderabad), AWAKE (Bangalore), FKCCI(Woman‟s wing, Bangalore) and GCCI (Woman‟swing, Goa). The objective is to create atraining and development institution fostering and nurturing entrepreneurial abilities ofwomen and promoting entrepreneurship growth and excellence. To maximize the efficiencyof these organizations and to have a collective voice on issues that concern women in forumsthat discuss policy formulations, is the primordial objective of WECAN.MOUsCOWE has many Memorandum of Understandings (MOUs) with different associations inorder to help the women in promoting their enterprises and help them start an enterprise. TheMOU‟s of COWE are as follows: Federation of Madhya Pradesh Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FMPCCI) Faridabad Small Industries Association (FSIA) Indian Industries Association(IIA) Mohali Industries Association(MIA) Ramky Group(ADRASL) National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC) Ceylon Chamber Of Commerce AWAKE, FKCCI & GCCI Galle Chambers of Commerce, Srilanka(Women‟s Wing) Egyptian Business Women Association (EBWA) , Egypt 17
  18. 18. Role of the NGO in encouraging the womenCOWE has various schemes which help the women in starting a business, helping them todevelop entrepreneurial skills and it also acts as a medium to reduce the problems faced bythe women. Rajiv Gandhi Udyami Mitra Yojana (RGUMY)COWE has been empanelled as Udyami Mitra under RGUMY; it is a scheme by Ministry ofMicro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) Government of India. This scheme helps andguides the potential first generation entrepreneurs as well as existing entrepreneurs bysupporting them, particularly during the initial stages. Marketing Intelligence CellThe objective of this cell is to collect and distribute both domestic as well as internationalmarketing intelligence for the benefit of MSMEs. This cell maintains database and distributesinformation of bulk buyers, contractors, Indian exporters, international buyers and technologysuppliers. Goldman Sachs 10000 women initiativeThis is a social initiative of Goldman Sachs which aims at training 10,000women in 20different countries free of cost. The training is conducted at ISB for a period of 16 weeks.The training is a partial class room type which is balanced through mentoring. MSMEs (Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises)The focus on MSMEs has been increasing rapidly and various institutions and banks areencouraging the MSMEs through finance and counseling support. The New Industrial Policy of Andhra Pradesh 2010The new Industrial Policy 2010-15 of the Andhra Pradesh Government has given a big boostto the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME), Manufacturing and Food ProcessingSectors. This has increased the employment rates in Andhra Pradesh. 18
  19. 19. The NGO provides the women with different entrepreneurial development programmeswhich help these women in better running of their enterprises. COWE provides the womenwith training sessions, seminars, study tour, entrepreneurial development program and tradecarnival.The NGO‟s major activity which helps the women is the trade carnival which is organizedevery year end in people‟s plaza, Hyderabad. This carnival helps provides womenentrepreneurs opportunities and guidance under one roof through Business to Business (B2B)meetings with public and private sector giants. The activities of the organization are asfollows:EDPEntrepreneurial Development Program provides the knowledge and the ability of being asuccessful entrepreneur. EDP has become a basic requirement for every entrepreneur beforestarting an enterprise. EDP is one of the main activities conducted by COWE, beside the EDPcourse, the organization also counsels and provides financial support. EDP has becomecompulsory for anyone who is starting an enterprise and it is also useful for existingenterprises as it helps the entrepreneur to have proper training in the field.EDP‟s are for a time period of 4-6 weeks and the organization has an experienced faculty,representing various reputed institutions. At the completion of the program the participantsare validated with the certificate of completion. COWE has successfully conducted EDPs onthe following fields since its foundation. The areas are as follows:  Medical Transcription  IT & IT support services  Food  General EDP 19
  20. 20. SeminarsSeminar generally is a form of bringing together small groups for frequent meetings, focusingeach time on some particular subject and in which everyone‟s participation is required.COWE has conducted regular seminars on subjects of prominent interest and requirement forits members and anyone who wishes to gain more information and knowledge. The seminarswhich have already been held by the NGO are as follows:  Information Technology  Building Market Linkages through Exhibitions  Quality Control Seminar  Seminar on Lean Manufacturing  Seminar on Franchising Opportunities  Retail SeminarTrainingsOne of the core believes of COWE is updating knowledge base of its members. Besides theongoing EDPs, COWE conducts trainings in different fields and the organization also takesmajor steps in encouraging members to participate in the training workshops. The NGO hasconducted training sessions on the following:  Training on IT & ITES  Training on Capacity Building  Training on Team Building  Training on Quality Control  Lean Manufacturing  Training on Franchising Opportunities  Building Market Linkages  Workshop on Retail Management. 20
  21. 21. ExhibitionsCOWE‟s trade carnival is one which strives to facilitate trading opportunities for itsmembers. The organisation saw its first annual trade carnival in the year 2007. The three daytrade fair held by the organisation have helped in opening up new territories and segmentsthere by increasing the opportunities for the women. The exhibition is usually conducted inthe last quarter of every year and till now COWE has organised 5 annual trade carnivals.COWE saw its first trade fair in the year 2007. COWE assists its members to participate inother trade carnivals by taking COWE Pavilion and providing it to its members for free ofcost. The members of the organisation have participated in International Trade Fairs. TheNGO also has a strong networking link with other organisations and it interacts with WomenAssociations across the world, this helps act as a catalyst for facilitating trade linkages andimproves import and export relations for its members.Study tourCOWE believes in enhancing the opportunities for its members and it provides its memberswith opportunities overseas through study tours. These study tours emphasize on experientiallearning and self-directed activities that enable the women to explore new territories, cultures,and people. This kind of exposure has widened the vision and has helped the women to dealbetter. Another importance of study tour is that it maximizes the opportunities and narrowsthe time-length for firming trading contracts. So far, the study tours that COWE delegateshave participated in, with the support of ZDH, were at Australia, Germany, Srilank, Egypt,Bangkok and Kaula Lumpur 21
  22. 22. CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONThis chapter will bring about the analysis of the questions in the questionnaire which wassent to the women registered with the organization. Bar graphs, pie diagrams, statisticalformulas and Linker‟s rating scales have been used to analyze the responses from 100women. The different parameters used in the questionnaire are the present age of the women,the age at which they started their business, family status, marital status and the educationalbackground of the women.4.1 Present Age Category of the women Graph 4.1 Age Category Age Category 45 40 40% 35 30 25 26% 24% 20 15 10 9% 5 1% 0 Under 20 years 20-29 years 30-39 years 40-49 years 50+ years*Source – Questionnaire (Fieldwork)The above graph 4.1 depicts that 40% of the women in my sample survey are of the agecategory 30-39 years. 26% of the women belong to the category of 20-29years, 24% of thesample size women fall in the 40-49 years category. 9% of the women fall in the range of 50years and above. Out of the 100 respondents only one woman belongs to the category ofunder 20 years.This analysis shows that the rate of young entrepreneurship is increasing with the years andentrepreneurship demands dynamisms and innovation. 22
  23. 23. 4.2 The age at which the respondents started their ventures. Graph 4.2 At what age did you start your own venture? At what age do you start your own venture? 60 55 50 41 40 30 20 10 1 3 0 10 -20 Years 20-30 Years 30-40 Years 40-50 Years*Source – Questionnaire (Fieldwork)From the above graph 4.2 we can conclude that the 55 women who fall in the age group of20-30 years are the maximum number of women from the sample who have started their ownventure. In the age group 30-40 years 41 of the total women have started their enterprise and3 women in the age group of 40-50 years. The analysis brings out there is only one womenwho in the age category 10-20 years.Using the statistical formula the mode of the data has been calculated. Mode depicts the mostfrequently occurring value in the data. Out of the 100 respondent‟s majority of the womenhave started their own enterprises when they were 26 years old. 23
  24. 24. 4.3 The family status of the women Figure 4.3 Family Status Family Status Joint Family 34% NuclearFamily 66%*Source- Questionnaire (Fieldwork)The above figure 4.3 shows the family background of the women. Out of the 100 womensurveyed 66% of the women come from nuclear families and the remaining 34% of thewomen belong to joint families. 24
  25. 25. 4.4 Marital Status of the sample size Figure 4.4 Marital Status Marital Status Single Parent Unmarried 4% Widow 50% 3% Other 4% Divorced Married 1% 42%*Source- Questionnaire (Fieldwork)Figure 4.4 depicts the marital status of the sample women. Out of the 100 recordedquestionnaires 50% of the women are unmarried whereas 42% of them are married. The other4% of the women are single parents and out the remaining 4% women 3 women are widowsand one woman is a divorce.One of the main reasons for the major percentage of unmarried women who are into theirown business is because they can focus and devote their maximum time in developing theirenterprise. 25
  26. 26. 4.5 Educational Background of the respondents Figure 4.5 Educational Background Educational Background 3% 3% Basic Schooling 43% Secondary Education 51% Graduation (College Education) Post Graduation*Source- Questionnaire (Fieldwork)The above diagram 4.5 illustrates the educational background of the surveyed women andaccording to the graph 51% of the total respondents have done a graduation, where as 43% ofthe women have gone further more and completed their post graduation and acquired aUniversity Degree. Whereas 3% of women have done just basic schooling and other 3% havestopped school after secondary education. 26
  27. 27. 4.6 Is the present enterprise the first enterprise of the respondent? Graph 4.6 First Enterprise First enterprise?8060 76%40 20 0 24% Yes No *Source- Questionnaire (Fieldwork) The chart above shows that 76% of the respondents stated that their current enterprise is the first one they owned and the remaining 24% of the women stated that they had previous enterprise ownership experience. The 24 women who responded with a no to this question had to further answer another question which is related to the reasons for the closure of the previous enterprise. 27
  28. 28. 4.7 If No, what happened to the previous business? Graph 4.7 What happened to the previous business? Previous business 33 % 63 % 46 % 21 % 4% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Went of out business Financial Problems(Losses) Has been sold Lack of manpower Others*Source- Questionnaire (Fieldwork)Graph 4.7 is a bar graph which is used to observe what happened to the previous business ofthe women, whose present business is not their first business they owned. Out the totalquestionnaires recorded 63% of the women had financial problem with the business. 46% ofthe women had to sell their enterprise, 33% of the women mentioned that they went out ofbusiness and 21% of the women faced lack of manpower. The remaining 4% of the total datasaid that they had other reasons for the closure of the business, the reasons being new ideageneration, trade unions issues and destruction of the business premises. 28
  29. 29. 4.8 The sector of the business ventured in by the respondent Graph 4.8 Sector of the business Sector 46% 50 40 28% 30 16% 20 10% 10 0 1 Primary Sector Secondary Sector Tertiary Sector Other*Source- Questionnaire (Fieldwork)The above graph depicts the different sector of business which the women have adopted. Thisanalysis reviles that 46% of the women have ventured into tertiary sector, which includesRetail and wholesale sales, transportation and distribution, entertainment, restaurants, clericalservices, media, tourism, insurance, banking, healthcare, law and so on. Whereas only 28% ofthe women surveyed have a business in the secondary sector, which includes Automobileproduction, textile production, chemical industries, aerospace, construction and 16% of thewomen have a primary based business, which includes Agriculture, mining, forestry, farming,grazing, and fishing. And the remaining 10% of women have ventured into other businesssector, like ITES, fashion house, Home décor. 29
  30. 30. 4.9 The size of the business which the women own Figure 4.9 Size of the business Size of the business Large(Over 250 Employees) 10% Micro(1-9 Employees) 38% Medium(50-249 Employees) 21% Small(10-49 Employees) 31%*Source- Questionnaire (Fieldwork)Figure 4.9 shows the size of the business using the pie chart. According to the overallsummary of replies received, majority of women entrepreneurs have micro enterprises (1-9employees) which amounts of 38% of the total responses. 31% of the women from mysample have small companies (10-49 employees), 21% of the women have medium sizedcompanies with employee‟s size of 50 to 249 and only 10% of the total respondents have alarge scale business with over 250 employees. 30
  31. 31. 4.10 The ownership details of the women in the sample size Figure 4.10 Ownership details Onwership Details 5% 8% Sole Proprietorship Partnership 32% 55% Joint Corporation*Source- Questionnaire (Fieldwork)According to figure 4.10 we can observe that 55% of the women in sample are soleproprietors of the business. 32% of the women have a partnership and the other 8% of thewomen have a joint business venture. The remaining 5% of the women have a corporation. 31
  32. 32. 4.11 The factors which motivate the women to start their own business Graph 4.11 Motivation for starting the business Motivation for starting the Buisness 60 52% 50 48% 40% 40 38% 30 27% 20 10 3% 0 1 Self Achievement Social Status Money Making Did not want to work for others Want to take independent decisions Other*Source – Questionnaire (Fieldwork)The above graph 4.11 depicts the reasons for starting the business. When questioned thereasons for starting their business, 52% women quoted generating profits (money making) asbeing the most important factor which motivated them to start their business. Other 48% ofthe women surveyed started their business as a part of self achievement and the 40% womendid not want to work for others. 38% of the women quoted that they wanted to takeindependent decisions and hence started a business whereas 27% of them have started abusiness in order to gain social status in the community. The other 3% of the women haveresponded with other reasons to start their businesses. 32
  33. 33. 4.12 The initial amount invested by the surveyed women Graph 4.12 Initial Investment Initial 35 30 25 20 15 30% 25% 23% 10 5 18% 4% 0Less than 10,000 10,000-50,000 50,000-1,00,000 1,00,000-5,00,000 More than 5,00,000 *Source – Questionnaire (Fieldwork) From the above graph 4.12 it is clear that 30% of the surveyed women started their business with an amount lying between the range of 1, 00,000 to 5, 00,000 rupees. 25% of the women‟s initial investment was around 10,000 to 50,000 rupees, 23% of the women invested around 50,000 to 1, 00, 000 rupees initially. Only 18 women out of 100 respondents invested more than 5, 00,000 rupees to start the business and the remaining 4% of the women have started their business with just about 10,000 rupees or less. 33
  34. 34. Table 4.1 To what extent did you face the following obstacles when you started your ownbusiness? Particulars Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Total Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5Financial Problems 1% 5% 15% 56% 23% 100Lack of 4% 5% 21% 55% 15% 100information/adviceon how to start abusinessFinding the right 1% 7% 16% 57% 19% 100contacts for startingthe businessManaging family and 14% 14% 10% 36% 26% 100work lifeLack of self 34% 24% 12% 20% 10% 100confidenceGender 60% 17% 8% 11% 4% 100DiscriminationTotal 114 72 82 235 97 600*Source – Questionnaire (Fieldwork)For the purpose of evaluating this question Likert‟s rating scale has been used, in whichstrongly disagree is rated as 1, disagree as 2, neutral as 3, agree as 4 and strongly agree as5.According to the above table 4.1, 56% of the women agree that financial problems werefaced by them. 55% of the women agree that the main problem they faced was lack ofinformation or lack of advice on how to start a business. Also 57% of the women respondedthat finding the right contacts for starting the business was the main obstacle. Only 36% ofthe total women find managing family and work life as the main problem. 34% of the womenrespondents strong disagree with the fact that lack of self confidence is not a obstacle to starta business. And the remaining 60% of the also strongly disagree with gender discriminationto be an obstacle. 34
  35. 35. Table 4.2 To what extent did COWE help you in starting up the business? Particulars Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Total Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 Financial Support 1% 6% 12% 44% 37% 100 Legal Advice 0% 2% 12% 50% 36% 100 Market Research 0% 3% 14% 44% 39% 100 0% 5% 7% 47% 41% Promoting Activities 100 Guidance 3% 3% 14% 42% 38% 100 Training & Development 1% 2% 8% 50% 39% 100 Providing land 5% 14% 31% 26% 24% 100 Technological Support 3% 6% 26% 37% 28% 100 Personal Development 4% 8% 15% 39% 34% 100 Total 17 49 139 379 316 900*Source – Questionnaire (Fieldwork)For the purpose of evaluating this question Likert‟s rating scale has been used, in whichstrongly disagree is rated as 1, disagree as 2, neutral as 3, agree as 4 and strongly agree as5.Above table 4.2 depicts that 44% of the women surveyed agree that COWE helps themfinancial, 50% agree that COWE helps the women with legal advice, 44 % of the surveyedwomen agree that the NGO helps the women in market research and 47 % of them agree thatthe organization helps them with promoting their products. 42% women from the sampleagree that COWE provides them with guidance and mentorship and 50% of them agree thatthe NGO plays a major role in training and developing them only 26% of the surveyedwomen are of the view that the NGO provides them with land. 37% of the women agree thatthe technological support and personal development is provided by COWE. 35
  36. 36. Table 4.3 What are the main obstacles you are facing presently in running of your business? Particulars Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Total Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 8% 28% 42% 22% 0% Lack of awareness 100 5% 32% 50% 13% 0% Low of manpower 100 8% 37% 45% 10% 0% Lack of resources 100 6% 9% 28% 38% 19% Competition 100 Financial/ Liquidity 16% 45% 29% 9% 1% 100 Problems Gender 69% 15% 10% 5% 1% 100 Discrimination Family and work life 38% 19% 18% 14% 11% 100 balance Technological 28% 28% 26% 16% 2% 100 Problems Total 178 213 248 127 34 800*Source – Questionnaire (Fieldwork)For the purpose of evaluating this question Likert‟s rating scale has been used, in whichstrongly disagree is rated as 1, disagree as 2, neutral as 3, agree as 4 and strongly agree as 5.The above table 4.3 observes the different problems the women face presently in running ofthe business. There was a neutral response from 42% of the women regarding lack ofawareness of the present business.50% of the women neither agreed nor disagreed with thefact that lack of manpower is the present obstacle. Also 45% of the women surveyed have aneutral response for lack of resource being a problem for running their business. 45% of thewomen disagree with the factor of financial problem being an obstacle in running theirbusiness presently. 69% of the women strongly disagree with gender discrimination as aproblem and also 38% of the women strongly disagree that family and work life balancebeing a problem. 28% of the women strongly disagree that they face any technologicalproblems in running their present business. 36
  37. 37. 4.13 The marketing strategies of COWE Figure4.13 Marketing Strategies of COWE Marketing Strategy Newspaper 20% Friends 24% Other 68% Exhibition Family 44% 8% Internet 3% Magazine 1%*Source – Questionnaire (Fieldwork)The above figure 4.15 depicts the marketing strategies adopted by COWE to reach to thewomen in Hyderabad. 44% of the women came to know about COWE through the tradecarnivalsexhibitions the NGO conducts at the end of each year. 24% of the total womensurveyed answered that they came to know about the NGO through their friends and 8% ofthe women said through family. The remaining 20%, 3% and 1% of the women respondentssaid that newspaper, internet and magazine respectively were the medium of communicationfor them about COWE. 37
  38. 38. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONThe NGO‟s role in the development of women is has been analyzed in the project. Thewomen agreed that the organization helps the women financial, gives them legal advices, andhelps the women in market research as well promoting their products in market. COWE alsotrains the women, supports them in technological matter, mentors them with proper guidanceand also develops their personal skills.The summary of the analysis gives rise to the following : Out of 100 respondents 40% of the women fall in the age category 30-39 years. Majority of the women have started their own enterprises when they were 26 years old. 66% of the total women come from nuclear families whereas the rest are from joint families. According to the marital status maximum number of women are not married which accounts for 50% of the sample size. The survey resulted that 51% of the women have earned a graduation certificate. 76% of the respondents stated that their current enterprise is the first one they owned and the remaining 24% of the women stated that they had previous enterprise ownership experience. The tertiary sector is the major area ventured into by 46% of the women. In the total sample size 38% of the women own micro enterprises (1-9 employees) and 55% of the women in sample are sole proprietors of the business. The major motivational factor for 52 women has been to generate profits (money making). The analysis shows that 30% of the women‟s initial investment, with which they started the business ranges from 1, 00,000 to 5, 00,000 rupees which amounts to the highest. Majority of the women surveyed agreed that they faced financial pproblems, lack of information/ advice on how to start a business, finding the right contacts for starting the business and mmanaging family and work life. And the other women strongly disagreed that lack of self confidence and gender discrimination were not faced by them while venturing into entrepreneurship. 38
  39. 39. All the women respondents agreed that COWE helps them financially, provides with legal support, it helps in market research and also helps with promoting the products of the women. The NGO also gives the women sessions on training and development, guides them throughout and provides them with the required technology and land. One of the major marketing strategy used the NGO is the trade carnival which is conducted at the end of every year.44% of the respondents surveyed came to know about COWE through the exhibitions.SUGGESTIONSOne of the project‟s objective about giving suggestion and recommendations are given asbelow. Right efforts from all areas are required in the development of women entrepreneursand their greater participation to take up entrepreneurial activities. The following measurescan be suggested to improve the role of the NGO to empower the women to grasp variousopportunities and face challenges in business. COWE should organize training programmes to develop professional competencies in managerial, leadership, marketing, financial, production process, profit planning, maintaining books of accounts and other skills. Vocational training to be extended to women community that enables them to understand the production process and production management. On the job training should be provided to the women in fields which are included in manufacturing industry or any process oriented job. To establish all India forums which will discuss the problems, grievances, issues, and filing complaints and giving suitable decisions for the women entrepreneurs. The NGO should take measures to spread information about the schemes and activities which it provides for the development of the women. Thus by adopting the above measures the problems associated with women can be solved. 39
  40. 40. In conclusion the project gives the role of COWE in promoting women entrepreneurship. Theissues have been identified through various review of literature.It is evident that promotion of women entrepreneurship motivates the future generation ofwomen and it will also solve tomorrow‟s unemployment problems. The project reveals thatwomen are ready to face any kinds of challenges associated with setting up of business.Women are not into business for survival but for acquire self achievement needs and to provetheir capabilities. Women education is contributing to a great extent to the socialtransformation. The future will see more women venturing into areas traditionally dominatedby men. The socio background including factors, type and sector of business, trainingprogrammes of the NGOs are the important factors influencing the emergence of women intoentrepreurship.The greatest revolution in a country is the one that affects the status and living conditions ofits women. Promotion of women entrepreneurship ensures economic independence. Socialliberation of women gains social status. It makes women conscious of their rights and gainsequal status. It creates more respect in the family and gives self prestige, avoids gender biasand it eliminates dowry deaths. It promotes leadership qualities among women and swellsthe family income. Indian women have travelled with the times for centuries and have provedto the world that the hand that rocks the cradle can rule the world.It is worthwhile to conclude by quoting the words of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, “When woman moves forward, the family moves, the village moves and the country moves”. 40