Padma PolyCotton Knit Fabrics Ltd, Dhaka

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Padma PolyCotton Knit Fabrics Ltd, Dhaka

  1. 1. Ahsanullah University of science and Technology 4th year 2nd semester Department of Textile Engineering Course No: Tex- 500 Course Title: Industrial Training Padma PolyCOtton Knit fabrics limited SUBMITTED BY: NAME ID Arif Rahman 08.02.06.022 SUBMITTED TO MD. Ruhul Amin Assistant Professor Department of Textile Engineering
  2. 2. INDEX CHAPTER NAME CHAPTER CONTENT PAGE NO CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 MILL LOCATION 6 1.2 GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE MILL 8 1.3 BOARD OF DIRECTOR 10 2.1 MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 12 2.2 SHIFT CHANGE 12 2.3 RESPONSIBILITIES OF HR 12 2.4 JOB DESCRIPTION AND RESPONSIBILITIES 13 3.1 TYPES OF RAW MATERIALS 15 3.2 YARN 15 3.3 SOURCES OF RAW MATERIALS 16 3.4 REMARKS 16 4.1 MACHINE AT A GLANCE 18 4.2 MACHINE DESCRIPTION OF KNITTING SECTION 19 4.3 MACHINE SPECIFICATION OF 1ST FLOOR 20 4.4 LAY OUT OF THE 2ND FLOOR OF KNITTING SECTION 21 4.5 MACHINE SPECIFICATION OF 2ND FLOOR 23 4.6 LAY OUT OF COLLAR AND CUFF SECTION 24 4.7 MACHINE SPECIFICAITON OF COLLAR AND CUFF SECTION 25 5.1 CLASSIFICAITON OF KNITTING 27 5.2 PROCESS FLOW CHART OF KNITTING 28 5.3 DESCRIPTION OF PRODUCTION PROCESS 29 5.4 PROCESS REQUIREMENT 29 5.5 MINIMUM REQUIRMENT OF PRODUCTION PARAMETERS 30 CHAPTER 2 MANPOWER MANAGEMENT CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 RAW MATERIALS MACHINE DESCRIPTIONS PROCESS PLANNING AND OPERATION 5.6 CONSIDERABLE POINTS TO PRODUCE KNIT FABRICS 5.7 PASSES OF YARN IN CIRCULAR KNITTING MACHINE 30 31 1
  3. 3. INDEX 5.8 DIFFERENT PARTS OF CIRCULAR KNITTING MACHINE 5.9 FUNCTION OF KNITTING ELEMENTS 37 5.11 COMMENTS 40 6.1 QUALITY ASSURANCE 42 6.2 OBJECTIVE OF QUALITY CONTROL 42 6.3 QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM 42 6.4 YARN QUALITY 42 6.5 KNITTING QUALITY 42 6.6 RESPONSE TO FAULT 44 6.7 LIST OF QUIPMENT OF QUALITY CONTROL 44 6.8 QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM 45 6.9 SOME COMMON KNITTING FAULT QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM 32 5.10 PRODUCTION CALCULATION CHAPTER 6 32 46 CHAPTER 7 SAMPLE ANALYSIS DIFFERENT SAMPLE ANALYSIS 48 CHAPTER 8 MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT 8.1 OBJECTIVE OF MAINTANANCE 55 8.2 TYPES OF MAINTENANCE 55 8.3 PREVENTING MAINTENANCE 55 8.4 ROUTINE MAINTENANCE 55 8.5 MAINTENANCE TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTS 56 2
  4. 4. INDEX CHAPTER 9 60 60 9.3 MACHINES FOR UTILITY SERVICES 60 9.4 AIR COMPRESSOR CONCLUSION 9.1 UTILITY REQUIRED IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY 9.2 SOURCE OF UTILITY CHAPTER 10 UTILITY SERVICES 61 10.1 CONCLUSION 63 3
  5. 5. Industrial training summery Textile engineering education is based on industrial ground. Theoretical background is not sufficient so, industrial training is an essential part of study to make a technologist technically sound in this field. Industrial training provides us that opportunity to gather practical knowledge. Padma PolyCotton Knit Fabrics Limited is a truly integrated undertaking. The textile division has the capability to offer a complete product range for the export & domestic textile markets. The goal of the textile division is to become the preferred partner for sourcing high quality fabrics & clothing from Bangladesh. With high advanced technology & an emphasis on developing local human resources, the textile division has the potential to make an important contribution to the nation’s growing readymade garments export sector. The rationale behind the existing structure & future expansion of the textile division is to capture value added at each stage of the textile manufacturing process. Despite Bangladesh’s lack of indigenous cotton production capability, Padma PolyCotton Knit Fabrics Limited has leveraged Bangladesh’s labor cost advantage & export competitiveness to maximum level. 4
  6. 6. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 5
  7. 7. 1.1 Mill Location: 6
  8. 8. Padma PolyCotton Knit Fabrics Ltd. is a 100% export oriented composite plant for knit fabrics and garments. Padma PolyCotton Knit Fabrics Ltd. is well equipped with most modern & sophisticated European state of the art textile finishing equipment & Japanese made sewing machineries operated by highly skilled 4,500 technicians & managed by a vastly experienced management. Padma PolyCotton kint Fabrics Limited committed to render best services on timely shipment of garments to the valued customers all over the world. Padma PolyCotton Knit Fabrics Limited is knit composite mill consists of fabric manufacturing (knitting), Knit dyeing, Printing & Garments manufacturing departments. With an area of 300,000 square feet Padma PolyCotton kint Fabrics Limited is located in Tejgaon, Industrial Area, Dhaka. Padma PolyCotton kint Fabrics Limited is very much distinctive about the quality of the product as in the knitting & dyeing section varieties of product is produced. All of the machineries used in this company are branded, modern & sophisticated machineries. All of the manpower of this company are highly trained and consists of skillful knowledge. This company deals with various foreign buyers those are very much renowned worldwide for their supremacy. Among these buyers I may include S.Oliver, Tom Tailor, Esprit, C & A, Defacto, New Look etc 7
  9. 9. 1.2 General Information about the Mill: Name of the mill : Padma PolyCotton Knit Fabrics Limited Status : Private Limited Company Type : 100% Export oriented industry knit composite mill. Year of establishment : 1995 Year Year of starting production : 1995 Year Location: 131 Tejgaon Industrial Area,Dhaka. Address: Factory: 131 Tejgaon Industrial Area,Dhaka.    Head Office:   Raw Materials: 5, Rajuk Avenue,Dhaka-1000 Tel: 9460917-20. Fax: 880956204 Email: Padma@bd.com        100% cotton 100% polyester a) Spun b) Filament 100% Viscose 95% cotton 5% lycra 95% polyester 5% lycra 95% viscose 5% lycra 60% cotton 40% polyester 50% polyester 50% sulcool 48% cotton 48% modal 4% lycra a) b) c) d) e) f) g) 8 Ton/Day 25 Ton/day 65000 Pcs/day 60000 Pcs/day 60000 Pcs/Day 35000 Pcs/Day 15000 Pcs/Day Production Capacity: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Knitting Section Dying Section Cutting Section Sewing Section Printing Section Embroidery Section Garment Washing Capacity 8
  10. 10. Yearly Turnover: 2 Million US dollar per year(approx.) Different Departments: a) Knitting Section 2 Knitting section Inspection b) Dyeing Section Batch section Dyeing lab. Dyeing section Quality control Finishing c) Garments Section Cutting Sewing R.N.D. / Sample Finishing & packing Quality Control I.E.N. & planning Store d) Merchandising & Marketing e) Maintenance Section Electrical f) Store Section Supporting Departments Mechanical Security department HRD 9
  11. 11. Marketing Procurement Finance and accounting Personnel administration Total Manpower: Over 4000 Major Customers: S.Oliver, Tom Tailor, Esprit, C&A ,New Look, TEMA, Defacto 1.3 Board of Directors: Khan Mohammed Ameer CEO Padma Group Mrs. Parveen Sultana Khan Managing Director Padma Group Mrs. Rukshana Ameer Director Padma Group 10
  12. 12. CHAPTER 2 Manpower management 11
  13. 13. 2.1 Management System:          Buyer sample is send to G.M. Matching is done by lab in charge. Sample is prepared by asst. dyeing master. Sample is send to the buyer for approval. Approved sample is returned and taken as std. Sample for bulk production. Asst. dyeing master gives responsibilities to production officer Then production officer, with the supervisors start bulk production On line and off line quality check is done by lab in charge and asst. dyeing master. After dyeing finishing in charge controls the finishing process with the supervision of production officer  After finishing, the material is checked by asst. dyeing master  Finally G.M. checks the result with asst. dyeing master and decision is taken for delivery 2.2 Shift Change: Three shifts (A, B, C): each of 8 hrs  A Shift: 6 A.M to 2 P.M.  B Shift: 2 P.M. to 10 P.M  C Shift: 10 P.M. to 6 A.M  General Shift: 9 A.M to 8 P.M.  Office Time : 9 AM to 5 PM 2.3 Responsibilities of HR: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Man Power Planning. Man Power recruitment. Man Power Selection. To monitor Performance of Management. To Observe Disciplinary cases. To look after the welfare of worker. To handle Grievances of worker 12
  14. 14. 2.4 Job description and Responsibilities:  Title : Supervisor Dept. /Section : knitting Report to : Shift Incharge Job summary: To guide the operator and helpers working at the production unit, motivation the workers when necessary, Check the materials list whether they are at the right quantity or not.  Title : Shift Incharge Dept. /Section : knitting Report to : Production Officer Job summary: To follow the workers movement, To maintenance the production sequence,to check the sample at certain time interval, To set programs for the supervisions.  Title : Production Officer Dept/Section : knitting Report to : Manager Job summary: To plan, execute & follows up the production activities & control the quality Production with related activities.  Title : Manager Dept/Section : knitting Report to : General Manager Job summary: To plan for the sequence of production, To arrange necessary raw material for the production, to follow up the production and give solution to the production problems, To supervise the personal working under him.  Title : General Manager Dept/Section : knitting Report to : Director and Chairmen Job summary: To plan,apply and administrative function, To set up the price for the product, To deal with the buyer and merchandiser . 13
  15. 15. CHAPTER 3 Raw materials 14
  16. 16. Raw material is a unique substance in any production oriented textile industry. It plays a vital role in continuous production and for high quality fabric. Padma PolyCotton Knit Fabrics Limited Takes yarn as its raw materials for its initial production of knitted fabrics to make garments. It is dependent on different spinning mills of home and abroad to collect different types of yarn as it requires. 3.1 Types of raw material: Natural and synthetic, cellulosic, non-cellulosic all kind of yarn are used as raw materials in this mill. Generally cotton, polyester, viscose, nylon is most widely used. 3.2 Yarn Cotton yarn used in the Padma PolyCotton knit Fabrics Limited according to yarn count. Serial No: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Yarn Count 18CD 20CD 20CB 22CD 22CB 24CD 24CB 26CD 26CB 28CD 28CB 30CD 30CB 32CD 32CB 34CD 34CB 36CD 36CB 40CD 40CB Brand Name ARIF AMAN MOTIN NRG NRG SQR PRIME VIYELLA AMAN MALAK MALAK MSA MSA DELTA DELTA BEXTEX BEXTEX AKBAR AKBAR KADER KADER *CB= Combed, CD=Carded 15
  17. 17. 3.3 Sources of raw materials:  Square spinning mills ltd.  ARIF KNITSPIN LTD.  N.R.G Spinning mills ltd.  Akbar composite ltd.  The delta spinning ltd.  BEXTEX LTD.  TRIDENT LTD.  MSA spinning limited.  MATIN SPINNING MILL’S LTD.  THERMAX SPINNING LTD.  SQUARE TEXTILE LTD.  PRIME COMPOSITE MILLS LTD.  Aman cotton fibrous ltd.  Kader compact Spinning  VIYELLATEX 3.4 Remarks: Padma PolyCotton Knit Fabrics Limited uses the best quality raw materials, maximum amount for raw materials are collected from home and rest of amount is collected from India, Korea, and Vietnam etc. Raw materials are tested before going for production. 16
  18. 18. CHAPTER 3 Machine description 17
  19. 19. Knitted structures are progressively built up from row of intermeshed loops. The newly feed yarn converted into a new loop in each needle hook. The needle then draws a new loop head first through the old loop, which remains from previous knitted cycle. The needles at the same time release the old loop so that they hang suspended by their heads from the feet of the new loops whose heads are still held in the hook of the needles. A cohesive knitted loop structure is thus produced by a combination of the intermeshed needle loops and yarn that passes from needle loop to needle loop. Padma PolyCotton Knit Fabrics Limited is well equipped modern export oriented industry. It has high quality machinery with large production. There are 2 types of machine in this industry. These are:-  Circular knitting machine   Single jersey machine Double jersey machine  Flatbed machine (cuff & collar). 4.1 Machine at a glance: Machine type Machine name Total no Circular knitting machine Single jersey 28 Double jersey 14 Collar , cuff 33 Flat knitting machine 18
  20. 20. 4.2 Machine Description of knitting section: Circular Knitting machines: In total there are 42 knitting machine are present in Padma PolyCotton Knit Fabrics Limited and which are divided in to two floor. First floor contain 30 circular knitting machine. FIGURE: LAYOUT OF FIRST FLOOR (KNITTING SECTION) 19
  21. 21. 4.3 Machine Specification of 1st floor: Serial No: Machine Name Machine Type Origin Machine Diameter Machine Gauge No of Feeder 1. Origio -1 Single Jersey Italy 26” 24G 84 2. Origio -2 Single Jersey Italy 26” 24G 84 3. Origio -3 Single Jersey Italy 30” 24G 96 4. Origio -4 Single Jersey Italy 30” 24G 96 5. Origio -5 Single Jersey Italy 30” 24G 96 6. Origio -6 Lycra Rib Italy 30” 18G 60 7. Origio -7 Lycra Interlock Italy :30” 18G 60 8. Origio -8 Fleece Italy 20” 20G 96 9. Origio -9 Single jersey Italy 30” 20G 96 10. Origio -10 Single Jersey Italy 30” 24G 96 11. Origio -11 Single Jersey Italy 30” 24G 96 12. Origio -12 P/Interlock Italy 30” 22G 96 13. Origio -13 P/Interlock Italy 30” 24G 96 14. Origio -14 P/Interlock Italy 30” 22G 96 15. Origio -16 Rib Italy 36” 18G 72 16. Origio -17 Lycra Rib Italy 36” 18G 72 17. Baso - 6 Fleece China 32” 20G 102 18. Baso - 7 Fleece China 35” 24G 108 19. Mayer - 1 Fleece Germany 30” 20G 96 20
  22. 22. 20. Mayer – 2 Fleece Germany 30” 20G 96 21. Mayer - 7 Rib Germany 36” 18G 62 22. TERROT-17 Single jersey Germany 22” 24G 70 23. TERROT-25 Single jersey / Germany 24” 20G 70 Heavy jersey 24. Terrot -26 Single jersey Germany 34” 24G 108 25. Terrot -27 Lycra Rib Germany 34” 18G 60 26. Terrot -28 Rib Germany 36” 18G 64 27. Terrot -29 Lycra Rib Germany 30” 18G 54 21
  23. 23. 4.4 Layout of the 2nd floor of knitting section: Second floor contain total 12 circular knitting machine. FIGURE: LAYOUT OF SECOND FLOOR (KNITTING SECTION) 22
  24. 24. 4.5 Machine Specification of 2nd floor: Serial No: Machine Name Machine Type Origin 28. Pailung - 1 Single jersey 29. Pailung -2 30. Machine Diameter Machine Gauge No of Feeder Taiwan 34” 24G 102 Fleece /terry Taiwan 36” 24G 108 Pailung - 3 Single jersey Taiwan 36” 24G 108 31. Pailung - 4 Single jersey Taiwan 42” 24G 126 32. Pailung - 5 D/Interlock Taiwan 40” 24G 80 33. Lisky – 1 Fleece Taiwan 32” 20G 102 34. Lisky - 2 Fleece Taiwan 32” 20G 102 35. Baso - 1 Single jersey Taiwan 28” 24G 84 36. Baso - 2 Single jersey Taiwan 34” 24G 102 37. Baso - 3 P/Interlock Taiwan 38” 24G 76 38. Baso - 4 Single jersey Taiwan 36” 24G 108 39. Baso - 5 Single jersey Taiwan 30” 24G 90 23
  25. 25. 4.6 LAYOUT OF COLLAR AND CUFF SECTION: Collar-cuff section contain 19 semi-automatic and 12 automatic flatbed machine. FIGURE: LAYOUT OF COLLAR AND CUFF SECTION 24
  26. 26. 4.7 Machine Specification of Collar and cuff section: Machine Type Company Name Brand name Gauge Origin Total no of machine Fully Automatic Flat bed knitting machine Matsuya Corporation - G 14 Japan 19 Computerized Flat Bed knitting machine Sheng Meel machine manufacturing limited Flying Tiger G 14 Taiwan 6 Computerized Flatbed knitting machine Shima Seiki manufacturing limited - G 14 Japan 7 Tape Making Machine Saehwa Precision Machine Company Saehwa loom - Korea 1 25
  27. 27. CHAPTER 5 Process planning & operation operation 26
  28. 28. 5.1 Classification of Knitting Classification of knitting can be prevented as below: Knitting Warp knitting Weft knitting Circular knitting Flat knitting Single jersey Double jersey Weft knitting: A method of making a fabric by normal knitting means in which the loops made by each weft thread are formed substantially across the width of the fabric, characterized by the fact that each weft thread is fed more of less at right angle to the direction in which the fabric is produced. Single jersey: A fabric in which all the loops of the Wales are intermeshed in one direction is called single jersey only cylinder to make single jersey fabric. 27
  29. 29. Double jersey: A fabric in which all loops of the alternate Wales are intermeshed in one direction and all the loops of the other Wales knitted at the same course intermeshed in the other direction is called double jersey Dial and cylinder is used to make this type of fabric. 5.2 Process Flow Chart Of Knitting: Yarn in cone form ↓ Feeding the yarn cone in the creel ↓ Feeding the yarn in the feeder via trip-tape positive feeding arrangement and tension device ↓ Knitting ↓ Withdraw the rolled fabric and weighting ↓ Inspection ↓ Numbering 28
  30. 30. 5.3 Description of Production Process: In every mill, there maintains a sequences in production processing. It is also followed in this mill where we were in industrial attachment. The process sequences are in list below: 1) Firstly, knitting manager gets a production shit from the merchandiser as accordance as consumer requirements then he informs or orders production officer about it. 2) Production officer informs technical in charge and knows about machine in which the production will be running. 3) Technical in charge calls for leader of mechanical fitter troops, they two take decision about machine for production considering machine condition, production capacity, maintenance complexity, etc. 4) Production officer with experienced mechanical fitter adjusts required stitch length and grey GSM for required final GSM. 5) Supervisor checks daily production regularity and make operator conscious about finishing tin due time. 6) Operators operate machine in high attention as if there were no faults in the fabrics. If he thinks or sure about any fabric fault, then he calls for the mechanical fitters in duty. Mechanical fitter then fixes it if he can or he informs technical in charge. Then he comes in spot. 7) After required production and final inspection in 4-point system, they sent in dyeing section. 5.4 Process Requirements: We have already discussed there are basically three kinds of machine which is used to Produce knit fabric and these are: 1. Circular knitting machine (Single Jersey Machines). 2. Circular knitting machine (Double Jersey Machines). 3. Flat knitting machine. 29
  31. 31. 5.5 Minimum Requirement of Production Parameters: For Machine: 1. Machine Diameter 2. Machine rpm (revolution per minute) 3. No of feeds or feeders in use 4. Machine Gauge 5. Counter setup 6. Required time (M/C running time) 7. Machine running efficiency. For Lycra: 1. Should be good elasticity 2. Yarn should be uniform 3. Elastic recovery 100% Other: 1. Needle oil; should be water soluble 2. Belt 3. Grease 4. Kerosene: etc. 5.6 Considerable Points to Produce Knit Fabrics: When a buyer orders for fabric then they mention some points related to production and quality. Before production of knitted fabric, these factors are needed to consider. Those are as follows- Type of Fabric or design of Fabric. - Finished G.S.M. - Yarn count - Types of yarn (combed or carded) - Diameter of the fabric. - Stitch length - Color depth. 30
  32. 32. 5.7 Passes of Yarn in Circular knitting Machine Creel Cone Tube Knot Catcher Magnet Pressure Sensor Ceramic Eye Pot Yarn Wheel Guide Sensor Guide Ceramic eye pot (Feeder Ring) Feeder 31
  33. 33. 5.8 Different parts of circular knitting machine: 1. Creel 2. Pipe 3. VDQ Pulley 4. Pulley belt 5. Brush 6. Knot Cather 7. Tension Disk 8. Inlet top motion 9. Yarn guide 10. MPF Wheel 11. MPF 12. Outlet stop motion 13. Feeder ring 14. Feeder 15. Needle 16. Needle track 17. Sinker 18. Sinker ring 19. Cam box 20. Cam 21. Lycra Attachment 22. Lycra stop motion 23. Inverter 24. Cylinder/dial 25. Screen 26. Cylinder Balancer 27. ON/OFF Switch 28. Power Switch 29. Automatic oiler 30. Motor 31. Machine motherboard 32. Manual drive 5.19 Function of knitting elements Name: Needle The needle is the primary knitting element. Needle is a thin metal bar. Function:  It is used to produce a loop 32
  34. 34. Name: Sinker The sinker is the second primary knitting element. It is a thin metal plate. Function:    Holding down Knocking over Loop formation Name: Knitting Cam Cam is the devices which convert rotary machine drive in to a suitable reciprocation action for the needle. Knit cam Function:  To produce knit loop Tuck cam Function:  To produce Tuck loop. Miss cam Function:  To produce miss loop. Name: Cam Box Function:  To set cam on the slider. 33
  35. 35. Name: Oiling Point Function:  To pass oil into the needle. Name: Air Pipe Function:  To flow air into the cam and needle. Name: Quality Adjustments Pulleys Function:  It is used to control GSM Name: Hemminge Positive Feeder Function:  It is use to apply positive Feed of the yarn. Name: Lycra Feeding Device Function:  It is use to apply positive Feed of the spandex. 34
  36. 36. Name: Needle Detector Function:  It is used to detect faulty Needle in the machine.  Stop the machine when it finds out faulty needle. Name: Creel Function:  Creel is a part of a knitting machine. Hear yarn package are store and Ready to feed in the machine . Name: Pulley Belt Function:  It controls the rotation of the MPF wheel. Name: Yarn Guide Function:  Help the yarn to feed the feeder. . Name: Feeder Function:  Feeder is help yarn to feed in to the machine. . 35
  37. 37. Name: Needle Trick Function:  Where all needle is placed together in a decent design. Name: Stop Sensor Function:  Indicates when yarn becomes worn out. Name: Screen and On Off Switch Function:  Indicates the all information of the machine switch use to Start or stop the machine. 36
  38. 38. 5.10 Production Calculation: A. Production / shift in Kg at 100% efficiency = 𝑅𝑃𝑀 × 𝑁𝑜. 𝑂𝑓 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑒𝑟 × 𝑁𝑜 𝑜𝑓 𝑛𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑙𝑒 × 𝑆𝐿 × 60 × 12 10 × 25.4 × 36 × 840 × 2.2046 × 𝑌𝑎𝑟𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 B. Production/shift in meter = = 𝐶𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠𝑒/ 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠𝑒/𝑐𝑚 𝑅𝑃𝑀×𝑁𝑜.𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑒𝑟×60×12×𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠𝑒/𝑐𝑚×100 C. Fabric width in meter 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑜.𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠 = 𝑊𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠/𝑐𝑚×100 = 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑜.𝑜𝑓 𝑛𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑤𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠/𝑐𝑚×100 D. GSM Calculation 1. = = 𝑆𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦×𝑆𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ(𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑚)×59 𝑌𝑎𝑟𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡(𝑖𝑛 𝑁𝑒) 𝐶𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠𝑒/𝑐𝑚×𝑤𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠/𝑐𝑚×𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ(𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑚) ×59 𝑌𝑎𝑟𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡(𝑖𝑛 𝑁𝑒) 2. = = 𝑆𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦×𝑆𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ 𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ(𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑚)×𝑌𝑎𝑟𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 ( 𝑖𝑛 𝑡𝑒𝑥) 10 𝐶𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠𝑒/𝑐𝑚×𝑤𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠/𝑐𝑚×𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ(𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑚) ×𝑦𝑎𝑟𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡(𝑖𝑛 𝑡𝑒𝑥) 10 37
  39. 39. E. Length calculation 𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 (𝑖𝑛 𝑔𝑚) ×39.37 = 𝑊𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ (𝑖𝑛 𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ) ×𝐺𝑆𝑀 Fabric Type: Single Jersey Plain Number of Feeder : 90 R.P.M. of Machine: 30 Machine Dia : 30 Machine Gauge : 24 Count of Yarn : 24/1 Ne Stitch Length : 2.74 Efficiency : 85 % Production/8 hours shift = 90 x 30 x 60 x 8 x 0.85 x 3.14 x 30 x 24 x 2.74 Kg 10 x 2.54 x 36 x 840 x 24 x 2.2046 = 168 Kg Actual production Efficiency = × 100% Calculated production =138/168×100 = 82% 38
  40. 40. Fabric Type: 1 X 1 RIB No of Feeder: 60 R.P.M. of Machine: 25 Machine Dia: 30 Machine Gauge Yarn Count : 34/1 Efficiency : 80 % Production/ 8 hours shift = Stitch length : 20 : 2.54 60 x 25 x 60 x 8 x 0.8 x 3.14 x 30 x 20 x 2.54 Kg 10 x 2.54 x 36 x 840 x 34 x 2.2046 = 96 Kg Actual production Efficiency = × 100% Calculated production = 83 % 39
  41. 41. Fabric Type: Plain Interlock No of Feeder: 108 R.P.M. of Machine: 26 Machine Dia: 34 Machine Gauge Yarn Count : 34/1 Efficiency : 80 % Production/day = Stitch Length : 24 : 1.54 108 x 26 x 60 x 8 x 0.8 x 3.14 x 34 x 24 x 1.54 Kg 10 x 2.54 x 36 x 840 x 34 x 2.2046 = 147 Kg Actual production Efficiency = × 100% Calculated production = 74 % 5.11 Comments:     Actual production is less because of lower efficiency. Machine is stopped after complesion of each roll. This is a reason for less actual production. Machine stops during shift change Which results less actual production. Order sortage & Yarn sortage also responsible for less actual production. 40
  42. 42. CHAPTER 6 Quality assurance system 41
  43. 43. 6.1 Quality Assurance: Quality assurance is defined as all those possible planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence than a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. The Quality Assurance Department is assigned to maintain consistently uniform quality of the material in process and various stages of manufacturing. 6.2 Object of Quality Control:       Specification test Raw materials control Process control Process development Product testing Research 6.3 Quality Assurance System:Quality assurance procedure may be divided into two major parts: 1) Online quality control 2) Offline quality control 6.4 Yarn quality:  check the quality by yarn test method( suitable for white color or dark color)  check the yarn count( thick/thin, slub,neps,contamination, patta,hariness) 6.5 Knitting quality: Working Area of ON Line Quality Control: At the knitting production stage check the every fabric quality by online quality person. Also check the program sheet with the knit card (like buyer, order, yarn count, machine diameter, gauge, stitch length, yarn lot etc.) 42
  44. 44. a) On line circular knit: Function: 1. Design & shade approval. 2. Yarn & m/c evaluation. 3. QC parameter checking. 4. Body& Rib Inspection. b) On line flat knit: Function: 1. Design & shade approval. 2. Yarn & m/c evaluation. 3. QC parameter checking. 4. Collar & cuff. Inspection. a) Grey inspection: Function: 1. 100% Fabric Inspection. 2. Fabric transfer to store. 3. Area cleaning. 4. Co-ordination & reporting. b) On line finishing: Function: 1. 100% Fabric Inspection. 2. Problem Identification. 3. Problem Rectification. 4. Fabric Transfer for reprocesses. 43
  45. 45. 6.6 Response to Faults: Following response is to be taken: Faults Response Grey inspection Inform yarn supplier & knitting department. Knitting fault Inform knitting Department Finishing fault Inform Finishing Department Working Area of OFF Line Quality Control: After knitting, check the grey fabric by inspection machine .find out the knitting fault & mark by marker pen. Make a report sheet (on 4 point system). 6.7 List of equipment for quality control: The list of equipment’s to assure quality:1) Inspection m/c. 2) Electronic balance 3) GSM cutter. 4) Measuring tape. 5) Scissors. 6) Indication sticker. Following faults are detected & identified in final inspection for body: A) Penalty points legends: B) Faulty appearance: H= Hole US= Uneven shade OS= Oil Stain N= Neps CS= Chemical stain CR= Crease Mark RS= Rust Stain HR= Hairy GS= Grease Stain MS= Machine stoppage MS= Missing Yarn NL= Needle Line DS= Drop Stitch BR= Barre mark D= Dirt Stain Tension CM= Crumple MarkUT= Uneven DC= Dead Cotton 44
  46. 46. S= Stripe BW= Bowing OL= Oil Line TT= Thick & Thin Yarn S= Slubs SM= Sinker Mark FL= Fly Contamination MY= Mixed Yarn YC= Yarn Contamination BE= Birds Eye WD= Wrong Design BR= Barre Mark PH= Pin Holes Besides roll to roll and meter to meter variation is checked. 6.8 Quality Assurance System Padma PolyCotton Knit Fabrics Limited maintains the ISO: 9002 standard in case of quality. Therefore, the four points system is followed to inspect fabric. The defects found and points given against are recorded in the inspection sheet. Following table shows the four point grading system followed by inspection at the Padma PolyCotton Knit Fabrics Limited. Penalty point Length of defects 3 inches or less 1 Over 3 inch but not over 6 inch 2 Over 6 inch but not over 9 inch 3 Over 9 inch 4 Hole Penalty Point 1 inch or less 2 Over 1 inch 4 Total defect points per 100 square yards are calculated 45
  47. 47. 6.9 Some Common Knitting Faults: NAME: CAUSES : FIGURE 1. Due to tide knots. Hole 2. Needle break due to slub. 3. Defective needle on yarn. Set up or press off 1. Due to drop stitch and empty needle running into the yarn feeder. 2. If an empty needle (generally after drop stitch) with a close latch runs into the yarn feeders and remove the yarn out from the hook of the following needles. Sinker Line 1.Due to uneven movement of sinker 46
  48. 48. 1. Due to defective needle. Needle Line 2. Dirty needle slot. 3. Needle is too tight or loose in the slot. Thick and Thin places 1. Uneven tension. 2. Uneven courses. 3. Count mix, lot mix. Oil Line 1. Over flow of oil 1. Faulty positive feed system Missing Yarn 2. Wrong feeder setting. 3. Due to missing of cotton or spandex yarn 47
  49. 49. CHAPTER 7 Sample analysis 48
  50. 50.  Single Jersey Plain Structure Sample Needle and cam arrangement  Polo Pique Structure Sample Needle and cam arrangement 49
  51. 51.  Back Pique Or Double Lacoste Structure Sample Needle and cam arrangement  Two Yarns Fleece (In-Lay) Structure Sample Needle and cam arrangement 50
  52. 52.  Three-Thread Fleece Structure Sample Needle and cam arrangement  1×1 Rib Structure Dial Cylinder Sample 51
  53. 53.  2×2 Rib Structure Dial Cylinder Sample  Terry Structure cam arrangement K K K K T M M M K K K K M M T M 1234 Needle arrangement 52
  54. 54.  Plain Interlock Structure Sample 53
  55. 55. CHAPTER 8 Maintenance management 54
  56. 56. Maintenance is a process by which equipment is looked after in such a way that trouble free. Services and increased machine life can be ensured and specific product quality required by the customers is sustained. 8.1 Objective of Maintenance:     To keep the factory plants, equipment’s, machine, tools in an optimum working condition. To ensure specified accuracy to product & time schedule of delivery to customer. To keep the down time of machines to the minimum thus to have control over the production program. To keep the production cycle within the stipulated range. To modify the machine tools to meet the need for production 8.2 Types of Maintenance:- Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Electrical Maintenance Mechanical Maintenance Break Down Maintenance Electrical maintenance Mechanical Maintenance 8.3 Preventive Maintenance Preventive Maintenance is a predetermined routine activity to ensure on time inspection / checking of facilities to uncover conditions that may lead to production break downs or harmful depreciation. 8.4 ROUTINE MAINTENANCE Routine maintenance usually denotes those activities of maintenance which are bare minimum to ensure efficient working of machines. These activities have to be performed according to predetermined frequencies which are based on technical and quality considerations. 55
  57. 57. Routine maintenance tasks followed in the factory Daily work       Motor sound checking Auto line checking Positive feeder checking Oil line checking Airline checking Take up roller checking         Gear box checking All bearing checking All bearing greasing Panel board cleaning Fan filter cleaning Checking all control panels Lubrication of all motor bearing All cable terminal tighten Every 15 days 8.5 Maintenance tools & equipment’s Adjustable Wrench Use :  To set different type of nuts And bolts  Tightening & loosening of nuts & bolts. Double Head Spanner Use :   To set nuts and bolts. Tightening & loosening of nuts & bolts. 56
  58. 58. Single Head Spanner Use :   To set nuts and bolts. Tightening & loosening of nuts & bolts. T-Type L-Key Use :   Use to fitting cam box And other m/c parts. Tightening & loosening of nuts & bolts. Allen-Key Use :   Pin setter Use Use to fitting cam box And other m/c parts. Tightening & loosening of nuts & bolts. :  To hold small m/c parts. T-Type L-Key Use :  To fitting cam box And other m/c parts.  Tightening & loosening Of nuts & bolts. Flat Screw Driver Use :   To fitting varies type screw. Tightening & loosening of nuts & bolts. 57
  59. 59. I- Type L-Key Use :  To fitting cam box And other m/c parts.  Tightening & loosening of nuts & bolts. Hammer Use :  To beat metal parts. Multi-Pliers Use :    To hold m/c parts, Cut metal wire, Set nuts and bolts. Cutting-Pliers Use :  To cut metal wire. Long Nose-Pliers Use :  To hold and set m/c parts In thin or narrow space. 58
  60. 60. CHAPTER 9 Utility services 59
  61. 61. Utility is a very big factor in case of any industry. In textile industry there are various types of utility has to be present for the smooth running of the operations. In case of any textile processing industry following types of utility are very much necessary like; 9.1 Utility required in Padma PolyCotton Knit Fabrics Limited Textile industry: 1. 2. 3. 4. Electricity Water Steam Compressed air 9.2 Sources of utility: Electricity Steam Water Compressed air Gas : Government supply and Factory own generator. : Boiler : Pump : Compressor : TITAS GAS LTD. 9.3 Machines for utility services: Power generator: In Padma PolyCotton Knit Fabrics Limited There are four power generator present and three of them run by diesel fuel and the remaining one run with gas fuel. Name ENGINATOR MODEL: VHP-7100-GSID MODEL: 1000 RPM: 415/240 VOLTS: 410/24 hours 60
  62. 62. 9.4 Air Compressor: In order to compress the air and to raise its pressure Air compressor is used. The air compressor sucks air from the atmosphere, compress it and then deliver the same under a high pressure to a storage vessel. From the storage vessel it may be conveyed by the pipeline to a place where the supply of compressed air is required. Padma PolyCotton Knit Fabrics limited does have five compressors Machine no 1 2 3 4 5 BRAND KEISER KEISER LG KEISER - ORIGIN Germany Germany - Germany UK SERIAL 4511922 4511922 6M37021558H 1824 SSRML50 POWER 30KW 30KW - 55KW - 3bar 3bar 5m3/min 11bar 8bar CAPACITY 61
  63. 63. CHAPTER 10 conclusion 62
  64. 64. 10.1 Conclusion: For every person who is fresher in the field of textile, industrial training works like learning route. This course has given the opportunity to learn the industrial work & follow the process sequence virtually. From our two month observation of the industry along with research & development and knitting section specially, we can say that in the knitting sector, this industry has strong possibility because the industry is running with all modern machineries & very knowledgeable persons are working all the time. In the production floor the commanding power of the officers, compliance, administration rules, everything is appealing. We hope that this industrial training will help us a lot in the future period where ever we want to develop our career. Finally wishing the best prospect for both the industry & praying for a good future for us that we want to conclude. 63

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