Skiing is a group of sports using skis as equipment for traveling over snow. Skis are used in conjunction with boots that connect to the ski with use of a binding.<br />Skiing can be grouped into two general categories. Nordic skiing, the older of the two disciplines, originated in Scandinavia and uses free-heel bindings that attach at the toes of the skier's boots but not at the heels. Types of Nordic skiing include cross-country, ski jumping and Telemark. Alpine skiing (often called "downhill skiing"), originated in the European Alps, and is characterized by fixed-heel bindings that attach at both the toe and the heel of the skier's boot.<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skiing<br />
The first hints to the existence of skis are on 4500 to 5000 year oldrock drawings, e.g. at Rødøy in Norway (discovered 1933) or at Steinkjer (discovered 2001), which depict a man on skis holding a stick. The first primitive ski was found in a peat bog in Hoting, Sweden which dates back to 2500 or 4500 B.C. The earliest people to ski in Fennoscandia were probably the distant ancestors of modern day Samis. The word ski goes back to the Old Norse word skíð meaning "a stick of wood",. In modern Norwegian this word is usually pronounced [ˈʃiː]. This word is now used in most languages in the world. Languages like English and French use the original spelling "ski", and modify the pronunciation. Languages like Italian pronounce it exactly as in Norwegian, and modify the spelling: "sci". German and Spanish adapt the word to their linguistic rules; "Schier" (however there is a form- Ski) and "esquís". Interestingly, many languages make a verb form out of the noun, such as "to ski" in English, "sciare" in Italian, or "schilaufen" (as above also Ski laufen or Ski fahren) in German which is not possible in Norwegian. In Swedish, a close relation to Norwegian, the word is "skidor" (pl.). However Finnish language has its own ancient words for skis and skiing. In Finnish ski is suksi and skiing is hiihtää.<br />Other history sources have it that skiing in Iran dates back to 2000 BC, when ancient tribes are believed to have devised a ski board made from animal hide.<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_skiing<br />
Early skis<br />Different types of skis have emerged at various regions at about the same time. One suggested original inventors of skis seem to be the people of the Sayan Mountains in Asia. This is not verified. Also skis may have been used in Europe during and after the ice age. All in all there are three different types of skis in the North of Europe and Asia:<br />The Southern type has a horizontal toe-piece binding. One can distinguish the Fennoscandian type and the Russo-Baltic type. Modern ski bindings are based on the Fennoscandian model of the 19th century. The bindings of Telemark ski were developed from this type. <br />Eastern Siberian type is a thin board with a vertical four-hole binding. Sometimes it is covered with fur. <br />There is still another type. It has a horizontal stem-hole binding. One can distinguish between the types used by Lapps (and some other Fenno-ugrics) and a type used in Central and Northern Siberia. Cross-country skis were developed from the type used by the Lapps. <br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_skiing<br />
Ski poles<br />Ski poles go back to two roots:<br />The walking stick was used to keep balance. <br />The ski pole developed from a spear or a bow used for hunting. Double poles were used to reach a higher speed on skis, and better hunting. <br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_skiing<br />
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