6th p Industry Specific Tools and Equipment


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6th p Industry Specific Tools and Equipment

  1. 1. 6th P Industry Specific Tools and Equipment.Note: Content delivered in student presentations not on this presentation
  2. 2. ž Serif and sans serif fonts:ž  In typography, serifs are semi-structural details on the ends of some of the strokes that make up letters and symbols. A typeface that has serifs is called a serif typeface (or seriffed typeface). A typeface without serifs is called sans-serif, from the French sans, meaning “without”. Serif Font Sans Serif http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serif
  3. 3. ž Fonts can be either: •  Serif •  Sans Serif •  Decorativež Different fonts are good for different situationsž Fonts are files stored on individual computers and generally don’t travel, particularly in web design Reading on screen- Sans Serif Reading bulk amounts on paper –Serif Headings on paper- Serif
  4. 4. ž We anti-alias text to make it more readable on a computer monitor
  5. 5. ž All images are broken up into •  Bitmapped images •  Vector images
  6. 6. ž Bitmap images (also known as raster images) are made up of pixels in a grid.ž Common bitmap formats include: • BMP • GIF • JPEG, JPG • PNG • PICT (Macintosh) • PCX • TIFF • PSD (Adobe Photoshop)
  7. 7. ž Atit’s simplest, one bit would represent one pixel and your bit mapping would look something like this: 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Image on screen Stored in memory
  8. 8. ž  Vector images are made up of many individual, scalable objects. These objects are defined by mathematical equations rather than pixels, so they always render at the highest quality. 0,10 0,0
  9. 9. ž Losslessis a compression format where you don’t lose quality because the quality is stored for later •  Eg, Gif images, lossless WMAž Lossy is a compression type where you do lose quality, the quality is thrown away when you compress •  Eg, JPEG images, MPEG sound/video
  10. 10. ž Image resolution describes the detail an image holds. The term applies equally to digital images, film images, and other types of images. Higher resolution means more image detail.ž The greater the detail in the image, the larger the file size. (it is important to think about what type of files you would use for different situations i.e. the web)
  11. 11. ž However, each pixel has more than a yes/ no piece of information. Each pixel also has a colour and tone
  12. 12. ž The more colours and tones an image has, the greater the bit depth.ž Eg. Bit depth Number of colours or Relationship (number of bits per tones pixel) 1 2 21=2 2 4 22=4 3 8 23=8 8 256 28=256 16 65536 216=65536
  13. 13. ž Clipart– royalty free imagesž Screencapture (show example) •  Software that can be used: –  Screengrab (Mozilla add-on) –  Capture fox –  Fireshot
  14. 14. ž Both scanners and cameras digitize data in the same wayž They convert light reflected from an image or an object into electrical signals recorded as binary.
  15. 15. ž  Resolutionis measured by how many pixels the image containsž  Eg 2240 2240x1680this allows largeprinted photos, with =3,763200good quality forprints up to 16x20inches. 4 megapixel 1680
  16. 16. ž  Stock photos (stock ž Image Libraries photography) are professional photographs of common places, landmarks, nature, events or people that are bought and sold on a royalty-free basis and can be used and reused for commercial design purposes.
  17. 17. ž Path Animation •  Drawing a line for an image to follow during an animation. •  Behavioural Animation
  18. 18. ž  Frame Rates •  the number of frames or images that are projected or displayed per second. •  The higher the number of frames playing per second, the smoother the video playback appears to the user. Lower rates result in a choppy playback. (As a reference point, film uses 24 frames per second to allow the viewer to perceive smooth playback.) •  Several factors affect the actual frame rate you get on your computer. For example, your PC processor or graphics hardware may only be capable of playing 10-15 frames per second without acceleration.http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid7_gci213531,00.html
  19. 19. ž  Rendering •  is the process of generating an image from a model, by means of computer programs. The model is a description of three-dimensional objects in a strictly defined language or data structure. It would contain geometry, viewpoint, texture, lighting, and shading information. The image is a digital image or raster graphics image. •  In the case of 3D graphics, rendering may be done slowly, as in pre-rendering, or in real time. Pre-rendering is a computationally intensive process that is typically used for movie creation, while real-time rendering is often done for 3D video games which rely on the use of graphics cards with 3D hardware accelerators.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rendering_%28computer_graphics%29
  20. 20. ž  Motion Capture •  Motion capture, motion tracking, or mocap are terms used to describe the process of recording movement and translating that movement onto a digital model. It is used in entertainment, sports, and medical applications. In filmmaking it refers to recording actions of human actors, and using that information to animate digital character models in 2D or 3D computer animation. When it includes face, fingers and captures subtle expressions, it is often referred to as performance capture.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motion_capture
  21. 21. ž  A computer-simulated environment, whether that environment is a simulation of the real world or an imaginary world. Most current virtual reality environments are primarily visual experiences, displayed either on a computer screen or through special or stereoscopic displays, but some simulations include additional sensory information, such as sound through speakers or headphones. Some advanced, systems now include tactile information, generally known as force feedback, in medical and gaming applications. Users can interact with a virtual environment. The simulated environment can be similar to the real world, for example, simulations for pilot or combat training, or it can differ significantly from reality, as in VR games.
  22. 22. ž Simulator •  any device or system that simulates specific conditions or the characteristics of a real process or machine for the purposes of research or operator training space simulator. •  a machine that simulates an environment for the purpose of training or research.
  23. 23. ž Walkthrough •  See historical sites which allow a user to ‘walkthrough’ museums and castles without ever being there. •  Can now also be seen in the housing market. •  http://www.realestate.com.au/cgi-bin/rsearch? a=o&f=0&p=10&t=res&ty=&c=6547288&s=nsw& snf=rbs&tm=1263805478&id=106006416&gts=1 &gts-suburb=ROSEBERY,ROSE+BAY|nsw,nsw
  24. 24. ž Navigable Scene •  See Google street. •  The ability to move in a virtual world. •  http://maps.google.com.au/help/maps/ streetview/
  25. 25. ž  Video formats are made up of: •  the container •  the codec(s) used inside that container. The container describes the structure of the file: where the various pieces are stored, how they are interleaved, and which codecs are used by which pieces.  It may specify an audio codec as well as video. A codec ("coder/decoder") is a way of compressing the file to decrease file size, while maintaining quality
  26. 26. ž Video Formats (Containers) •  AVI (.avi) •  Quicktime •  WMV (.wmv)ž Video Codecs •  MPEG(Moving Pictures Expert Group) •  RM (Real Media) •  DivX
  27. 27. ž Analog signals (pictures and audio) are converted to digital signals via a video capture cardž A video or animation is made up of frames: individual pictures that are put together to create the illusion of movement.
  28. 28. ž Sound Waves
  29. 29. ž There are three major groups of audio file formats: •  Uncompressed –  eg, WAV •  Lossless Compression Format –  eg, lossless Windows Media Audio (WMA). •  Lossy compression –  eg,MP3 –  Vorbis –  lossy Windows Media Audio (WMA) –  AAC.
  30. 30. ž Losslessis a compression format where you don’t lose quality because the quality is stored for later •  Eg, Gif images, lossless WMAž Lossy is a compression type where you do lose quality, the quality is thrown away when you compress •  Eg, JPEG images, MPEG sound/video
  31. 31. ž Sound is analog data: it has continuous variable pointsž Audio is sound which has been digitised by a computerž Sound is converted to audio via the sound card which is a dàa and aàd converter
  32. 32. ž  Sampling has 3 characteristics •  Sampling rate: number of times a sample (Slice) is taken from a sound wave. •  Higher sampling rate, the better quality the sound •  Two common sampling Rates: –  44.1kHz (44100 samples per second) –  22.05kHz (22050 samples per second)
  33. 33. ž  Sample size is the number of bits per sample (number of possible points)ž  More bits= higher quality soundž  8 bit 16 bit
  34. 34. ž  MIDIž  MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface), is an industry-standard protocol defined in 1982 that enables electronic musical instruments such as keyboard controllers, computers, and other electronic equipment to communicate, control, and synchronize with each other. MIDI allows computers, synthesizers, MIDI controllers, sound cards, samplers and drum machines to control one another, and to exchange system data. MIDI does not transmit an audio signal or media — it transmits "event messages" such as the pitch and intensity of musical notes to play, control signals for parameters such as volume, vibrato and panning, cues, and clock signals to set the tempo. As an electronic protocol, it is notable for its widespread adoption throughout the music industry.ž  All MIDI compatible controllers, musical instruments, and MIDI- compatible software follow the same MIDI 1.0 specification, and thus interpret any given MIDI message the same way, and so can communicate with and understand each other. Because the music is simply data rather than recorded audio waveforms, the data size of the files is quite small by comparison.
  35. 35. ž TMBG
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