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Really Engaging Accounting: Second Life ™  as a Learning Platform Dr. Steven Hornik / Robins Hermano Kenneth Dixon School ...
Accounting and Second Life? <ul><li>1 st  Year accounting course requires mastery of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li>...
The Problem <ul><li>Shhh, Accounting can be Boring </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting can be Difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Boring ...
A Solution <ul><li>Create Student Engagement! </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement Can Lead To: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased ti...
But What is Engagement <ul><li>We all Say, Isn’t Second Life ™  Engaging? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are we talking about the w...
Some definitions <ul><li>Engage the Student </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the amount of physical and psychological energy that t...
Social Presence <ul><li>“the degree of salience of the other person in the interaction and the consequent salience of the ...
A Model Environmental Believability Sense of Being There Connections with  Students and Content Social Presence Student En...
One More Factor <ul><li>Student Epistemological Beliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How students think they learn </li></ul></ul...
Prior Accounting Studies <ul><li>Few studies have examined Accounting students and Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Hall, Rams...
Encouraging Engagement  Changing Course Environment <ul><li>Traditional Course (Student perspective): </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Engagement <ul><li>Social Learning and Play </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Playing with an Equation might lead to more time on task...
Hypotheses <ul><li>H1: Engaged students performance outcomes (Exam Scores) will exceed those of disengaged students. </li>...
Research Setting <ul><li>1 st  Year Financial Accounting </li></ul><ul><li>Required Course </li></ul><ul><li>Spring 2008 <...
Research Treatment <ul><li>Really Engaging Accounting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Central Florida plot in Second L...
3-D Accounting Equation <ul><li>The model allowed students to visualize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how a debit or credit would ...
 
Assignments
Interactive T-Account <ul><li>Students become game pieces </li></ul><ul><li>Enables students to practice their understandi...
 
 
 
T-Account Data
Participants <ul><li>110 Students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60 Male </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50 Female </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
ITC-Sense of Presence <ul><li>Platform agnostic </li></ul><ul><li>40 question, 5 point Likert scale </li></ul><ul><li>Four...
ITC-SOPI Factors <ul><li>Spatial Presence (Social presence) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I had a sense of being in the scenes dis...
Results
Hypothesis 1 <ul><li>Mean of exam scores of Engaged vs. Disengaged </li></ul>
Hypothesis 1 – Partially Supported t df Sig. (1 tailed) Mean Difference Exam 1 1.35 108 .09* 3.160 Exam 2 .394 103 .347 1....
Hypothesis 2 <ul><li>T-Account Assignment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work with the t-account model until you get 15 correct ans...
Hypothesis 2 - Supported
Second Life ™  Tools can enable Student Engagement <ul><li>Not all students were Engaged </li></ul><ul><li>How does Social...
Regression Model H3 Partially Supported Source Type III df Mean Square F Sig. Corrected Model 73.185* 96 .762 4.239 .003 I...
Hypothesis 4 <ul><li>Mean of Exam scores for Adversely reactions vs. Favorable Reactions </li></ul>Adverse Effect N Mean S...
Hypothesis 4 - Supported t df Sig. (1 tailed) Mean Difference Exam 1 -2.286 108 .012*** -7.11 Exam 2 -3.159 103 .001*** -1...
Summary <ul><li>Second Life ™  is a tool that can create Engaging Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging Environments can...
Conclusion <ul><li>Many have begun to explore this new learning platform and I believe many can see how different it is fr...
Follow my Journey <ul><li>http:// mydebitcredit.com </li></ul>06/04/09 CTLA Anaheim August 2008
Questions? http://www.slideshare.net/shornik/second-life-a-learning-platform
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Second Life: An Engaging Learning Platform

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Describes preliminary results of a research study examining the potential of Second Life to crate an engaging experience for students in their first financial accounting course.

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  • Second Life has the potential to be a viable learning environment, but as it stands now it is a virtual Gomorrah, compared to IMVU aka virtual Sodom. the concept is sound but the current online community would be MUCH more of a distraction, an X-rated distraction, that would only hinder serious studies for too many of SL's average users.
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Transcript of "Second Life: An Engaging Learning Platform"

  1. 1. Really Engaging Accounting: Second Life ™ as a Learning Platform Dr. Steven Hornik / Robins Hermano Kenneth Dixon School of Accounting University of Central Florida
  2. 2. Accounting and Second Life? <ul><li>1 st Year accounting course requires mastery of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What the heck is a debit or credit or for goodness sake discount on bonds payable? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often times what little understanding exists is wrong </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Credit / Debit Cards </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your credit balance in the bank </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application of language while you learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imagine being shipped to Spain with just an English to Spanish Dictionary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And told you would be starting your new customer service job as soon as you arrived </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s hard, and well its.... </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Problem <ul><li>Shhh, Accounting can be Boring </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting can be Difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Boring + Difficult = Lack of Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High student withdrawal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low student grades </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. A Solution <ul><li>Create Student Engagement! </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement Can Lead To: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased time on task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The development of deep learning </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. But What is Engagement <ul><li>We all Say, Isn’t Second Life ™ Engaging? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are we talking about the whole virtual world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sim or sims our students work on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The content we’ve built for them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The course we’ve designed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These can all be engaging </li></ul><ul><li>We need to define what it is that may Engage our students </li></ul>
  6. 6. Some definitions <ul><li>Engage the Student </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the amount of physical and psychological energy that the student devotes to the academic experience” (Astin, 1984) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the degree to which students value their learning activity (McInnis, James, & Hartley, 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Study Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoyment </li></ul></ul>Antecedents to Flow (Csikszentmihalyi , 1990)
  7. 7. Social Presence <ul><li>“the degree of salience of the other person in the interaction and the consequent salience of the interpersonal relationships’’ (Short, Williams and Christie, 1976) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Virtual Worlds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings of Immersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connection with students and content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared Social Learning Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Being There” </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. A Model Environmental Believability Sense of Being There Connections with Students and Content Social Presence Student Engagement
  9. 9. One More Factor <ul><li>Student Epistemological Beliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How students think they learn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology is sometimes incongruent </li></ul><ul><li>Technology can have adverse consequences </li></ul>
  10. 10. Prior Accounting Studies <ul><li>Few studies have examined Accounting students and Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Hall, Ramsay, and Raven (2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>found that changes in the course environment can lead to changes in the learning approaches taken by students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carnaghan and Webb (2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>found that by using group response systems (classroom clickers) students felt more engaged and actively participated more in class </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Encouraging Engagement Changing Course Environment <ul><li>Traditional Course (Student perspective): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn Accounting Equation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intangible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t touch it, Can’t manipulate it, Can’t play with it ... </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Text based, Repetitive exercises, Similar to Math Class, Little Context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn Vocabulary (Debits / Credits) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply Vocabulary to Equation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T-Accounts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Life ™ Course: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive Accounting Equation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tangible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can touch it, talk to it, receive feedback from it, PLAY with it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition can be fun? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Context found within Virtual World Economy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Business real and simulated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn Vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Game based quizzes, virtual prizes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply Vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive T-Account </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You can become a debit or credit! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>ALL in a Collaborative SOCIAL Environment </li></ul>
  12. 12. Engagement <ul><li>Social Learning and Play </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Playing with an Equation might lead to more time on task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional time on task is as little as possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects can “talk back” providing feedback throughout the process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional feedback is after the fact or right vs. wrong </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can become a transaction! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can run a business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can... </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Hypotheses <ul><li>H1: Engaged students performance outcomes (Exam Scores) will exceed those of disengaged students. </li></ul><ul><li>H2: Engagement will lead to increased time on task. </li></ul><ul><li>H3: Spatial presence and environmental validity are necessary conditions for student engagement in 3-D virtual environments. </li></ul><ul><li>H4: Students who feel adverse effects from the use of Second Life™ will have lower performance outcomes (Exam Scores) then students who do not experience these reactions. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Research Setting <ul><li>1 st Year Financial Accounting </li></ul><ul><li>Required Course </li></ul><ul><li>Spring 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>194 students </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid Course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Seat Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lectures were online (via Camtasia Studio) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class time (once a week) devoted to working problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four Exams and One Cumulative Final </li></ul><ul><li>Four Second Life homework assignments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three Accounting Equation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One T-Account </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Research Treatment <ul><li>Really Engaging Accounting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Central Florida plot in Second Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leased from New Media Consortium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3-D Accounting Equation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 Required HW assignments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3-D T-account </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 Required HW assignment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Lecture Viewing Areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group Accessible White Board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various Communication Tools </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 3-D Accounting Equation <ul><li>The model allowed students to visualize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how a debit or credit would increase or decrease the different account types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the impact that increase or decrease would have on the accounting equation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As students interacted with the model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they received feedback from the model (in the form of text chat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what a particular debit or credit transaction was doing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>whether or not a particular transaction was balanced. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Assignments
  18. 19. Interactive T-Account <ul><li>Students become game pieces </li></ul><ul><li>Enables students to practice their understanding of the concept of normal account balances </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback is provided </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorrect responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrong side Correct type </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrong type, Correct side </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrong side, Wrong type </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 23. T-Account Data
  20. 24. Participants <ul><li>110 Students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60 Male </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50 Female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age 23.9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>95% had Second Life ™ installed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> 70% expert or advanced computer and Internet skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>43% expert or advanced gaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15% gaming novices </li></ul></ul>
  21. 25. ITC-Sense of Presence <ul><li>Platform agnostic </li></ul><ul><li>40 question, 5 point Likert scale </li></ul><ul><li>Four Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial Presence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chronbach alpha = .944 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chronbach alpha = .935 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological Validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chronbach alpha = .867 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adverse Effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chronbach alpha = .852 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 26. ITC-SOPI Factors <ul><li>Spatial Presence (Social presence) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I had a sense of being in the scenes displayed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I felt I was visiting the places displayed in the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I felt that the characters and/or objects could almost touch me </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I felt involved in Second Life™ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I enjoyed myself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My experience was intense </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecological Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The content seemed believable to me </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The displayed environment seemed natural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I had a strong sense that the characters and objects were solid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adverse Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I felt dizzy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I felt nauseous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I had a headache </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I had eyestrain </li></ul></ul>
  23. 27. Results
  24. 28. Hypothesis 1 <ul><li>Mean of exam scores of Engaged vs. Disengaged </li></ul>
  25. 29. Hypothesis 1 – Partially Supported t df Sig. (1 tailed) Mean Difference Exam 1 1.35 108 .09* 3.160 Exam 2 .394 103 .347 1.179 Exam 3 1.608 103 .055** 5.018 Exam 4 1.403 98 .082* 3.040 Final Exam .525 96 .215 3.138
  26. 30. Hypothesis 2 <ul><li>T-Account Assignment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work with the t-account model until you get 15 correct answers in 5 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Descriptive Statistics </li></ul>
  27. 31. Hypothesis 2 - Supported
  28. 32. Second Life ™ Tools can enable Student Engagement <ul><li>Not all students were Engaged </li></ul><ul><li>How does Social Presence and Ecological Validity influence Student Engagement? </li></ul>
  29. 33. Regression Model H3 Partially Supported Source Type III df Mean Square F Sig. Corrected Model 73.185* 96 .762 4.239 .003 Intercept 70.821 1 70.821 393.797 .000 Spatial Presence 10.711 28 .383 2.127 .076 Ecological Validity 3.501 15 .233 1.298 .322 Adverse Effects 3.141 16 .196 1.091 .443 Gender .190 1 .190 1.058 .322 Spatial x Gender 3.470 18 .193 1.072 .458 Error 2.338 13 .180 Total 931.473 110 Corrected Total 75.523 109 * R squared = .969, (Adjusted R squared = .740)
  30. 34. Hypothesis 4 <ul><li>Mean of Exam scores for Adversely reactions vs. Favorable Reactions </li></ul>Adverse Effect N Mean Std. Deviation Exam 1: Adverse Reaction 18 72.2 3.04 Exam 1: Favorable Reaction 92 79.2 1.24 Exam 2: Adverse Reaction 16 60.8 3.46 Exam 2: Favorable Reaction 89 73.3 1.56 Exam 3: Adverse Reaction 15 64.8 3.61 Exam 3: Favorable Reaction 90 73.7 1.70 Exam 4: Adverse Reaction 15 63.3 3.41 Exam 4: Favorable Reaction 85 72.7 1.65 Final: Adverse Reaction 15 90.8 4.27 Final: Favorable Reaction 83 105.0 2.13
  31. 35. Hypothesis 4 - Supported t df Sig. (1 tailed) Mean Difference Exam 1 -2.286 108 .012*** -7.11 Exam 2 -3.159 103 .001*** -12.53 Exam 3 -2.029 103 .023*** -8.96 Exam 4 -2.219 98 .015*** -9.30 Final Exam -2.666 96 .005*** -14.20
  32. 36. Summary <ul><li>Second Life ™ is a tool that can create Engaging Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging Environments can lead to more time on task and greater student performance </li></ul><ul><li>Social Presence may predict Student Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Adverse Effects nullify benefits and result in lower student performance </li></ul>
  33. 37. Conclusion <ul><li>Many have begun to explore this new learning platform and I believe many can see how different it is from other technological innovations that have preceded it. But in the end, while learning delivery may change, we as learners have not. </li></ul><ul><li>We still require a social environment where we can meet and discuss and learn with others. We still require a level of engagement with the content in order to perform well. It seems that Second Life™ has the capability to deliver these fundamental components to learning. </li></ul>
  34. 38. Follow my Journey <ul><li>http:// mydebitcredit.com </li></ul>06/04/09 CTLA Anaheim August 2008
  35. 39. Questions? http://www.slideshare.net/shornik/second-life-a-learning-platform
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