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  • 1. The Biosphere! Chapter 3
  • 2. 3-1 What is Ecology?
    • Study of the interaction among organisms and between organisms and their environment
    • Coined by Earnest Haeckel in 1866
    • Biosphere:
      • planet, life, water, land, air and part of the atmosphere
  • 3. Levels of Organization
    • Study of the interactions between a particular organization and its surroundings.
      • Species
      • Population
      • Community
      • Ecosystem
      • Biome
      • Biosphere
  • 4. Levels of Organization
    • Species
      • Group of organisms so similar that they can breed and produce fertile offspring.
    • Population
      • Groups of individuals that belong to the same species living in the same area.
  • 5. Levels of Organization
    • Community
      • Groups of different populations within a defined area.
    • Ecosystem
      • Collection of organisms that live in a particular place with nonliving; or physical environment.
  • 6. Levels of Organization
    • Biome
      • Group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities.
    • Biosphere
      • The earth
  • 7. Ecological Methods of Study
    • Tools and techniques for studying the living world.
      • Observing
      • Experimenting
      • Modeling
  • 8. 3-2 Energy Flow
    • Producers:
      • Sunlight is the main source of energy for life
        • It is the ultimate producer
      • Autotrophs
  • 9. Energy Flow
    • Autotrophs:
      • Photosynthesis
      • Chemosynthesis
        • Without the presence of light this process is used to release energy from inorganic molecules
  • 10. Energy Flow
    • Consumers:
      • Heterotrophs
        • Herbivores
        • Carnivores
        • Omnivores
        • Detritivores
        • Decomposers
  • 11. Feeding Relationships
    • Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction:
      • From sun or inorganic compounds
      • To autotrophs
      • Then to various heterotrouphs
  • 12. Feeding Relationships
    • Relationships between producers and consumers is based on who eats whom
      • Food Chains
      • Food Webs
      • Trophic Levels
  • 13. Food Chains
    • Transfer of energy by eating and being eaten.
    • Example
      • Algae Zooplankton Small fish Squid Sharks
      • Pg. 69 in book
  • 14. Food Web
    • A network of interconnecting food chains.
    Quaternary, tertiary, and secondary consumers Tertiary and Secondary consumers Secondary and Primary consumers Producers (plants) Primary consumers.
  • 15. Food Web
    • Figure 3-8
  • 16. Trophic Level
    • Each step in a food chain or food web
    A aquatic food chain A terrestrial food chain Quaternary conusumers Trophic level Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers Producers Hawk Snake Mouse Grasshopper Plant Phytoplankton Zooplankton Herring Tuna Killer whale
  • 17. Ecological Pyramids
    • Diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter within each trophic level
    • 3 Types:
      • Energy Pyramid
      • Biomass Pyramid
      • Pyramid of Numbers
  • 18. Energy Pyramid
    • Shows the relative amount of energy available at each trophic level. Organisms use about 10 percent of this energy for life processes. The rest is lost as heat.
    100% Producers 10% First Level Consumers 1% Second Level Consumers 0.1% Third Level Consumers
  • 19. Biomass Pyramid
    • Amount of living organic matter in each trophic level.
    5000g of Grain 500g of chicken 50g of Human Tissue
  • 20. Pyramid of Numbers
    • Shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level.
    5000 Flowers and Grasses 50 Rabbits and Mice 5 Snakes 1 Hawk
  • 21. 3-3 Cycles of Matter
    • Matter is recycled within and between ecosystems
    • Biogeochemical Cycle:
      • Elements, chemical compounds and other forms of matter are passed from one organization to another and from one part of the biosphere to another
  • 22. The Water Cycle
    • Evaporation:
      • Liquid to atmospheric gas
    • Transpiration:
      • Evaporation from leaves; from liquid water to water gas
  • 23. The Water Cycle Condensation Seepage Runoff Precipitation Root Uptake Transpiration Evaporation
  • 24. Nutrient Cycles
    • Carbon Cycle
    • Nitrogen Cycle
    • Phosphorus Cycle
  • 25. Carbon Cycle
    • Carbon plays a major role in live.
    • 4 major processes to move carbon through this cycle:
      • Biological Processes
      • Geochemical processes
      • Mixed biogeochemical processes
      • Human activities
  • 26. Carbon Cycle CO 2 in atmosphere Photosynthesis Cellular respiration Burning of fossil fuels and wood Carbon compounds in water Detritus Primary consumers Higher-level consumers Decomposition
  • 27. Nitrogen Cycle
    • All organisms require nitrogen to make amino acids which are the building blocks for proteins.
    • Nitrogen fixation:
      • Bacteria convert ammonia to nitrates and nitrites.
  • 28. Phosphorus Cycle
    • It is essential to living organisms because it forms part of DNA and RNA.
    • Released as rocks and sediments break down.
  • 29. Nutrient Limitations
    • Factors that controls the primary productivity of an ecosystem is the amount of available nutrients.
    • Limiting Nutrient: a single nutrient that is scarce or cycles very slowly