18 Classification


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18 Classification

  1. 1. Classification Chapter 18
  2. 2. 18.1 Finding Order In Diversity <ul><li>Why do you think we would need to classify? </li></ul><ul><li>To study the diversity of life, biologists use a classification system to name organisms and group them in a logical manner. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why Classify? <ul><li>Taxonomy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A discipline where scientists classify organisms and assign each organism a universally accepted name </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Why Classify? <ul><li>Depending on where you are this animal could be called a mountain lion, puma, cougar or a panther– all of which are common names </li></ul><ul><li>However the scientific name is Felis concolor </li></ul>
  5. 5. Assigning Scientific Names <ul><li>Using scientific names made it easier to give one name to one animal because common names have very different meanings in different areas or they are just different all around. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Binomial Nomenclature <ul><li>Carolus Linnaeus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Swedish botanist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During the early 18 th Century (1707-1778), he created a 2 word naming system </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Binomial Nomenclature <ul><li>Each species is assigned a 2-part scientific name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always written in italic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First word is capitalized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second word is lower cased </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ex: Grizzly Bear is called Ursus arcotos </li></ul>
  8. 8. Binomial Nomenclature <ul><li>First part of the name is the genus the animal belongs to </li></ul><ul><li>Genus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group of closely related species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second part of name is unique to each species within a genus </li></ul>
  9. 9. Linnaeus’ System of Classification <ul><li>Linnaeus’ hierarchical system of classification includes 7 levels </li></ul><ul><li>From largest to smallest: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Linnaeus’ System of Classification <ul><li>Taxon: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each level or group of organization into which organisms are classified. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kingdom: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest taxonomic group. Most inclusive of closely related phyla </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Linnaeus’ System of Classification <ul><li>Phylum: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several different classes make up a phylum: they are closely related </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of similar orders, larger categories </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Linnaeus’ System of Classification <ul><li>Order: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad taxonomic categories composed of similar families </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Family: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group of genera that share the same characteristics </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 18.2 Evolutionary Classification <ul><li>Phylogeny: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary relationship among organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biologists now group organisms into categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent, or phylogeny not just physical similarities. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Evolutionary Classification <ul><li>Evolutionary Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy of grouping organism together based on their evolutionary history </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The higher the level of taxon, the farther back in time is the common ancestor of all the organisms in the taxon </li></ul>
  15. 15. Classification Using Cladograms <ul><li>Derived characters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics that appear in recent parts of a lineage but not in its order members </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cladogram </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Characteristics/ Traits Organisms Crab Barnacle Molted External Skeleton Segmentation Limpet Tiny free flowing Larvae <ul><li>Items to the left: organisms has it </li></ul><ul><li>Items to the right: organism does not have it </li></ul>
  17. 17. Similarities in DNA and RNA <ul><li>The gene of many organisms show important similarities at the molecular level. </li></ul><ul><li>Similarities in DNA can be used to help determine classification and evolutionary relationships. </li></ul>
  18. 18. 18.3 Kingdom and Domains <ul><li>5 Kingdoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6 Kingdoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biologists came to recognize that the Monera were composed of 2 distinct groups </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Kingdoms and Domains <ul><li>As a result, Monera have been separated into 2 kingdoms: Eubacteria and Archeabacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Eubacteria, Archeabacteria, Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia </li></ul>
  20. 20. The 3 Domain System <ul><li>Domain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A more inclusive category than any other larger than a kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domain Eukarya is composed of Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Domain Bacteria is composed of Eubacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Domain Archaea is composed of Archaebacteria </li></ul>
  21. 21. DOMAIN KINGDOM CELL TYPE CELL STRUCTURES NUMBER OF CELLS MODE OF NUTRITION EXAMPLES Bacteria Eubacteria Prokaryote Cell walls with peptidoglycan Unicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Streptococcus, Escherichia coli Archaea Archaebacteria Prokaryote Cell walls without peptidoglycan Unicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Methanogens, halophiles Protista Eukaryote Cell walls of cellulose in some; some have chloroplasts Most unicellular; some colonial; some multicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Amoeba, Paramecium, slime molds, giant kelp Fungi Eukaryote Cell walls of chitin Most multicellular; some unicellular Heterotroph Mushrooms, yeasts Plantae Eukaryote Cell walls of cellulose; chloroplasts Multicellular Autotroph Mosses, ferns, flowering plants Animalia Eukaryote No cell walls or chloroplasts Multicellular Heterotroph Sponges, worms, insects, fishes, mammals Eukarya
  22. 22. Domain Bacteria <ul><li>Unicellular and prokaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>Cell walls with peptidogylcan </li></ul>
  23. 23. Domain Archaea <ul><li>Unicellular and Prokaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>Cell walls with out peptidogylcan </li></ul><ul><li>Live in some of the most extreme environments you can imagine </li></ul>
  24. 24. Domain Eukarya <ul><li>Consists of all organisms that have a nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Protista: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of eukaryotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organisms that cannot be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>classified as animals, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plants or fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members share great </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>variety </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Domain Eukarya <ul><li>Fungi: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs: most feed on dead or decaying matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They secrete digestive enzymes on food and absorb food molecules </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Domain Eukarya <ul><li>Plante: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular, photosynthetic autotrophs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cone-bearing and flowering plants, mosses and ferns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells have cell walls </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Domain Eukarya <ul><li>Animalia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular heterotrophs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell walls have no cell walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They move for part of their lives </li></ul></ul>