An Human Area Networking
History of HAN
Working of RedTacton
Human society is entering an era of ubiquitous
interconnected and information is always accessible at
Three levels of connectivity:
Wide area networking
Local area networking
Human area networking
Wide Area Networks (WAN), typically via the
Internet, to remotely connect all types of servers and
Local Area Networks (LAN), typically via Ethernet
or WiFi connectivity among all the information and
communication appliances in offices and homes.
HUMAN AREA NETWORK(HAN)
HAN uses human body as communication
network and uses the concept of Red tacton to
transmit the data.
HAN transmits the data between the humancentered electronic devices and computers and
other network devices via total human natural
HISTORY OF HAN
The concept of intra-body communication was first
proposed by IBM in 1996.
This communication mechanism was later
evaluated and reported by several research groups
around the world.
All those reported technologies had two limitations.
1. The operating range through the body was limited
to a few tens of centimeters.
The top communication speed was only 40 bit/s!!
These limitations were overcome by NTT
(Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation)
located in Tokyo, Japan by using photonic electric
field sensors and finally came up with a human area
networking technology called „RedTacton‟.
RedTacton is a new innovative Human Area
Networking technology that turns the surface of the
human body as a safe, high speed network
RedTacton takes a different technical approach.
Instead of relying on electromagnetic waves or light
waves to carry data, RedTacton uses weak electric
fields on the surface of the body as a transmission
Using RedTacton, communication starts when
terminals carried by the user or embedded in
devices are linked in various combinations according
to the user's natural, physical movements.
Communication is possible using any body
surfaces, such as the hands, fingers, arms, feet, face,
legs or toes.
RedTacton works through shoes and clothing as
Technically, it is completely distinct from wireless
A transmission path is formed at the moment a
part of the human body comes in contact with a
It physically separating ends the contact and thus
A RedTacton transmitter couples with extremely
weak electric fields on the surface of the body.
The weak electric fields pass through the body to a
RedTacton receiver, where the weak electric fields
affect the optical properties of an electro-optic
The extent to which the optical properties are
changed is detected by laser light which is then
converted to an electrical signal by a detector
NTT developed super sensitive Photonic
electric field sensor for detecting minute electric
field emitted on the surface of the human body.
A person opening a door with the help of an RED TACTON device.
WHY REDTACTON ???
Bluetooth, infrared etc. were the most commonly
Used techniques for data transmission.
But these short–range wireless communication
systems have some problems.
Throughput is reduced by packet collisions.
Human area networks would solve all the
problems Including throughput reduction, low
security, and high-net work setup costs.
Meaning Of RedTacton?
TACTON: “touch-act-on” Meaning “action
triggered by touching”.
RED: It is an auspicious color according to
How Redtacton Works ??
The basic principles of RED TACTON are
1. The Red Tacton transmitter induces a weak
electric field on the surface of the body.
2. The Red Tacton receiver senses changes in the
weak electric field on the surface of the body
caused by the transmitter.
3. Red Tacton relies upon the principle that the
optical properties of an electro-optic crystal can
vary according to the changes of a weak electric
4. Red Tacton detects changes in the optical properties
of an electro-optic crystal using a laser and converts the
result to an electrical signal in an optical receiver circuit.
5. Multiple transceivers can be used simultaneously.
This is because RedTacton uses a proprietary
CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with
Collision Detection) protocol that allows multiple
access with the same medium from multiple nodes.
The working of the RED TACTON device over the surface of our body. The transmitting RED
TACTON device changes the electric field on the surface of our body. This is sensed by the electric
field sensor and the variations are given to the receiving RED TACTON device.
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TRANSCEIVER
The transmitter consists of a transmitter circuit
that induces electric fields toward the body and a
data sense circuit, which distinguishes transmitting
and receiving modes by detecting both
transmission and reception data.
Outputs control signals corresponding to the
two modes to enable two-way Communication.
Implementation of receive-first half-duplex
communication scheme that sends only after
checking to make sure that there is no data to
receive in order to avoid packet collisions.
RedTacton takes advantage of the longoverlooked electric field that surrounds the
Step by Step
Transmitting transceiver creates a change in
Receiving transceiver recognizes the change
in the electric field.
Electro-optical crystal uses laser to convert
and read the signal.
Intra Body Communication Methods
There are 2 basic methods:
1. Electric current method
2. Electric field method( Red Tacton)
A communications path can be created with a
simple touch, automatically initiating the flow
of data between a body-centric electronic
device and a computer that is embedded in the
For example, two people equipped with
RedTacton devices could exchange data just by
-A wide range of natural human actions grasping,
sitting down, walking, or standing in a particular
place can be used to trigger RedTacton to start a
Using a RedTacton electro-optic sensor, two-way
communication is supported between any two
points on the body at a throughput of up to 10
-Communication is not just confined to the surface
of the body, but can travel through the user's
clothing to a RedTacton device in a pocket or
through shoes to communicate with a RedTacton
device embedded in the floor.
-Unlike wireless technologies, the transmission
speed does not deteriorate even in the presence
of large crowds of people all communicating at
the same time in meeting rooms, auditoriums or
-Because the body surface is the transmission
path, increasing the number of connected users
directly increases the available number of
RedTacton can utilize a wide range of materials
as a transmission medium, as long as the material
is conductive and dielectric, which includes water
and other liquids, various metals, certain plastics,
Need of Supersensitive Sensors
-The naturally occurring electric field induced
on the surface of the human body dissipates
into the earth.
Therefore, this electric field is exceptionally
faint and unstable.
-Photonic electric field sensors are developed.
-It is a sensor that bounces a laser beam of a
crystal (electroopticcrystal) and measures the
-Oscillations in the electric field surrounding the
crystal affect the crystal, which changes the
reflected light's polarization
It shows the various electric fields on the surface of our body induced by the
RedTacton device. Only a portion of the induced electric field is sensed by the
receiving RedTacton device. The remaining electric fields are dissipated to the
the transfer of data
Safety is obviously the primary concern before
the implementation of this technique.
The transmitting and receiving electrodes of the
RedTacton transceiver are completely covered with
This why the body of the person acting as the
transmission medium is completely insulated. This
makes it impossible for current to flow into a
person‟s body from the transceiver.
When communication occurs, displacement
current is generated by the electrons in the body
because the body is subjected to minute electrical
However, such displacement currents are very
common everyday occurrences to which we are all
The levels produced by RedTacton are well
below the safety limit specified by this standard.
Red Tacton has three main functional features.
Communication with just a touch or step
Touching, gripping, sitting, walking, stepping and
other human movements can be the triggers for
unlocking or locking, starting or stopping
equipment, or obtaining data.
BROADBAND & INTERACTIVE
Duplex, interactive communication is possible at
a maximum speed of 10Mbps.
Because the transmission path is on the surface
of the body, transmission speed does not
deteriorate in congested areas where many people
are communicating at the same time .
Taking advantage of this speed, device drivers
can be downloaded instantly and execute programs
can be sent.
Communication speed can
deteriorate in crowded spaces due to
a lack of bandwidth(wireless LAN)
Device drivers can be downloaded
instantly and executable programs can
be quickly sent.(REDTACTON)
In addition to the human body, various conductors
and dielectrics can be used as transmission media.
Conductors: Signal travel along the surface of the
Signals pass through materials.
Conductors + Dielectrics:
Combinations of traveling
along and passing through
One to One Services
Enable one-to-one services tailored to the user's
situation and tastes.
- Attribute information recorded in the RedTacton
device is sent to the touched objects.
- The appropriate service is provided based on the
attribute information received by the RedTacton
An Alarm sounds automatically
accidental medicine ingestion
-Red tacton devices embedded medicine bottles
transmit information on the medicines attributes.
If the user touches the wrong medicine, an
alarm will trigger on the terminal he is carrying.
The alarm sounds only if the user actually
touches the medicine bottle, reducing false
alarms common with passive wireless ID tags,
which can trigger simply by proximity.
Touch Advertising and receive information
When a consumer stands
in front of an advertising
panel, advertising and
information matching his or
her attributes is automatically
By touching or standing in front of items they are
interested in, consumers can get more in depth
-Natural movements and actions are the trigger
- RedTacton transceivers embedded in two terminals
can communicate not only data but also the control
or configuration instructions needed to operate
devices (broadband & interactive).
Touch printer to print
out where you want just by touching the
desired printer with one hand and a PC or digital
camera with the other hand to make the link
-Complicated configurations are reduced by
downloading device drivers "at first touch".
-Transfer songs to portable music players from
notebook PCs with just a touch.
Instant Private Data Exchange
-By shaking hands, personal profile data can be
exchanged between mobile terminals on the
user.(Electronic exchange of business cards)
-Communication can be kept private
authentication and encryption technologies.
-Group photos taken with digital cameras are
instantly transferred to individual's mobile terminal.
-Diagrams written on white boards during meetings
are transferred to individual's mobile terminals on
- Digital lifestyle can be instantly personalized with
just a touch.
- A pre-recorded configuration script can be
embedded in a mobile terminal with built-in Red
- When another device with RedTacton capabilities
is touched, personalization data and configuration
scripts can be downloaded automatically.
Personalization of Mobile Phones
touching your phone makes it your own..
-Your own phone number is allocated and billing
-Automatic importing of personal address book and
-The PC is configured to the user's specifications
simply by touching the mouse.
Personalization of Automobiles
-The seat position
and steering wheel
height adjust to
match the driver just
by sitting in the car.
-The driver's home is set as the destination in
the car navigation system.
-An electrically conductive sheet is embedded in
-A network connection is initiated simply by
placing a laptop on the table.
-Using different sheet patterns
segmentation of the table into subnets.
carry music or
-Users can listen to music from a RedTacton
player simply by putting on a headset or holding a
-Connecting head mounted displays.
- Automatic user authentication and log-in with
just a touch.
- ID and privileges are recorded in a mobile
- Corresponding RedTacton receivers
installed at security check points.
- The system can provide authentication and
record who touched the device, and when.
User Verification Management
-Carrying a mobile
device in one's pocket,
ID is verified and the
door unlocked when
the user holds the
-Secure lock administration is possible by
combining personal verification tools such as
fingerprint ID or other biometric in the mobile
access log for confidential document
-A prototype is an early sample or model built to
test a concept or process or to act as a thing to
be replicated or learned from
has made three types of prototypes:-
1. PC Card Transceiver (PC Card type)
2. Embedded Receiver (Hub Type)
3. USB Transceiver (Box Type)
1. PC Card Transceiver (PC Card type)
Card was originally designed for computer
storage expansion, but the existence of a usable
general standard for notebook peripherals led to
many kinds of devices being made available in
modems, and hard disks.
-In Red Tacton, we can use PC Card
Transceiver having both the capabilities to
transmit and receive of communication speed of
10Mbps and communication method used in
this is Half-duplex.
2. Embedded Receiver (Hub Type)
is used with the speed of 10 Mbps.
Protocols and communication method is same as
that of PC Card Transceiver.
-RJ 45 is used as an interface in the embedded
3. USB Transceiver (Box Type)
-A type of connection between a computer and
a peripheral device like a printer or a camera.
-The original USB could transfer data at a rate
of 12Mbps (million bits per second), a new
USB2.0 now transfers at a rate of 480 Mbps.
More secure than bluetooth.
Superior than infrared technology & wi-fi.
Red Tacton does not require the electrode to
be in direct contact with the the skin.
Data transfer is faster and easier through this
Data loss during transfer is less.
Use of minimum amount of power (of some
mili volt range).
Security is more
It can be useful within few centimeters
Effects on human body is still under
SCOPE OF RESEARCH
Communication between electronic devices
on the human body (wearable computers) and
ones embedded in our everyday environments
can be possible
Wired connection can be replaced.
In the crowded areas such as meeting room
due to many users throughput can be reduced
by packet collision in case of Bluetooth and
wireless LAN using RED TACTON this
problem can be solved.
RedTacton is an exciting new technology for
human area networking. This technology definitely
stands out with perfection,
when transfer of data is fast, feasible and more
importantly reliable. So, in few years from now
everything is going to fall
under this super technology. And, finally I
“FUTURE BELONGS TO RED TACTON”