Corporate communication in business


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basics of organisational communication. How on should communicate in an organisation?

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Corporate communication in business

  2. 2. Introduction • Corporate communication helps the people, in business, in analyzing the important information and also helps in keeping the people of a business organization united and organized and separating from the non-members from them.
  3. 3. Channel of Communication Formal Communication Informal Communication
  4. 4. Formal Communication • “Formal communication is that communication which flows along with a prescribed network .” • “Formal communication is that flow of information which follows an official chain of command. -- Thill and Bovee
  5. 5. • Communication takes place through the formal channels of the organization structure along the lines of authority established by the management. • Such communications are generally in writing and may take any of the forms; policy; manuals: procedures and rule books; memoranda; official meetings; reports, etc.
  6. 6. General Manager Manager Assistant Manager Supervisor Employee Order and Directions This diagram explains formal communication.
  7. 7. Formal Communication : Characteristics • Written and oral • Formal relations • Prescribed path organisational message • Deliberate effort • Definite and direct
  8. 8. Formal Communication : Merits • Filtering of communication • Maintenance of authority of the officers • Vital scope • Clear and effective communication • Orderly flow of inormation
  9. 9. Formal Communication :Demerits • Dilution of accuracy of message • Overload of work • Overlooked by the officers • Distortion of information
  11. 11. Vertical Communication Downward Communication Upward Communication
  12. 12. Downward Communication Written Such as direction letters, handbooks, pamphlets, policy matter, process, etc. Oral Instructions, directions, speech, meetings, telephones, loudspeakers
  14. 14. Upward Communication : Methods Periodical Meetings Open door Policy Suggestions Box Counselling Informal Conference
  15. 15. Horizontal / Lateral Communication
  16. 16. Horizontal / Lateral Communication Finance & Accounts Marketing Production Personnel & Administration
  17. 17. Lateral Communication MERITS • Co-ordination • Faster Communication DEMERITS • Tendency of using professional language, resulting difficulty in communication • Noise and distance creates disturbance in communication. • Adversely affects motivation and inspiration among employees.
  18. 18. Diagonal Communication : Forms ORAL WRITTEN Informal Meetings Organisational Meetings Task Team Company’s Bulletin & Newspapers Bulletin Board General Information
  19. 19. Diagonal Communication Top Management ManagerManagerManager Diagonal Downward Upward
  20. 20. Informal Communication • Thill and Bovee remark,“The Informal Communication network carries information alongwith organisational’s unofficial lives of activity and power.” • Communication arising out of all those channels of communication that fall outside the formal channels is known as informal communication. • It is also termed as Grapevine Communication.
  21. 21. • Built around the social relationships of members of the organization. • Informal communication does not flow in lines of authority as is the case of formal communication. • It arises due to the personal needs of the members of an organization.
  22. 22. Informal Communication : Characteristics • Formation through social relations. • Two types of information • Uncertain route • Possibility of rumors and distortions. • Quick relay.
  23. 23. Informal Communication : Advantages • Fast and effective communication. • Free environment. • Better human relations. • Easy solutions of the difficult problems. • Satisfying the social needs of the workers.
  24. 24. Informal Communication : Disadvantages • Unsystematic communication. • Responsibility. • End of originality. • Unreliable information.
  25. 25. Informal Communication: Networks • Free flow communication. • Circular communication • Chain communication • Wheel communication
  26. 26. Free Flow Communication. • It is clear in the below diagram, that the group comprises 4 members A,B,C and D and the communication in them is flowing smooth. At a time A is engaged in communication with B,C,D and the same is the case with B,C,D. A B D C
  27. 27. Circular Communication • In this, all the concerned person communicate with their neighbors and all the information gradually start flowing in a circular manner. • The message is apparently moving in a circular manner. A B D C
  28. 28. Chain Communication • It is such a series of exchange of thoughts which keep on moving forward without returning. C E D A B
  29. 29. Wheel Communication • The centre of information is only one man. The information is disseminated from one centre towards all the directions. • In the figure C is doing the job. C A D E B
  30. 30. Grapevine Communication • Acc. to Keith Davis “grapevine is basically a channel of horizontal communication, for it is only people at the same level of hierarchy who can informally communicate with one another with perfect ease. • It is a form of informal business communication, which develops within an organization. • It means gossip, usually gossip that spreads and covers a lot of ground.
  31. 31. Examples of Grapevine Network of Communication • Suppose the profit amount of a company is known. Rumor is spread that this much profit is there and on that basis bonus is declared. • CEO may be in family relation to the Production Manager.They may have blood relations with each other.
  32. 32. Characteristics of Grapevine • Informal • Spontaneous • Adjunct to formal channel • Multi-directional • Mostly intra organizational
  33. 33. Importance of Grapevine • Organizational solidarity and cohesion • A safety value • Supplement to other channels • Quick transmissions
  34. 34. Grapevine : Advantages • Helpful to other medium. • Speedy transmission. • Feedback value. • Development of organisational power.
  35. 35. Grapevine : Disadvantages • Any unconfirmed message is seriously taken. • Unconfirmed message does not supplement a confirmed message, satisfying the receiver I terms of a clear picture and its authenticity. • Unconfirmed report spoils the authenticity of factual message. • Organisational policies and the secrecy of decisions are at stake.
  36. 36. Why the Grapevine Grows • The human mind is ever active and full of ideas. • The tendency to communicate and share these ideas is natural and in born. • Individuals look for like minded people to share feelings, fears, aspirations and problems.
  37. 37. Types of Grapevine Chains • Single strand chain • Gossip chain • Probability chain • Cluster chain
  38. 38. Single Strand Chain • This chain consists of one on one interaction. In it L says something to M who then relays it to N and so on. • It is the least accurate of the four chains and with the increase of transit points the chances of distortion and deletion increase. L M N O
  39. 39. Gossip Chain • This chain is characterized by a group of people gathering to discuss matters of mutual interest. • Here one person seeks out and tells everyone the news that he/she has gathered. • It is used to relay interesting bits of news that may not be job oriented Q T N R P S OL M
  40. 40. Probability Chain • Message is passed on randomly without direction or method. The choice of recipient depends on the sender’s will, situation or context. Sender is indifferent to or not interested in the receiver he chooses. UO N Q P M R L S T
  41. 41. Cluster Chain • This is the most popular grapevine pattern . Information is passed on a selective basis to a few members only. • The first sender informs a few chosen individuals who again pass on the information to individuals of their choice or keep the information to themselves. • Choice of recipient depends on the content and intent of the message as well as the relationship between the members of the group . P O N M Q L S R V U T
  42. 42. Barriers in Communication Definition Due to various barriers of communication, when the message from the sender is not received by the receiver in its original form, then such obstructed and ruined form of message is called mis- communication.
  43. 43. Communication Barriers: Different Levels 1. At sender’s level: a) Encoding of message b) Formulation and organising thoughts of message. 2. At receiver’s level: a) Decoding of the encoded message to obtain through an understandable language. b) Receiving the message. 3. At transmission level: The medium through which a message is transmitted. 4. At feedback level: At this level the reaction of the receiver goes back to the sender.
  44. 44. Mis–Communication :The Rising • Problems in developing a message. • Problems in transmitting a message. • Problems in interpreting a message. • Difficulty in expressing ideas. • Problems in receiving message. • Differences b/w sender and receiver. • Differences b/w sender and receiver.
  45. 45. Barriers in Communication Semantic Barriers Other BarriersPersonal BarriersPhysical Barriers Emotional or Perceptional Barriers Organizational Barriers
  46. 46. Semantic Barriers • Semantic refers to the study of meaning in terms of physical and psychological aspect. • It is also a cause of communicative lapse. • Language is the most powerful base of communication process and any careless use of it can lead to serious problems.
  47. 47. Semantic Barriers Wrongly expressed message Use of Technical Language Uncleared Pre-concepts Unclarified Assumptions Faulty Translation
  48. 48. Organizational Barriers • Organizational rules, structures, policies, appointments, etc., influence the efficiency of the employees. • In a complicated structure of a big organization, in addition to lengthy communication channels, the communication process at various levels of the cases the original form and meaning get distorted.
  49. 49. Organizational Barriers Complicated Organizational Structure Organizational Facilities Organizational Regulatory Policies Bad maintenance of Communication Objects Reputory Relation
  50. 50. Emotional or Perceptional Barriers • This barrier refers to the degree of an individual’s emotional and intellectual perception, for the lack of it on the part, either of the sender or the receiver would lead to serious lapse of communication. • If either of these two participants is under some stress or strain, anxiety, excitement, fear or any such factor, neither the sender would be able to communicate the message properly nor would the receiver be able to interpret the message properly.
  51. 51. Emotional or Perceptional Barriers Emotional Attitude Distrust of Communication Unuseful mixing and Killing of originality Selective Attitude Less Grasping Power Immature Evaluation
  52. 52. Physical Barriers • Physical Barriers are cropped up because of physical conditions such as noise , time distance and financial obstacles, etc. the noise is the outcome of the traffic outside, or the noise of typing in the adjoining room, the frequent physical movement of people, tickling pen or coffee being served during the on-going communication.
  53. 53. Physical Barriers Literary Explosion Noise, Time and Distance Finance Related Obstacles Hello Effect
  54. 54. Personal Barriers • Communication is a process that involves inter-personal relations.These inter- personal relations are of various intensity and levels b/w senders and receivers. • It is natural to have personal conflicts and heart formation among employees for one reason or the other.
  55. 55. Personal Barriers Senior officer related Obstacles Body Language Problems due to subordinates Lack of Interpretation Attitude Fear Proper Medium Lack of Time Lack of Interest
  56. 56. Other Barriers • Other barriers in the flow of communication of message are the use of unsuitable channel, defective mechanical equipment, pressure of communication, diversified social and cultural background of senders/ receivers, etc.
  57. 57. Other Barriers Overloading of Information Problem due to Governmental Publication Modern Mechanical Equipment Diversification of Social/ Cultural Background
  58. 58. Measures for Barriers of Communication • Clear objectives • General idea about audience • Use of easy and clear language • Effective listening • Total control over emotions • Lessen the noise • Completion of message • Suitable environment • Effective use of body language • Proper use of feedback.
  59. 59. Groups Discussions • What is a Group? In a formal or informal organization where a group of people, assemble together to take an important decision through discussions and contemplation over some significant subject or problem, is called a group.
  60. 60. Characteristics of a Group 1) Congregation of two or more persons. 2) Common goal. 3) Interact with another to achieve common goal. 4) Formal or informal organization.
  61. 61. Types of Groups • Formal Groups • Informal Groups • Primary Groups • Secondary Groups
  62. 62. • What is Discussion? Discussion means interaction, an activity which involves a complete debate on a subject or an objective in order to arrive at a decision after an investigation into the details from every possible aspect.
  63. 63. Ingredients of Discussion • Purpose • Leadership • Participation • Planning • Informality
  64. 64. Stages of Group Development • Forming : at this stage, the group is concerned with testing the boundaries of appropriate behavior in very careful and conscious way. Members are dependant upon group leader. • Storming : in this stage, conflict emerges among members as they tend to seek personal recognition. Underlining issues at this stage are concerned with prestige and power.
  65. 65. • Norming : at this stage, counter movements develop to soften the hostility with open communication and reorganizing the group. Personal feelings are subordinated to the group interest. • Performing : at this stage, the members of the group channelize their energies into work after solving the structural problems and their interpersonal differences. Members feel greater degree of freedom and assume a sense of responsibility for the group goals.
  66. 66. • Reforming : sometimes tension remain and working groups are not continuously feeling harmony.Therefore, group members initiate to reform with new norms to strengthen the group.
  67. 67. Group Discussion • Group Discussion is the process of oral communication, adopted by business organization to arrive at a collective decision.
  68. 68. Objectives of Group Discussion 1) Solving Problem 2) Making Decision 3) Collecting and Exchanging Ideas
  69. 69. Features of G.D. • Purpose • Planning • Participation • Free communication • Leadership
  70. 70. Desired Behavior during G.D Functional Behavior Positive Behavior Self-directed Behavior
  71. 71. Personality traits assessed in G.D. • Team spirit • Leadership • Flexibility • Reasoning ability • Assertiveness • Initiative • Creativity • Listening and empathy • Awareness
  72. 72. Prerequisites of Successful G.D. 1. Achievement of objectives 2. Listening constructive criticism 3. Exchange of ideas 4. Positive attitude 5. Co-operative attitude
  73. 73. Prerequisites of Successful G.D. 6. Appropriate evaluation 7. Accuracy 8. Brief and precise 9. Progress 10.Patience 11.Vocabulary
  74. 74. G.D : Advantages • Collective opinion • Expert opinion • Acceptable by all • More authentic and valuable • Generates more beautiful ideas • It is a repository of several minds • Collective opinion always useful for all
  75. 75. G.D : Disadvantages • An encroacher upon time. • Involves diversity of opinions and becomes problematic. • Sometimes decisions are attributed to some experts causing dissention. • A product of difference of opinions, hence not welcomed by all. • It is more expensive in terms of time, energy and money.
  76. 76. Interview • An interview is a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked by the interviewer to elicit facts or statements from the interviewee. • “An interview is a psychological document cum introspective analysis of the mind of the interviewee”. -- M.K.Sharma
  77. 77. Interview : Characteristics • The process of interview implies an involvement of two participants engaged in a face-to-face personal interaction. • An interview is always purposeful and the purpose is already known to both the participants. • Both the participants are psychologically prepared for all the interview pre-decided. • By means of interview much is learnt about the life of an interviewee. • Pre- interview information reinforce the credibility and priority. • Interview is a part of the formal communication.
  78. 78. Interview :Types • Employment or selection interview • Problem interview • Promotion interview • Personal interview • Interview for job completion • Interview for collecting information • Counseling interview • Mock interview
  79. 79. Seminar • A seminar is, generally, a form of academic instruction, either at an academic institution or offered by a commercial or professional organization. • It has the function of bringing together small groups for recurring meetings, focusing each time on some particular subject, in which everyone present is requested to actively participate.
  80. 80. Definition of Seminar • It is a detailed discussion by a limited group of intellectuals by which the result or research or advance study is presented through oral or written reports.
  81. 81. Seminar : Characteristics • Seminar refers to the discussion on a subject by a group of subject experts. • The subject of discussion is of highly intellectual standard. • Seminar is an oral form of communication. • The outcome of the discussion in a seminar in which the participants are highly educated and intellectual nd the inferences evolved are of a great value and advantage.
  82. 82. Seminar :Types • Mini Seminar: the objective is to hold discussion, at a lower level, on a specific issue. It is used at the formative stage. • Main Seminar: such seminars are organized by some department or an institution once either in a week or a month, as scheduled.
  83. 83. Seminar :Types • National Seminar: in this, the subject authorities are called upon and the expenditure is incurred by the organization.The venue and the norms are pre-determined. • International Seminar: such seminars are arranged by national organizations and the report of the seminar is vital and has a far- reaching effect.
  84. 84. Seminar : Objectives • Developing tolerance, in fact, on antagonistic view. • Developing positive attitude towards opinions and viewpoints. • Developing analytical and critical insight. • Developing the art of expression on the basis of observations and experience. • Developing purity and chastity of thoughts and an attitude of co-operation.
  85. 85. Presentations • The word ‘presentation’ refers to the deliverance of a pre-drafted speech or in business communication. • The word ‘presentation’ means a prepared speech on a given topic that is made to a small audience. • The presentation of the matter should be effective and must be suitable to listeners, keeping in view the circumstances that influence the listener.
  86. 86. Presentation • Presenting new goods, services and system. • To construct a model, a layout and a policy. • Selling goods, services, concepts and thoughts. • Representing a group and a department. • Suggestions about any solution, problems and new concept. • Entertainment of participants, audience and others.
  87. 87. Presentations Group Presentation Individual Presentation
  88. 88. Individual Presentations • It refers to one individual presentation on a pre selected subject before audiences, who are well versed in the subject. • For making the individual presentations, consider the following aspects: – Strategy – Structure – Support – Speeches
  89. 89. Group Presentation • It refers to a presentation, by a group of people, on the same topic before audiences. • All the members of the group select the points of the topic as per their predilection prior to their presentation. • There is one leader of the group to regulate and monitor the presentation.
  90. 90. Presentation :Types Informative Presentation Persuasive Presentation Goodwill Presentation
  91. 91. • Informative Presentation : It refers to sending information to audience regarding a specific subject,eg., organizing a training camp. • Persuasive Presentation : it refers to a process of persuading the audience to do some job, to accept or to change something in the system of functioning. • Goodwill Presentation : it refers to an invitation to audience over some important events and also for the sake of entertainment such as post speech lunch or dinner.
  92. 92. Presentation:Time Distribution objectives & causes of presentation 10% time for main subject 20% development of subject matter 40% concluding of main subject 20% summarizing 10%
  93. 93. THANK YOU !!!