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This presentation covers the elements of civilization.

This presentation covers the elements of civilization.

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  • 1. Big Era Three CivilizationFarming and the Emergence of Complex Societies 10,000 – 1,000 BCE. 1
  • 2. Farming and complex societies? Where did they come from? I thoughtwe were stillhunting and gathering! 2
  • 3. Farming and …and changes complex have always been societies are the —and still are— result of part of human CHANGE… history. Let’s look for a minute at the changes that took place in Big Era Two. Big Eras 3-9Big Era 1 Big Era 2 200k yrs ago 10k years ago Today 3
  • 4. You will probably recall that life 200,000 years ago looked something like this. Homo erectus doing lunch Big Eras 3-9Big Era 1 Human Origins Big Era 2 200k yrs ago 10k years ago Today 4
  • 5. 10,000 years ago at the close of Big Era Two, life looked more like this: Homo sapiens at home Big Eras 3-9Big Era 1 Human Origins Big Era 2 200k yrs ago 10k years ago Today 5
  • 6. Notice any changes?Homo erectus – 200,000 years ago Would you say Homo sapiens – 10,000 years ago there were: (a) No changes? (b) Some changes? (c) Lots of changes? 6
  • 7. If you said there were If, on the other “(c) Lots of hand, you chosechanges,” you “(a) No were right. changes” or “(b) Some changes,” you must have a fever and are delirious. (Hope you feel better soon!). 7
  • 8. HintsSo, we will go with “(c) Lots of changes”, right? So, it’s antelope burgers tonight, right? Boomerang Americas Before moving on, jot them down. 8
  • 9. Changes that occurred by the end of Big Era 2 (Beginning of Big Era 3) 1. Homo sapiens appear. 2. Language develops. 3. Habitats expand. 4. Technology multiplies. 5. Wall painting and End of Big Era Two sculpture are created. (Beginning of Big Era 3) Big Eras 4-9Big Era 2 Big Era 3 10,000 years ago 1,000 years ago Today 9
  • 10. Keeping those changes in mind, let’s look at life all the way at the end of Big Era Three, that is, about 1,000 BCE. Big Eras 4-9Big Era 2 Big Era 3 10,000 years ago 1,000 years ago Today 10
  • 11. Big Eras 4-9Big Era 2 Big Era 3 10,000 years ago 1,000 years ago Today 11
  • 12. Notice any Differences?Quite a few, Huh? 12
  • 13. So, how did we get from… HERE to HERE?Jot down some notes on whatevents you think might have taken placebetween 10,000and 1,000 BCE. 13
  • 14. One of the major changes is the DOMESTICATION of… animals and plants Big Eras 4-9 Big Era 2 Big Era 3 10,000 years ago 1,000 years ago Today 14
  • 15. Domestication of plants and animals was a monumental change. Have you ‘herd’ It resulted in the new way of about pastoralism? living we know as FARMING (AGRICULTURE)… …which included both PASTORALISM (herding sheep, goats, cattle, horses, and camels), and… Big Eras 4-9Big Era 2 Big Era 3 10,000 years ago 1,000 years ago Today 15
  • 16. Crop-growing (cultivating domesticated plants), and… Big Eras 4-9Big Era 2 Big Era 3 10,000 years ago 1,000 years ago Today 16
  • 17. the development of… FARMING COMMUNITIES Big Eras 4-9Big Era 2 Big Era 3 10,000 years ago 1,000 years ago Today 17
  • 18. Eastern North America China Fertile Crescent Nile valley West Mesoamerica Africa New Guinea Ethiopia Andes Amazonia Between about 12,000 and 1,000 BCE, farming appeared INDEPENDENTLY in a number of places, possibly in all of the places marked in red on the map. Big Eras 4-9Big Era 2 Big Era 3 10,000 years ago 1,000 years ago Today 18
  • 19. Prior to farming,population size in anyone area was limitedby the availability of wildgame, grain, berries,seeds, and nuts. POPULATIONFarming and the large, INTENSIFICATIONrelatively dependablecrops it provides That means populationallowed for… increases in certain areas. Population in those areas became both larger and denser. 19
  • 20. At the same time, farmers in someplaces were, in spiteof population growth, able to produce SURPLUS food. What does SURPLUS FOOD PRODUCTION mean for a society? 20
  • 21. SURPLUS FOODPRODUCTION……means that noteveryone has to growfood or tend animals.They can take on othertasks. They canspecialize in some non-farming task. 21
  • 22. This is called…Job Specialization.Men and women may become:• Weavers• Stone Masons• Potters• Priests• Scribes• Traders• Army officers 22
  • 23. So, let’s have aquick review of that last sequence of events. 23
  • 24. Domestication of Plants and Animals Farming Population Surplus Food Specialization Intensification Complex Society, also known as CIVILIZATION Big Eras 4-9Big Era 2 Big Era 3 10,000 years ago 1,000 years ago Today 24
  • 25. Civilizations have a number of elements in common. You might want to make a note of these as we go along. Hint, hint! 25
  • 26. 26 Answer: A civilization is a complex society. Answer: A civilization is a complex society.Write it down.Remember it. that term? it? Did you catch define Can you Civilization
  • 27. Elements of civilization include: 1) Cities Mohenjo Daro It’s the law 2) Central governments And Law codes Hammurabi’s Law CodePharaohs 27
  • 28. Elements of Civilization include:1) Cities2) Central governments and law codes 3) Writing and record keeping Can you identify the society represented by each of these two writing samples? 4) Highly organized religions 28
  • 29. Elements of Civilization include:1) Cities2) Central Governments and law codes3) Writing and 5) Specialized Jobs record keeping4) Highly organized religion Full-time monk 6) Social Classes Assyrian slaves In Egypt 29
  • 30. Elements of Civilization include:1) Cities2) Central governments and law codes 7) Complex3) Writing and record keeping Technologies4) Highly organized religion Chariot5) Specialized jobs6) Social classes Bronze Sword 30
  • 31. So, have you been paying attention or doing a bit of day dreaming? Can you list some of the Let’selements of a check! civilization? Clue: There were 7! 31
  • 32. Check your answers below: Good job if your list includes: 1. Cities 2. Central governments and law codes 3. Writing and record-keeping 4. Specialized jobs 5. Social classes 6. Complex technologies 7. Highly organized religionsGood job, huh? 32
  • 33. By 3,000 BCE, societies in Southwest Asia and Egypt were developing elements of complex societies. Are we supposed to be taking notes on this? Big Eras 4-9Big Era 2 Big Era 3 10,000 years ago 3,000 years ago 1,000 years ago Today 33
  • 34. By the end of BigEra Three, about1000 BCE, therewere several well- established civilizations in Afroeurasia. There were also two new ones in the Americas. At least two civilizations in Afroeurasia, the Minoan in the Mediterranean region and the Harappan in the Indus River valley had already come and gone. 34
  • 35. Now, looking back over Big Era Three, let’s review the major changes. Big Eras 4-9Big Era 2 Big Era 3 10,000 years ago 1,000 years ago Today 35
  • 36. Domestication of Plants and Animals Farming Population Surplus Food Specialization Intensification Complex Society, also known as CIVILIZATION Big Eras 4-9Big Era 2 Big Era 3 10,000 years ago 1,000 years ago Today 36
  • 37. That translates into: Farmers Herders Cities Central governments Armies Monumental buildings Written language Social hierarchies Complex belief systemsIn 10,000 BCE none of these existed in the world. By 1,000 BCE they all did. 37
  • 38. Not only has life changed culturally and technologically, but also Letters and the rate of change has envelopes accelerated. Writing Irrigation Pyramids Wheel Copper Temple building smelting Walled cities . Dogs, sheep. goats, horses, wheat, rice, Plow farming Alphabet chiles, potatoes—all domesticated Chariots Pottery 360-degree circle Sailing technology Law Codes Regular trade routes Big Eras Bow & arrow 4-9Big Era 1 Language Art Calendars Big Era 2 BE3 10k years ago 200k yrs ago 1k years ago Today 38
  • 39. You may have noticed that the difference between the rate of change in Big Era Two and in Big Era Three is enormous. What factors Make a few do you think notes and might account discuss this for this question withincreasing rate your teacher of change? and fellow students. 39