Defending Virtual Borders
• Internet has now become a weapon for political, military and
• The conventional threats to national security now have a
digital delivery mechanism charecterised by spyware,
malware, trojans, botnets and conflicker worms.
• Although, there have been no true cyber wars till date, cyber
battles of great consequence are easy to find.
• Every nation now has a new border to safeguard and protect -
the Virtual Border or the Cyber Space.
• Cyber warfare is the use of computer technologies as
both defensive and offensive weapons in international
• The debate over cyberwarfare is only now emerging
in the United States, the United Kingdom, and in the
foreign policy dialogue between the United States,
the Russian Federation, and other nations.
Estonia experienced a devastating cyber attack in 2007 following
a decision to move a statue memorializing Russian soldiers who
fought during World War II.
• . Pro-Russian hackers took down bank and school websites via
Denial of Service (DoS) attacks on Estonian networks.
In 2008, Georgia experienced similar DoS
attacks following its conflict with Russia.
In June 2009, the websites belonging to Iranian
news agencies, Presidendent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
and Iran’s supreme leader Ayatollah Khamenei were
knocked off-line employing Dos Attacks.
• NATO has created a cyber defence facility in Estonia
• The US has established the „US Cyber Command‟ to defend
the country against cyber attacks.
• The United Kingdom created two Organisations namely - the
„Office of Cyber Security‟ and the „Cyber Security Operations
Center‟ to protect its cyber space from attacks.
• South Korea has set up its cyber warfare center and has
recruited 3000 security experts by now.
• Isreal too has an „Internet warfare‟ team dedicated to cyber
The Great Irony
• “It's the great irony of our Information Age --
the very technologies that empower us to
create and to build also empower those who
would disrupt and destroy. And this paradox -
- seen and unseen -- is something that we
experience every day.”
The Future Face of War !
• The police found four Global Positioning System
(GPS) handsets, one satellite phone, nine mobile
phones and computer discs with high-resolution
images and maps of the 10 sites that were attacked.
The terrorists used the Internet to make calls which
hampered the investigation.
• The terror group took credit for the bloodshed with a
series of e-mails to local media.
• They used a “remailer" service to mask their
identities; earlier attacks were claimed from cyber
The next war will be in
• All political and military conflicts
now have a cyber dimension, the size
and impact of which are difficult to
Cyber Security for India
• We live in times of e-espionage, where nations and
hacking groups across the globe search for vital
information relating to intelligence, military or economic
policies. Therefore entrusting this huge responsibility to
CERT-India will not be in the best interest of the nation.
• A separate office designed in the model of the US or UK
is the best solution to this. The body has to be constituted
with experts in the field at the top management.
• The cyber threats call for such decisive steps. Half
hearted actions at this juncture will not deliver.
Cyber Security –An India
1. Cyber Security Policy
2. Create a cyber command
3. An independent office for cyber security
4. Encourage Research and Development in cyber
5. State‟s Liability for not protecting personal data
6. Strengthen the legal framework
7. Establish a „single window‟ for registering cyber
8. Spread awareness about the seriousness of the cyber
9. Establish a Digital work force
10. Private – Public Partnership
11. Conduct „Cyber Exercises‟
12. Establish Cyber Wings for CBI and NSG
13.Establish a Chief Information Security Officer
(CISO) for every State
• The difference between cybercrime, cyber-espionage,
and cyber war is only a couple of keystrokes.
• The rapid spread of information and communication
technology will only magnify the threat of cyber
warfare in years to come.
13. Establish a Chief Information Security
Officer (CISO) for every State