Slum Policies in India


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ワシントンDC開発フォーラム 第11回ワークショップ(2012/3/23)。 中村昌平「インドのスラム政策」

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Slum Policies in India

  1. 1. Slum Policies in India Shohei Nakamura Department of Urban and Regional Planning University of Michigan 2012年3月23日 ワシントンDC開発フォーラム@世界銀行
  2. 2. Topics• Introduction• Urbanization trend• Slum policies in India• Mumbai’s Slum Rehabilitation Scheme• Conclusion• Q&A / Discussion
  3. 3. Urbanization trend Source:
  4. 4. Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, and Africa will seemassive urbanization.
  5. 5. Urbanization in India is rapid and massive.
  6. 6. Slum Policies in India
  7. 7. Slums in India• Definition A compact settlement of at least 20 households with a collection of poorly built tenements, mostly of temporary nature, crowded together usually with inadequate sanitary and drinking water facilities in unhygienic conditions. Source: Government of India. (2010). Report of the committee on slum statistics/census.
  8. 8. Slums in India Taken by Shohei Nakamura
  9. 9. Slums in India Taken by Shohei Nakamura
  10. 10. Slums in India Taken by Shohei Nakamura
  11. 11. Slums in India Taken by Shohei Nakamura
  12. 12. Slum population has increased from 75M in 2001 to93M in 2011.
  13. 13. Why do slums proliferate in India? Income Lack of economic Excessive/obsolete In-migration inequality growth regulations Lack of affordable Poverty housing Slum formationSource: UN-Habitat (2003) Challenge of slums
  14. 14. Why are slums problematic?• Detrimental to health• Locking land for infrastructure/open spaces• Insecure tenure• Discrimination… Are they?• Slum of hope• Solutions to government failure• Community• Eco-friendly/sustainable
  15. 15. Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY)• Three-tiered approach – Improving existing slums • Relocation/upgrading/redevelopment – Preventing future slum formation • Lifting regulatory barriers • Subsidizing mortgage for the poor – Improving governance • Decentralization • Information base (e.g. Slum GIS)
  16. 16. Slum Rehabilitation Schemein Mumbai Taken by Shohei Nakamura
  17. 17. Questions: Is Slum Rehabilitation Scheme…• Effective in improving living conditions of the urban poor?• Replicable to other cities/countries?• If not, how should we amend the policy?
  18. 18. Where is Mumbai?Source:
  19. 19. Slum locations in Mumbai Source: Mumbai City Development Plan 2005-2025
  20. 20. Floor Space Index (FSI) Island City 1.33 Western Suburbs 1.00 Eastern Suburbs 1.00 Source: Nakamura (2010)
  21. 21. How Slum Rehabilitation Scheme works?1. Get agreement from at least 70% of slum dwellers2. Shift slum dwellers into transit accommodation and demolish the slum3. Build new tenements for slum dwellers4. Build (and sell) sale components as many as the FSI of the land allows5. Sell the rest of incentive FSI or use it in other project sites to the north of thissite = Transfer of Development Rights TDR Market Sale Components FSI Limit ( FSI=3.0 in Other Rehabilitated slum areas) projects Components Slum
  22. 22. Rehabilitated housing Taken by Shohei Nakamura
  23. 23. Rehabilitated housing Taken by Shohei Nakamura
  24. 24. Rehabilitated housing Taken by Shohei Nakamura
  25. 25. Rehabilitated housing Taken by Shohei Nakamura
  26. 26. Rehabilitated housing Taken by Shohei Nakamura
  27. 27. Rehabilitated housing Taken by Shohei Nakamura
  28. 28. Political economy in SRS Governments [1] Promise free [2] Provide political housing support (vote) and work force [3] Provide developable [4] Redevelop slums floor space through and provide financial SRS/TDR support (bribe) [5] Surrender squatted lands and appoint developers Slum Dwellers Private Developers [6] Provide free housing Source: Nakamura (2010)
  29. 29. Downsides/limitations of SRS• Not led by communities• Forced many to moved/sold out• Susceptible to volatile market• Built on obsolete regulations• Exacerbated congestion Source:
  30. 30. Concentration of TDR use has caused congestion
  31. 31. Summary• Top down/bottom up• Community participation/development• Private-public partnership• Market and speculation• Planning regulations and easement• Informal sector/housing
  32. 32. Thank you! Taken by Shohei Nakamura