Mechanical digestive is digestive system
that occurs in the mouth. At mechanical
digestive we use teeth for make the food destroy.
Chemical digestive is the digestive system that
use the enzim for its proces.After the teeth make the
food destroy, chemical substance in the saliva will
soluble with the food. After that it will soluble in the
stomach and the early parts small intestine, which
involve gastric juice, pancreatic juice and bile. So the
food get finer.
1. Mouth cavity
5. Small intestine
A. Colon and
Tongue is a muscle tisswue whose
fixed end is in the back of the mouth base.
Its function is to push the food from mouth
cavacity to esophagus. At the back of
tongue there is collection of lymph tissue
called tonsil (amandel).
The number of teeth in the childhood and adult is
diffrrent. These are the the shape of the teeth :
A.Incisor (I) whose shape is similar to a chisel, function to
cut the food.
B.Canine (C) whose shape is pointed, function to tear tough
and ruberry food , such as meat.
C.Premolar (P) and Molar (M) which are bigger in the upper
part with wavy surface, function to grind and crush the
the stuctures of tooth :
A.Enamel is the outhermost part of a tooth and very hard in
B.Yellow wish tructure forming the tooth shape called
C.Root is parts inside dentine.
D.Pupl Chamber is the tooth part containing blood vessel
and nerves which extend to the root.
connecting between the mouth cavacity and
ventricle. The food will move slowly caused by
peristaltic movement of the esophagus.
human ventricle is under the diaphragma.
Diaphragma is a membrance which borders the cest and
ventricle counsist of cardiac, fundus and
pylorus.cardiac is the early part of stomach which is the
continuation between esophagus and stomach. Fundus is
the enlarging middle part of stomach. While pylorus is the
distal part of the stomach which connects the stomach to
the early intestine.ventricle wall counsist of three muscle
layers. The outermost layer is longitudinal muscle, the
middlelayer is cilcular muscle, and the inner most one is
diagonal muscle. Besides those layers, the innermost layer
is covered by cell layers which secrete gastric juice.
1. Water : it functions to soften food so it is easier to
2. Mucous : it functions to soften the food and protect
the stomach wall from exscessive production of HCL.
The protein liquid which protect the ventricle wall is
3. HCL : it cuses the situation in the stomach is very
acid, so the pH can achieve 2 or even less then 2. the
situation can kills yhe pathogenic organism which
enter with the food the amilase from the saliva also
enters the stomach and stops digetion the amilum.
4. Pepsinogen : in acid condition, pepsinogen will
1. Twelve-finger intestine (duodenum)
duodenum is the place where some of digestive
enzymes can be found. The enzymes are bile is
responsible for emulsifying, amylase is necessary to
continue digesting amylum into maltose. Trypsin is
necessary to continue digesting protein into peptide.
Lipase has function to digest fat into glycerol and fatty
2. The central section of small intestine (Jejunum)
the central section of small intestine (jejunum) also produces some
enzymes they are maltase and peptidase. Maltase digest maltose inti
glucose while peptidase deigest peptide into amino acid.
3. The final section of small intestine (Ileum)
Ileum plays the key role in absorbing digestion result, such as
glucose, amino acid glycerol and fatty acid. Glucose and amino acid are
absorbed by Ileum wall and carried out by blood, whereas glycerol and fatty
acid are absorbed by lymph capillaries known as lymph tract (lacteal)
Large intestine is the final section of human
digestive tract. It is composed of two parts colom
and rectum. Large intestin functions as a place of
reabsorption and deterio tion of undigested food.
The joint between small intestine and large intestine
is signed by the presence large sack-like segment
known as cecum. On the cecum, there is the long
small tube that called appendix.
In the large intestine there is the bacteria that
can make the food deteriot. The name of bacteria is
Anus is the opening at the end of the digestive
system through which waste exits the body. It has
cilcular muscle called Anal sphincer. it function is to
close and open the anus in order to regulate the
exits the stool.
Disorder of Digestive system
Muscle is a tissue
cells are arranged
longitudinal and has
the ability to cause
tension which is
parallel to longitudinal
striated heart smooth
How do the muscle work
Striated muscle which is found in skeleton muscle
so, it’ s called Skeleton Muscle. Striated muscle
consist of cells which can shrivel or contract.
Contraction of striated muscle cells is coordinate
by nerve system command.
a joint between two or more bones which cannot
be moved at all. Example: joints in skull bones
a joint between two or more bones which can be
a joint between or more bones which can be
a joint which has four direction movements.
Example: the joints at our backbones
Joints that can move to all direction, such as
those between humerus and scapula.
a joint which moves only to one direction, such as
in elbow, knee and finger nodes.
a joint that can move to two direction, such as the
joint in the thumb.
a joint which can be moved circurlarly, such as
the one between atlas and axis bone.
Abnormalities in Movement
Diskolasi: In correct location or position. It occurs
if the position or tip of a bone node does not
exactly place on the other bone node.
Sprained: Bruished ligament or joint binder which
cause pain due to too forceful pulling of the
Arthritis : Joint inflammation
Polio : Disease caused by polio virus, it can
cause the sufferer paralyzed.
Fracture: An accident can cause bones
broken, cracked, or bruished.
Lordosis: backbone bend forward
Scoliosis: backbone bend rightward of leftward
Kiphosis : backbone bend backward
There are two types of Circulatory system in our
body there are large Circulatory system and small
• Large Circulatory system
blood is pumped away from heart through arcus
aorta throughout the body
• Small Circulatory system
blood is pumped out from heart towards lungs
through pulmonary artery
Blood Vessel consists of artery and
Artery is blood vessel transporting
blood from heart throughout the body
vein is blood vessel transporting blood
from body back to the heart
Heart is necessary to pump the blood throughout
the body and located slightly on the left in Chest
Blood is transportation device of important
substances in the body.
The composition of plasma is mostly water(90%)
and the other 10% are protein,amino
b.Blood cell and its formation
There are three types of blood cells:
Erythocite, Leukocyte, and Thrombocyte
Erythrocyte has biconcave-shaped structure and has no
nucleus.The amount of red blood cell is about 5 million
per 1 mm3 blood.
Leukocyte is produced in red
marrow,lymphoid tissues and lymphatic
gland.the number of Leukocyte normally
about 6,000-9,000 white blood cells.
Thrombocyte have irregular shape,smaller
than other blood cells,and no nucleus.The
normal number of Thrombocyte is about
Disorder and Disease of circulatory
anemia is a blood deficiency disease.
Leukemia is a blood cancer signed by very large
amount of white blood cells because its production
cannot be controlled.
Varicose vein is a vein enlargement.
Sclerosis is a hardening of arteries.
Hypertension is a condition in which a person has
high blood pressure.
Hypotension is an abnormally low blood pressure.
Hemophilia is a blood disorder in which ability of
blood to clot is impaired at injury.