Learning Objectives 1


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Learning Objectives 1

  1. 1. This presentation was developed for the exclusive use of students enrolled in: Educational Testing & Grading, Professor Gregory E. Stone. © 2004 Gregory E. Stone. All rights reserved. This presentation may not be reproduced in any form, in part or as a whole, without the express written permission of the author.
  2. 2. Learning Objectives What do teachers produce?
  3. 3. Our Product? Children who have mastered the conceptions we believe are most important.
  4. 4. Do we need them? Many of today’s scholars believe learning objectives are unnecessary and restrict the flow and creativity of learning.
  5. 5. Let’s find out! Today we’ll explore the form and function of purposeful learning objectives.
  6. 6. Early Objectives Behavioral: A series of tasks. Master 1, go on to 2. Master 2, go on to 3 ….
  7. 7. Modern Objectives Cognitive: Focus on Outcome, Thought Process, & Development
  8. 8. What is a concept? An idea. A theoretical construct. A field of study. A talent. A skill.
  9. 9. Can we observe all concepts? Language Arts Spells words correctly Demonstrates reading skills Are these concepts observable?
  10. 10. Spell correctly Recite a word to a child and ask the child to write the word. We can SEE whether the child has mastered spelling via a single, direct observation.
  11. 11. Demonstrates Reading Skills What single, directly observable task could the child perform to demonstrate that they have mastered this skill?
  12. 12. Domain (Learning Objective) Not directly observable. Multi-faceted. “Global” in nature. Theoretical. Desirable.
  13. 13. DomainsSpecifics What we want to produce are children who can READ. In order to suggest the child can read, we review their performances in areas we believe are related.
  14. 14. DomainsSpecifics Reading skills Pronunciation Comprehension Spelling
  15. 15. DomainsSpecifics Domain
  16. 16. DomainsSpecifics Specifics (inclusive) Domain
  17. 17. DomainsSpecifics Specifics (representative) Domain
  18. 18. Who is the focus? The student!
  19. 19. A lesson plan “Today the children will read Clifford the Big Red Dog.” Lesson plans are NOT learning objectives.
  20. 20. A lesson plan “Today the children will read Clifford the Big Red Dog.” Lesson plans help teachers plan the day.
  21. 21. A lesson plan “Children will increase reading proficiency by reading Clifford” Lesson plans focus on our hopes & desires.
  22. 22. Learning Objectives: Student Outcomes Student Instructional Performance Reference + ACTION INTENT
  23. 23. The “How” Student Performance Skill ACTION
  24. 24. The “What” Instructional Reference Content INTENT
  25. 25. Examples: ACTION INTENT Demonstrates | reading skills. Recognizes | appropriate use of punctuation.
  26. 26. Examples: ACTION INTENT Demonstrates | reading skills. Domain
  27. 27. Examples: ACTION INTENT Specific Recognizes | appropriate use of punctuation.
  28. 28. Action (Verb) Helpful References Appendix How to Write and Use Instructional Objectives Norman Grunland
  29. 29. Five Principles of functional objectives 1. Content is not an objective  Students read age appropriate works of fiction.  Demonstrates reading skills.
  30. 30. Five Principles of functional objectives 2. Focus on student behaviors.  Teach student appropriate use of hand tools.  Distinguishes among types of hammers.
  31. 31. Five Principles of functional objectives 3. Teachers teach, students achieve  Increase student awareness of different artistic movements.  Appreciates artwork.
  32. 32. Five Principles of functional objectives 4. Objectives are unidimensional Focus on ONE concept at a time
  33. 33. Five Principles of functional objectives 5. Preserve the hierarchy Specific objectives should not exceed the skill level presented in the Domain.
  34. 34. Myths & Illusions Writing objectives is an art and a science. There is no absolutely correct manner. However, each must possess an action and intent.
  35. 35. Myths & Illusions “The student will …” Largely unnecessary! But if it feels good, go ahead!
  36. 36. Myths & Illusions There is a correct outline form. III. 1.0 A. A. 1.1 1. 1. 1.1.1 a.
  37. 37. Practice! MAIN DO Every student should acquire communication skills of understanding, speaking, reading and writing.
  38. 38. Practice! MAIN DO Demonstrate communication skills.
  39. 39. IC Practice! SPECIF Understands the scientific principle of gravity.
  40. 40. IC Practice! SPECIF Describes gravity Defines gravity. Uses gravity in problem solving.