Learning Objectives 1
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    Learning Objectives 1 Learning Objectives 1 Presentation Transcript

    • This presentation was developed for the exclusive use of students enrolled in: Educational Testing & Grading, Professor Gregory E. Stone. © 2004 Gregory E. Stone. All rights reserved. This presentation may not be reproduced in any form, in part or as a whole, without the express written permission of the author.
    • Learning Objectives What do teachers produce?
    • Our Product? Children who have mastered the conceptions we believe are most important.
    • Do we need them? Many of today’s scholars believe learning objectives are unnecessary and restrict the flow and creativity of learning.
    • Let’s find out! Today we’ll explore the form and function of purposeful learning objectives.
    • Early Objectives Behavioral: A series of tasks. Master 1, go on to 2. Master 2, go on to 3 ….
    • Modern Objectives Cognitive: Focus on Outcome, Thought Process, & Development
    • What is a concept? An idea. A theoretical construct. A field of study. A talent. A skill.
    • Can we observe all concepts? Language Arts Spells words correctly Demonstrates reading skills Are these concepts observable?
    • Spell correctly Recite a word to a child and ask the child to write the word. We can SEE whether the child has mastered spelling via a single, direct observation.
    • Demonstrates Reading Skills What single, directly observable task could the child perform to demonstrate that they have mastered this skill?
    • Domain (Learning Objective) Not directly observable. Multi-faceted. “Global” in nature. Theoretical. Desirable.
    • DomainsSpecifics What we want to produce are children who can READ. In order to suggest the child can read, we review their performances in areas we believe are related.
    • DomainsSpecifics Reading skills Pronunciation Comprehension Spelling
    • DomainsSpecifics Domain
    • DomainsSpecifics Specifics (inclusive) Domain
    • DomainsSpecifics Specifics (representative) Domain
    • Who is the focus? The student!
    • A lesson plan “Today the children will read Clifford the Big Red Dog.” Lesson plans are NOT learning objectives.
    • A lesson plan “Today the children will read Clifford the Big Red Dog.” Lesson plans help teachers plan the day.
    • A lesson plan “Children will increase reading proficiency by reading Clifford” Lesson plans focus on our hopes & desires.
    • Learning Objectives: Student Outcomes Student Instructional Performance Reference + ACTION INTENT
    • The “How” Student Performance Skill ACTION
    • The “What” Instructional Reference Content INTENT
    • Examples: ACTION INTENT Demonstrates | reading skills. Recognizes | appropriate use of punctuation.
    • Examples: ACTION INTENT Demonstrates | reading skills. Domain
    • Examples: ACTION INTENT Specific Recognizes | appropriate use of punctuation.
    • Action (Verb) Helpful References Appendix How to Write and Use Instructional Objectives Norman Grunland
    • Five Principles of functional objectives 1. Content is not an objective  Students read age appropriate works of fiction.  Demonstrates reading skills.
    • Five Principles of functional objectives 2. Focus on student behaviors.  Teach student appropriate use of hand tools.  Distinguishes among types of hammers.
    • Five Principles of functional objectives 3. Teachers teach, students achieve  Increase student awareness of different artistic movements.  Appreciates artwork.
    • Five Principles of functional objectives 4. Objectives are unidimensional Focus on ONE concept at a time
    • Five Principles of functional objectives 5. Preserve the hierarchy Specific objectives should not exceed the skill level presented in the Domain.
    • Myths & Illusions Writing objectives is an art and a science. There is no absolutely correct manner. However, each must possess an action and intent.
    • Myths & Illusions “The student will …” Largely unnecessary! But if it feels good, go ahead!
    • Myths & Illusions There is a correct outline form. III. 1.0 A. A. 1.1 1. 1. 1.1.1 a.
    • Practice! MAIN DO Every student should acquire communication skills of understanding, speaking, reading and writing.
    • Practice! MAIN DO Demonstrate communication skills.
    • IC Practice! SPECIF Understands the scientific principle of gravity.
    • IC Practice! SPECIF Describes gravity Defines gravity. Uses gravity in problem solving.