Federal bureaucracy

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Federal bureaucracy

  1. 1. THE FEDERAL BUREACRACY Examining the “Fourth Branch”
  2. 2. bureaucracy • literally means “rule by desks” • government by clerks
  3. 3. bureaucracy Definition: an administrative system, especially in a government, that divides work into specific categories carried out by special departments of nonelected officials
  4. 4. Characteristics of a Bureaucracy • administration of government through departments • consists of unelected often highly trained professionals • task specialization • hierarchical authority
  5. 5. Public Perceptions of Bureaucracies • impersonal • inclined to follow rigid or complex procedures • may stifle effectiveness and innovation • “red tape”
  6. 6. What is the federal bureaucracy? QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. The Federal Bureaucracy QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  7. 7. The Federal Bureaucracy is: 4 million employees; 2.8 million are civilians or “civil servants”  President only appoints 3% (patronage or political appointments)  15 cabinet level departments  200+ independent agencies with 2,000+ bureaus, divisions, branches, etc.  Biggest - Dept. of Defense, U.S. Postal Service, Veterans Administration
  8. 8. What does the federal bureaucracy do? QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. The Federal Bureaucracy QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  9. 9. Functions of the Federal Bureaucracy 1. 2. 3. Implementation - carry out laws of Congress, executive orders of the President Administration - routine administrative work; provide services (ex: SSA sends social security checks to beneficiaries) Regulation - issue rules and regulations that impact the public (ex: EPA sets clean air standards) Source: http://www.pinkmonkey.com/studyguides/subjects/am_gov/chap6/a0606401.asp
  10. 10. How is the federal bureaucracy organized? QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. The Federal Bureaucracy QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  11. 11. The Federal Bureaucracy Consists of 1. Cabinet Departments 2. Independent Executive Agencies 3. Independent Regulatory Commissions 4. Government Corporations
  12. 12. Federal Bureaucracy President Executive Office of the President (Ex: OMB, NSC) Congress Cabinet Departments (Ex: State, Defense) Independent Executive Agencies (Ex: CIA, NASA) Government Corporations (Ex: Amtrack, Postal Service) Independent Regulatory Commissions (Ex: FCC, SEC)
  13. 13. Organization of the Federal Bureaucracy Source: www.edmonds.wednet.edu/mths/ClassActivities/ Brzovic/policeymakersChapters12-16/
  14. 14. The Cabinet Departments • The 15 cabinet departments headed by a cabinet secretary appointed by the president and approved by the Senate • Each department “expert” in specific policy area • Each department has its own budget • Department of Homeland Security, created in 2002, is newest department
  15. 15. Department of Homeland Security Executive Secretary Commandant of Coast Guard (1) Legislative Affairs Secretary Inspector General ---------------------------------- Public Affairs Deputy Secretary General Counsel State and Local Coordination Special Assistant to the Secretary (private sector) Citizenship & Immigration Service Ombudsman (1) National Capital Region Coordination Chief of Staff Director, Bureau of Citizenship & Immigration Services (1) Director of the Secret Service (1) Small & Disadvantaged Business Privacy Officer International Affairs Shared Services Under Secretary Management Civil Rights and Civil Liberties Counter Narcotics Under Secretary Science and Technology Note (1): Effective March 1st, 2003 Under Secretary Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection Under Secretary Border & Transportation Security Under Secretary Emergency Preparedness and Response
  16. 16. Independent Executive Agencies • Established by Congress with separate status outside the executive branch • Given a specific mandate and generally perform a service function, not a regulatory one. • Some examples include: Social Security Administration, CIA, NASA, EPA.
  17. 17. Independent Regulatory Commissions • IRCs exist to regulate a specific economic activity or interest such as the Federal Communications Commission (public air waves) or Federal Reserve Board (banking system, money supply) • IRCs operate independently from Congress and the President • Once appointed and seated, members cannot be removed without cause
  18. 18. Government Corporations • Government owned businesses created by Congress • May or may not be profitable, but serve a public need • Ex: U.S. Postal Service, Amtrak, Tennessee Valley Authority, Corporation for Public Broadcasting
  19. 19. Who works for the federal government? QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  20. 20. Who are the “Bureaucrats?” • • • • 97% are career government employees Only 10% live in the D.C. area 30% work for the D.O.D. Less than 15% work for social welfare agencies • Most are white collar workers: secretaries, clerks, lawyers, inspectors & engineers • Civil employees more diverse demographically than Congress
  21. 21. Where do Federal Employees Work? Source: www.edmonds.wednet.edu/mths/ClassActivities/ Brzovic/policeymakersChapters12-16/
  22. 22. What Jobs Do Bureaucrats Do? Source: www.edmonds.wednet.edu/mths/ClassActivities/ Brzovic/policeymakersChapters12-16/
  23. 23. Who supervises the federal bureaucracy? QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  24. 24. The President Supervises Bureaucracy the The President can: • appoint & remove agency heads • reorganize the bureaucracy President Bush speaks about his budget priorities for FY 2007 • issue executive orders • reduce an agency's budget
  25. 25. Congress Oversees the Bureaucracy Congress can: • create or abolish agencies & departments • cut or reduce funding • investigate agency activities • hold committee hearings • pass legislation that alters agency's functions an Former FEMA Chief Michael Brown testifies before House committee investigating Hurricane Katrina • influence or even fail to confirm presidential appointments
  26. 26. Federal Courts Check the Bureaucracy Federal courts can: • through judicial review rule on whether the bureaucracy has acted within the law and the U.S. Constitution • provide due process for individuals affected by a bureaucratic action Supreme Court of the United States
  27. 27. The Bureaucracy of Pizza
  28. 28. Thinking Critically 1. Why is the federal bureaucracy often referred to as “the fourth branch?” 2. Some critics believe that the real power in the federal government lies with the federal bureaucracy. To what extent do you believe this is true?
  29. 29. Title: The Damages of the Bureaucracy Artist: unknown, La Presna, Panama Date: May, 2006 Source: http://www.politicalcartoons.com
  30. 30. Title: Federal Employees Self Esteem Class Artist: Chip Bok Date: unknown Source: http://www.reason.com/9602/bok.gif
  31. 31. Title: Another Layer of Bureaucracy Artist: Bob Englehart, The Hartford Courant Date: February, 2006 Source: : http://www.politicalcartoons.com
  32. 32. Title: FEMA’s Follies Artist: Mike Keefe, The Denver Post Date: April, 2006 Source: http://www.cagle.com/news/FEMASFollies/main.asp

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