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Civil rights
 

Civil rights

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    Civil rights Civil rights Presentation Transcript

    • The Battle Over School Desegregation Brown v. Board of Education: The Landmark Decision and Its Aftermath
    • What are civil rights? Those rights belonging to an individual by virtue ofThose rights belonging to an individual by virtue of citizenshipcitizenship that are guaranteed and protected by thethat are guaranteed and protected by the ConstitutionConstitution Examples?Examples?
    • •The separation of racial groups in terms of facilities, services, medical care, education •Includes discrimination in hiring, rental or sale of property, and bans Racial Segregation
    • • Segregation enforced by law (Jim Crow Laws) • Ex: Segregation in schools, transportation, etc. De Jure Segregation
    • • State and local laws, 1876-1965, that mandated segregation in accommodations, facilities, schools, etc. • Treatment and accommodations for blacks usually inferior • Segregation laws greatly restricted the civil rights and liberties of African Americans – Examples: requiring poll taxes and literacy tests to prevent Blacks from voting Jim Crow Laws
    • • Segregation “in fact” or practice without being officially or legally established • Ex: racial discrimination in hiring practices, sports teams, real estate De Facto Segregation
    • De Jure Which form of segregation do you think was the  most difficult to overcome? De Facto OR Why?Why?
    • The U.S. Supreme Court Weighs In Racial Segregation
    • Background: •Homer Plessy, 7/8’s Caucasian, took a seat in a “whites only” railroad car to challenge a Louisiana segregation law •Plessy refused to move and was arrested Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Supreme Court Decision: a) The Court upheld state-imposed racial segregation laws b) Established the “separate but equal” doctrine
    • a)Legitimized the move towards segregation in the South b)Significant disparities in educational funding between white and black public schools dramatically increased c)Spurred an increase in Jim Crow laws by state legislatures to further curtail African American civil rights (ex: voting disenfranchisement) The Impact of  the Plessy Decision
    • “Separate but Equal?” 1. What do you think the Supreme Court meant by “separate but equal” in the Plessy decision? 2. How does “separate but equal” relate to public schools in the South from 1896 to 1954?
    • Brown v. Board of Education The Landmark Decision and It’s Aftermath
    • Background: •Linda Brown denied admission to an all-white school close to her home in Topeka, Kansas •Brown required to attend an all-black elementary school across town Brown v. Board of Education
    • Background continued: •Brown joined a class action lawsuit against the Board of Education in Topeka Kansas Class action suit - a lawsuit in which a large group of people collectively brings a case to court •The NAACP represented the plaintiffs in the case Plaintiff - the party who initiates a civil law suit Brown v. Board of Education The plaintiffs in Brown v. Board
    • “Separate But Equal” Facilities? All White Farmville High School v. All Black Moton High School Prince Edward County, VA (1951) Farmville High School Exterior View Moton High School Exterior View
    • “Separate But Equal?” Farmville High School Auditorium Moton High School Auditorium
    • a)Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson and the “separate but equal doctrine” based on the 14th Amendment b)Declared that state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students denied black children equal educational opportunities. c)The Court ordered that the states end school segregation with “all deliberate speed.” The Supreme  Court’s Brown Decision
    • a)Signaled the end of de jure segregation in the United States b)Initiated the process of school desegregation and racial integration in K-12 public schools and universities c)Sparked “massive resistance” by white southerners determined to thwart the Brown decision and avoid school The Impact of  the Brown Decision
    • Comparing Plessy and Brown Thinking Critically
    • "We consider the underlying fallacy of the plaintiff's argument to consist in the assumption that the enforced separation of the two races stamps the colored race with a badge of inferiority. If this be so, it is not by reason of anything found in the act, but solely because the colored race chooses to put that construction upon it.” ~Justice Henry Brown The Plessy v. Ferguson Decision
    • “ Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities and other "tangible" factors may be equal, deprive the children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities? We believe that it does...We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of 'separate but equal' has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.” ~ Chief Justice Earl Warren The Brown v. Board Decision
    • Desegregation and Integration:   What’s the Difference? Desegregation •The legal process of ending the separation of two races •Examples: public schools and accommodations Integration •Goals of creating equal opportunity, and development of a culture of racial diversity
    • Racial Integration It’s been more than a half century since the Brown decision. Where are we today with regard to school integration?
    • School of Rock Songs of the Civil Rights Movement
    • Oh Freedom (Traditional) Recorded by Odetta (1956), Joan Baez (1963) Oh freedom, oh freedom, oh freedom over me And before I'd be a slave I'll be buried in a my grave And go home to my Lord and be free No more mourning, no more mourning, no more mourning over me And before I'd be a slave I'll be buried in a my grave And go home to my Lord and be free Odetta
    • Oh Freedom There'll be singin', there'll be singin', there'll be singin' over me And before I'd be a slave I'll be buried in a my grave And go home to my Lord and be free Oh freedom, oh freedom, oh freedom over me And before I'd be a slave I'll be buried in a my grave No more crying, no more crying, no more crying over me And before I'd be a slave I'll be buried in a my grave And go home to my Lord and be free Oh freedom, oh freedom, oh freedom over me And before I'd be a slave I'll be buried in a my grave And go home to my Lord and be free
    • We Shall Overcome By Charles Tindley We shall overcome, we shall overcome, We shall overcome someday; Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe, We shall overcome someday. The Lord will see us through, The Lord will see us through, The Lord will see us through someday; Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe, We shall overcome someday. We're on to victory, We're on to victory, We're on to victory someday; Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe, We're on to victory someday.
    • We Shall Overcome The truth shall set us free , the truth shall set us free, The truth shall set us free someday; Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe, The truth shall set us free someday. We shall live in peace, we shall live in peace, We shall live in peace someday; Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe, We shall live in peace We'll walk hand in hand, we'll walk hand in hand, We'll walk hand in hand someday; Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe, We'll walk hand in hand someday. We are not afraid, we are not afraid, We are not afraid today; Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe, We are not afraid today.
    • Blowin’ in the Wind By Bob Dylan (1963) How many roads must a man walk down Before you call him a man? Yes, 'n' how many seas must a white dove sail Before she sleeps in the sand? Yes, 'n' how many times must the cannon balls fly Before they're forever banned? (Chorus) The answer, my friend, is blowin' in the wind, The answer is blowin' in the wind.
    • Blowin’ in the Wind How many times must a man look up Before he can see the sky? Yes, 'n' how many ears must one man have Before he can hear people cry? Yes, 'n' how many deaths will it take till he knows That too many people have died? The answer, my friend, is blowin' in the wind, The answer is blowin' in the wind. How many years can a mountain exist Before it's washed to the sea? Yes, 'n' how many years can some people exist Before they're allowed to be free? Yes, 'n' how many times can a man turn his head, Pretending he just doesn't see? (Chorus)
    • Change is Gonna Come I was born by the river in a little tent Oh and just like the river I been a runnin' ever since It's been a long, a long time coming but I know A change gon' come oh yes it will It's been too hard living but I'm afraid to die Cuz I don't know what's up there beyond the sky It's been a long, a long time coming but I knowBy Sam Cooke  (1964)
    • Change is Gonna Come But he winds up knocking me Back down on my knees There been times that I thought I wouldn't last for long Now think I'm able to carry on It's been a long, along time coming but I know A change gon' come, oh yes it will I go to the movie, and I go downtown Somebody keep tellin me "don't hang around" It's been a long, a long time coming, but i know A change gon' come oh yes it will Then I go to my brother And I say "brother, help me please"