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Andrew Carey Ryan Bernhardt Shaun Hughes Val Bettens Group 1 assessment 2 EDP 155
Theories of learning into the 21st century: Slides 4 to 9 Professionalism of teachers in to the 21st century: Slides 10 to 14 Learners into the 21st century. Slides 15 to 19 Factors impacting 21st century learning Slides 20 to 25 Slides and content
How will the theorists studied, fit in the 21st century classroom? Theorists Pavlov Piaget Skinner Vygotsky
Piaget in the 21st Century Classroom Sensorimotor (0-2 years) Pre Operational (2-7 years) Piaget’s Stages Concrete Operational (7-11 years) Formal Operational (11+ years) Donatelli (n.d.) suggests that Piaget’s theories will still apply, even if in revised and adapted forms as a teacher in an online classroom will still need to be able to display rules, communication, development of students and also socialisation of students. Cantin (2010) states that when keeping in mind Piaget’s definition of learning of “an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts”, he points out that lecture style lesson does not fit in with this theory. He went on to explain a new technological classroom he has visited, using Technology Enabled Active Learning, that was not only modern but emphasised “hands-on, interactive, collaborative learning”. McClure (1988) states that there are less traditional kinds of enquiry to help the student mature and become more capable to grow through Piaget’s stages of development. He includes examples of using ‘real world’ examples in teaching to be able give meaning to the lesson.
Vygotsky’s theory has come to prominence due to a change in thinking away from a biologically based understanding of human behaviour, to the “social/cultural explanation of human activity.”
Vygotsky’s theory of the Zone of Proximal Development has a direct impact on teaching practise as it reveals the hidden potential of a student through scaffolding techniques.
Vygotsky’s theories have teaching professionals rethink the broad stereotypes such as “socioeconomic status” and “ethnic minority.
That each individual is just that – individual.
Vygotsky in the 21st Century Classroom
Pavlov in the 21st Century Classroom Pavlov’s Theory Unconditioned Stimulus Pavlov was one of the first theorists to use behaviourism as a theory to explain learning and development. His basis was around 5 key elements, being unconditioned stimuli, unconditioned response, neutral stimulus, conditioned stimulus and conditioned response (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) Pavlov’s work spurned further work by further theorists, mainly Skinner and Watson (Rockey, 2008). Unconditioned Response Neutral Stimulus Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response
There is still room for Piaget’s and Vygotsky‘s theories in the classroom.
There is still some room for Pavlov in the classroom however it is limited as new theories to be embraced.
Skinner’s theories in the classroom may be drawing to an end.
As with any theory, none of the theorists can accurately or adequately predict what is going to work in the individual classroom. Teachers need to adapt to their audience, and this adaptation will have to change not only year to year, but term to term and even week to week.
Using different parts of different theories may be the best way to manage the classroom of the 21st century.
Teachers and Teaching Teachers have been an integral part of Australian education for over 200 years, (History of Australian Education, 2010).
The role of the teacher has changed over the Years.
The training of the teachers has also changed.
Some things remain the same, the desire to teach and impart knowledge to encourage learning for the future.
There will be some changes needed to accommodate the ever changing society in which we live.
Professionalism and Ethics Teachers will always need to be professional. Even more so into the 21st century, to demonstrate this they need to. Be ethical. meet legal requirements to become a teacher. Understand and meet duty of care responsibilities. Have good communication skills with students, parents and colleagues. Demonstrate quality teaching.
Quality Teaching To demonstrate quality teaching teachers need to: be knowledgeable about all areas of teaching. seek understanding of what is being taught, how to teach it, and how learners learn it. be enthusiastic and show enthusiasm about teaching. be confident and committed. be curious and question. be well organized, resourceful and inventive. understand that all learners come from different walks of life. with different experiences and understandings. be patient and persistent.
Teaching Strategies for the 21st Century Using a variety of teaching and learning strategies is vital to education. Use the student’s interest’s, curiosity and enjoyment to motivate them. If the topic and activities are interesting and enjoyable the task its self becomes the reward (Marsh, 2008). Setting of realistic goals for students is important as if the task is perceived as too hard some students “give up”. Plan lessons that are interesting. Students will be motivated to learn if it is fun and interesting. Maintain equity within the classroom. Students are the first to notice if any behaviour or action seems even the slightest bit inequitable. Pace the work and ensure that all students understand what is expected of them both socially and educationally based. Be aware of any emotional or social issues that could impede motivation. Show interest in the students this will build and foster a good teacher student relationships (Eggan & Kauchak, 2010) .
A teacher that uses a teaching model that understands how students learn, appreciates different learning styles, is inventive and resourceful, and uses technology to its full advantage, will always support and allow students to learn to the best of their ability whilst maintaining a common lesson theme throughout the class.
A Student’s View On 21st Century Learning Students in a Changing World
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Eggen, P. & Kauchak, D. (2010). Educational Psychology Windows on Classrooms (8th Ed).Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education International. Erikson, E. (1980). Identity and the life cycle 2nd ed. New York: Norton. Erikson, E. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton. History of Australian Education. (2010, March 19). Retrieved July 5th, 2010, from Aussie Educator: http://www.aussieeducator.org.au/education/other/history.html Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic Books. Marsh, C. (2008). Becoming a Teacher (4th Ed).Frenchs Forest: Pearson Education Australia. McClure, R. (1988) Schools for the 21st Century : Can we go from lethargy to zest for learning? Retrieved on 27/06/2010 from http://www.context.org/ICLIB/IC18/McClure.htm Rief, S. & Heimburge, J. (2006). How to reach and teach all children in the inclusive classroom (2nd Ed.). San Francisco: Wiley.
Reference cont......... Rockey, R. (2008) An observational study of pre-service teachers’ classroom management strategies. Retrieved on 1/7/2010 from http://dspace.lib.iup.edu:8080/dspace/bitstream/2069/86/1/Rebecca+Rockey.Revised+pdf.pdf Shepard, L. (2010) The Role of Assessment in a Learning Centre. Educational Researcher (29) 7. pp.4-14. Retrieved on 1/7/2010 from http://www.ied.edu.hk/obl/files/The role of assessment in a learning culture.pdf The law handbook (n.d.) children and young people, duty of care, retrieved from www.lawhandbook.org.au/handbook/ch06s03s02.php Van Tessel, G. (n.d.) Classroom Management. Retrieved on 1/7/2010 from http://www.brains.org/classroom_management.htm Whitton, D., Sinclair, C., Barker, K., Nanlohy, P., & Nosworthy, M. (2005). Learning for teaching: teaching for learning (1st Ed.). Australia: Cengage. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes (M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman, Eds. & Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Reference cont......... Songs used Porcelain by Moby. (Moby). Taken from the album Play (1999). UK: V2/BMG Records, Mute Right Here, Right Now by Fatboy Slim. (Norman Cook). Taken from the album You’ve Come a Long Way Baby (1998) UK: Skint Terminal Frost by Pink Floyd. (Gilmour, N.). Taken from the album A Momentary Lapse of Reason (1987). EMI Records.