These three authors all support the idea that the theory of Piaget will still apply in the 21st century. As discussed by Eggen and Kauchak (2010), there are still several critics of Piaget, and also neo-Piagetians who believe some of Piaget’s theories still apply, but use other theories to help explain learning and development.Given the increase in internet use in the home and the classroom, and the advent of online courses, Donatelli’s references to the online classroom certainly reflect a 21st century classroom that may be conducted online, through the use of discussion boards and online chat rooms, where socialisation of student’s is going to be in a vastly different context to those in a physical, ‘face to face’ classroom.Cantin’s visit to a school using current technologies to deliver lessons shows how schools can engage learners in an active process, when students may not engage with traditional teaching pedagogies such as lecturing, or front of class style delivery.McClure’s article, while somewhat dated, still rings true for today, in engaging students with real life examples in teaching, helping their cognitive development with meaningfulness (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)
Kozulin (2004) ponders why Vygotsky’s theories have taken so long to become prevalent in the educational world. He finds that while Piaget and neo-Piagetian theories served well for some time, as American and European classrooms became multicultural, understanding of the importance of culture in education became prevalent. This meant Vygotsky’s “sociocultural approach” (Kozulin, 2004)According to Brunner (as cited in Gindis, 1999) Vygotsky’s theory has come to prominence due to a change in thinking away from a biologically based understanding of human behaviour, to the “social/cultural explanation of human activity.” (Gindis, 1999)Gindis also states that Vygotsky’s theory of the Zone of Proximal Development has a direct impact on teaching practise as it reveals the hidden potential of a student through scaffolding techniques (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)Berk (n.d.) reflects that research inspired by Vygotsky’s theories has allowed us to better understand children become “enculturated into their communities” through an every day process. This has made researchers and teaching professionals rethink the broad stereotypes such as “socioeconomic status” and “ethnic minority” , and look deeper into these communities to see that each individual is just that – individual.These three articles all support that Vygotsky has a place in teaching theory for the 21st century.Both Kozulin (2004) and Gindis (1999) acknowledge that Vygotsky’s theories have only recently come into prominence, both stating that the reason is due to a change of understanding in the way that the student learns.Kozulin also highlighted the area of Vygotskys theory around the culture of the learner having an impact on todays teaching practitioner. Eggen and Kauchak (2010) describe using the individual’s culture in learning as the third key stage of Vygotsky’s theory on development. Using examples that are unique to the learner’s culture will help the learner in both communication and thinking.Berk (n.d.) also reflects on this stage of Vygotsky’s theory, and highlights how using the theory allows teaching professionals to break free from stereotypes to see each individual learner for their own character.
Pavlov’s theory originally emanated from work he was doing with dogs, and their behaviours when being fed. He noticed that the dogs began salivating when the research assistant would come to feed the dog. This he categorised as unconditioned response (the salivating), caused from an unconditioned stimulus (the food).Baldwin and Baldwin (as cited in Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) describe both the unconditioned response and stimulus as unlearned, or instinctive.The neutral stimulus is described as an object or event that does not initially alter behaviour.Conditioned stimulus is what was formerly a neutral stimulus, but then becomes attached to an unconditioned stimulus. Conditioned response is a learned behaviour from the unconditioned response.While it may not have always been called as such, Pavlov’s theory has been at work in the classroom for a long time, due to the very nature of the learner. As such, the theory is still relevant for the 21st century classroom.Teacher’s can manifest classical conditioning in many ways. The example provided by Eggen and Kauchak (2010) with Sharon Van Horn greeting her class in a cheerful manner every morning helped Carlos experience a pleasant feeling when entering the classroom is just a small sample of how teachers can use classical conditioning to make the learning experience more enjoyable.
Skinner discovered the theory of Operant Conditioning, which is described by Eggen and Kauchak (2010) as a situation where people “’operate’ on their environments by initiating behaviours.” In other words, as opposed to Pavlov’s classical conditioning that was largely instinctive. Skinner found behaviour can be manipulated.Van Tessell (n.d.) in his paper lends weight to the point that Skinner’s theories do not fit in the modern classroom. Glasser (as cited by Van Tessell, n.d.) states that “pushing a student into a corner until they conform with our expectations is not in accordance with a psychologically healthy adolescent. Van Tessell also stated that the Skinner theory is molding learners to conform by the use of standard punshishment and rewards and that behavioirism could be a system to make all students conform to the prescribed norms. He continues that this theory would take away the student autonomy.Shepard (2000) in her Figure 1. shows that behaviourism as a theory in the classroom is becoming outdated and replaced more by cognitive and constructivist theories around learning and development.It would appear from the research as mentioned in the above slide that Skinner’s theory on Operant Conditioning is not as widely received as it once was.Van Tessell (n.d.) uses the view of Glasser to support his position that Operant Conditioning is an effort to mold the student body into views and behaviours that have already been dictated they must adhere to. While it is true that certain behaviours, such as societal acceptable behaviours, must be imparted to children, Van Tessell (n.d.) does contend using Operant Conditioning in the classroom could remove student autonomy, which is not something to be desired.One word that was used extensively when researching Skinner was “utopian” to describe the classroom and the student he was trying to create from this theory.Shepard (2000) does interestingly make reference to continual use of positive reinforcement through praise when students master new skills or knowledge, yet she also clearly displays that behaviourism as a whole is a theory being replaced with newer, modern approaches, such as constructivism and congitive theories.The points raised above do suggest that there may only be limited room for Skinner in the classroom in the future, and even that time may be limited.
The previous slides show that there is definitely still room for Piaget’s and Vygotsky‘s theories in the classroom. This is interesting that researchers tend to show that both theories can work, yet they are quite opposed.There is still some room for Pavlov in the classroom of the 21st century, however as shown in the Skinner research, there is limited time and room for behaviourism as cognitive learning and constructivism emerge as new theories to be embraced.Due to these emerging theories, the time for Skinner’s theories in the classroom may be drawing to an end in the scale they are used now. Limited parts may be used in the future for “bigger picture” behavioural education.As with any theory, none of the theorists can accurately or adequately predict what is going to work in the individual classroom. Teachers need to adapt to their audience, and this adaptation will have to change not only year to year, but term to term and even week to week.Using different parts of different theories may be the best way to manage the classroom of the 21st century
Teachers have been an integral part of Australian education for over 200 years, (History of Australian Education, 2010). Although the role of the teacher has changed significantly over the 200 year history, along with the training and educating of the teaching profession, there are many things that to this day remain the same. The most common is the desire to impart knowledge to students to encourage learning for the future. As we as a society look towards the future it is apparent that there will be some changes needed to accommodate the ever changing society in which we live.History of Australian Education. (2010, March 19). Retrieved July 5th, 2010, from Aussie Educator: http://www.aussieeducator.org.au/education/other/history.html
Teaching will always need to be professional, even more so into the 21st Century. To enable teachers to demonstrate this they need to be ethical. Ethics or “the right thing to do” is based upon ensuring teachers have the knowledge and understandings of the law, policies rules and guidelines that govern teaching, (Whitton, Sinclair, Barker, Nanlohy, & Nosworthy, 2005). Coupled with the socially and culturally responsible understandings of key values, respect, dignity, caring, and integrity. Ensuring that open communication, with colleagues, parents and students is equal, regardless of race, gender, religion or disability, respect the privacy of individuals and ensure that guidelines and policies are followed, (Whitton, Sinclair, Barker, Nanlohy, & Nosworthy, 2005). The legal requirements of a teacher is best described as what a teacher need to do according to the law. To become a teacher in Australia you need to complete an undergraduate and/or post graduate course from a recognized institution as well as any mandatory training required. The Law Handbook states “The law imposes a legal duty on teachers and schools to take care of the safety and wellbeing of pupils in their care. This duty of care arises where a teacher-pupil relationship exists” (The law handbook, 2009). This duty of care is more than just the teacher acting as a parent while the child is at school as a higher standard of care is expected from a teacher than is expected from a good careful parent.
To demonstrate quality teaching teachers of today need to be many things, knowledgeable, and understanding of what is being taught, how to teach it and how learners learn it, (Quality Teaching, n.d.). They need to show enthusiasm about teaching as it is this enthusiasm that rubs off on to the students and creates a better more productive learning environment. Educators need to have confidence and commitment, not only about how they teach and what they teach but also their ability to help students learn. They need to be curious, question (McKenzie, 2004), and seek to gather more information, ask why does this happen, and how does this work therefore inspiring their students to learn and to become inquirers. An inventive organized and resourceful teachers will be willing use different ways and methods of teaching, and to look, for new ideas, using whatever is available to help teach and make lessons interesting and varied. This will accommodate the learners that come from different cultural and social backgrounds bringing with them different experiences and understandings. (Eggan & Kauchak, 2010) Teachers should also give students time to absorb and learn new concepts and tasks by being patient and persistent, whilst being optimistic, and believe that there is always a way for students to learn. Finally teachers need to change how they do things if it isn’t working, be willing to share and collaborate with colleagues, be ethical, understand the laws and policies that govern their position inside an outside school, and ensure that they behave professionally at all times.
It is important to ensure that the learning is delivered using a variety of teaching and instruction methods that relate to and is based upon what the student knows. (Reif & Heimburge 2006); (Brady & Kennedy 2007) argue that students learn best when they can make a connection between the curriculum, their interests and their life experiences and that they are less likely to disengage from learning if the curriculum is meaningful and relevant to their everyday lives. In other words, all learning is filtered through the learner’s current frame of reference (context) and as such all learning should be based upon what the learners already knows and understands.
For hundreds of years, education has been a fundamental part in society. As society developed teachers were forced to modify, or completely discard, their teaching processes and methods and adopt new methods which incorporate modern learning theories.. In the past, students have relied upon the teacher/instructor to provide them with correct, relevant and educational knowledge.Until the late 1980’s, teachers taught to students as a group and did not address an individual’s needs. This meant that an individual’s learning was dependant on their pre-existing knowledge. As the majority of students receiving an education pre-1900’s came from homes with a high socio-economic status, learning was focussed on academic development and social development. As society evolved and people from lower socio-economic backgrounds began to be granted the basic human rights, such as the ability to attend a school, the methods of teaching had to change to adapt to the widened range of students.Until the early 1900’s, computers did not exist. Even then, computers did not have the capability to store information. This was developed in the mid 20th century. Prior to this, students used tools like an abacus, or hand-written calculations to solve problems, and filing systems to store information. Technologies like the internet were not developed until approximately the 1950’s. Before this, students had to search archives and libraries to find information, and did not have the liberty of the internet.
These changes have had a large impact on modern education, in both a positive and negative way. Students are being forced to be Information and Technology literate, and students who are not as talented in this area are falling behind. This brings to surface many issues which were non-existent prior to technology being incorporated into learning. Possibly the most evident problem could be that not all students are able to gain access to this technology. Students from low socio-economic homes are possibly disadvantaged in that they may not have access to the same technology as their counter-parts, hence hindering their learning experience. Also, internet has a limited range and learners who are outside of this area are effectively being restricted in their learning. However, new technology has given students access to information which they could not attain otherwise. This allows them to expand their knowledge base to a far greater extent than in the past. They can now research ideas and theories which they are unsure of and read an explanation. Student’s are now able to hold their teachers accountable and double-check everything they are taught if they wish to do so, and also develop their own knowledge to a greater extent than previously possible.
In order to adapt to the changing environment, a student is required to make numerous changes to their existing knowledge and their learning methods (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010). These include but are not limited to; Learning to use a computer and navigate internet sites, adjusting their daily life to incorporate using modern technology, adjusting their learning practices (i.e. hand-writing assignments) in order to progress in their schooling, and learning to understand teaching which incorporates modern technology (i.e. Smart-boards, data-projectors, Laptop computers, Web pages etc) (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010).
The 21st century learner will have access to an unprecedented amount of information and connectivity than ever before. Social networking sites and Blog sites along with video sharing websites will ensure that information is available when you want it. However, let’s not mistake the provision of information as a learning experience. To incorporate technology into a rich learning experience, the 21st century teacher will have to remain abreast of current ICT trends and relate these to the day to day lives of students. Social networking can give insights into the different cultural contexts learners come from; Sociocultural theory (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)or even create new cultures of its own e.g. SMS language. Social networking has also created a “community of learners” (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, p. 228). Learning is supported by a group with a common interest and small group work conducted within the classroom can scaffold student understanding on a local level. Technology also serves in accommodating the Multiple Intelligences (Gardner, 1993) by being able to differentiate content delivery. The chronosystem is the final level in Bronfenbrenner’sBioecological model of human development (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006) and refers to the changing influences found in human development over time such as the change in relationships with family members, meeting new people and experiencing different social institutions (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010). The role technology now plays in this can be seen quite clearly with what is on offer such as laptops, smart boards, PDA’s, social networking websites, blog sites, and video sharing websites
As an effective teacher in the 21st century, it will be vital to motivate students to become lifelong learners. This means helping students to see the value in an activity for the benefit of the student. Teachers will need to help the student to become intrinsically motivated. This will provide the teacher with many challenges as attempting to take the student from being extrinsically motivated to being intrinsically motivated means awakening within them, the desire to want to learn. The amount of care that teachers place into lesson planning is important. In providing exciting introductory activities for students, teachers will be able to shape motivation positively (Marsh, 2008). It is vital to obtain feedback through various forms of assessment from learners about the progress they are making in order to further motivate them. It is important that students see the value in what they are doing and also believe that they are capable of achieving the results required. There are a number of theories of motivation that can provide guidance with this.Behaviourist theories – Focus on changes in behaviour that result from experiences with the environment (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010). The use of praise, along with achieving good grades is a positive reinforcer and motivates the student.Cognitive and social cognitive theories – Examine people’s expectations and beliefs and their attempts to understand how the world works (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010). In an effort to understand why or how something works or behaves as it does, the student is motivated to find out.Sociocultural theories – Emphasize individuals’ participation in communities that value and support learning (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010). By participating in small group work, for example, students are motivated by the support and encouragement that they receive. Humanistic Theories – Emphasize people’s attempts to fulfil their total potential as human beings (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010). This relies on the belief that motivation is an attempt to become self-actualised in order to fulfil maximum potential.
One challenge that will be present in the classroom is learner diversity. Within this will be learners with exceptionalities such as learners with disabilities and learners with gifts and talents (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010). Learning disabilities such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Intellectual, and disorders such as Behavioural, Autism spectrum, Communicative, and including visual and hearing disorders also present a challenge.By approaching instruction of these children with a good deal of compassion whilst maintaining high requirements and establishing predictable routines within the class, teachers will stand the best chance in helping their students succeed. Some students will come from backgrounds that will not be conducive to student motivation. By fostering a caring environment within the classroom, and provided students understand what is required of them, the teacher will create a sense of belonging and further promote motivation within the student. There will be other students from cultural minority groups.Teachers will have to employ culturally responsive classroom management techniques (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)to promote cohesiveness amongst the students. As a teacher, it will be important to reflect upon whether there are any personally held thoughts that may prejudice a cultural group within the classroom. Diversity can be addressed with the use of technology in teaching to appeal to the multiple intelligences of learners. Students with exceptionalities will benefit from the use of technology as it removes traditional barriers and motivates students to further engage with learning. Gifted and talented students will need rich learning experiences to further their development (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010).Learners with exceptionalities – Students who need special help and resources to reach their full potential. (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, p. 126)Culturally responsive classroom management – Classroom management that combines teachers’ awareness of possible personal biases with cultural knowledge (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, p. 380).
Learners in the 21st Century will have to be equipped with problem solving skills to help make the most of 21stcentury life. Dealing with issues; either perceived or real, will ensure that learners will need to be able to discern via critical thinking, the best possible and most fair strategies for all concerned. Diversity will need to be embraced and the challenges that come with doing so will require classroom organisation that enhances the learning of problem solving skills. Vygotsky’ssociocultural theory of development (1978) refers to working within a child’s zone of proximal development. In this zone, students will employ problem solving techniques to construct answers to problems set before them by the teacher. To progress through the zone of proximal development requires assistance from the teacher or other students who are more capable (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010). Teachers who are offering assistance (scaffolding) to students who are in the zone of proximal development must be aware to not provide too much support. Social interaction plays a great role in constructivist learning theory. A learning environment in which learners collaborate and share ideas should become the norm in the 21st century. Creativity should be fostered within the learning environment and should ultimately be demonstrated by the teacher.Zone of proximal development – A range of tasks that an individual cannot yet do alone but can accomplish when assisted by the guidance of others (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, p. 47). Scaffolding – Assistance that helps children complete tasks they cannot complete independently (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, p. 47) Critical Thinking – “An individual’s ability and inclination to make and assess conclusions based on evidence” (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, p. 271). In assessing a statement or claim being made, a critical thinker is able to filter such, in that there may or may not be the evidence to support the argument Divergent Thinking – “The ability to generate a variety of original answers to questions or problems” (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, p. 264). Divergent thinking is another indicator of problem solving ability.
IdentityThe role that a caring, encouraging teacher will play in the lives of students cannot be underestimated. Potentially for some, the classroom may be the only stable, organised aspect of a student’s life that offers amongst other things, routine and affirmation. An authoritative teacher will understand the challenges presented in this regard and be motivated to oversee the personal, social and moral development of all students under their care.Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development (1968, 1980) explores the developmental changes or stages that take place over our lifespans and our responses to crisis’ as they occur. Erikson’s theory has its critics, however the theory helps us to understand such factors as student attribution (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) and learned helplessness (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010). As a teacher, offering encouragement, reinforcing student initiative, providing age appropriate challenging experiences, and providing support and feedback, helps to develop within students a sense of competence (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) which in turn increases motivation.The classroom provides many opportunities to teach into the social and emotional development of students. Equipping students to empathise with others and share in another’s perspective, can guide students to feel like they belong and experience a sense of connectedness. The teacher of the 21st century must focus not only on preparing students for academic achievement but also for personal mastery. Some of the greatest gifts a teacher can bestow upon a student are a sense of self belief and resilience.
Teachinginto the 21st Century
Andrew Carey Ryan Bernhardt Shaun Hughes Val Bettens Group 1 assessment 2 EDP 155
Theories of learning into the 21st century: Slides 4 to 9 Professionalism of teachers in to the 21st century: Slides 10 to 14 Learners into the 21st century. Slides 15 to 19 Factors impacting 21st century learning Slides 20 to 25 Slides and content
How will the theorists studied, fit in the 21st century classroom? Theorists Pavlov Piaget Skinner Vygotsky
Piaget in the 21st Century Classroom Sensorimotor (0-2 years) Pre Operational (2-7 years) Piaget’s Stages Concrete Operational (7-11 years) Formal Operational (11+ years) Donatelli (n.d.) suggests that Piaget’s theories will still apply, even if in revised and adapted forms as a teacher in an online classroom will still need to be able to display rules, communication, development of students and also socialisation of students. Cantin (2010) states that when keeping in mind Piaget’s definition of learning of “an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts”, he points out that lecture style lesson does not fit in with this theory. He went on to explain a new technological classroom he has visited, using Technology Enabled Active Learning, that was not only modern but emphasised “hands-on, interactive, collaborative learning”. McClure (1988) states that there are less traditional kinds of enquiry to help the student mature and become more capable to grow through Piaget’s stages of development. He includes examples of using ‘real world’ examples in teaching to be able give meaning to the lesson.
Vygotsky’s theory has come to prominence due to a change in thinking away from a biologically based understanding of human behaviour, to the “social/cultural explanation of human activity.”
Vygotsky’s theory of the Zone of Proximal Development has a direct impact on teaching practise as it reveals the hidden potential of a student through scaffolding techniques.
Vygotsky’s theories have teaching professionals rethink the broad stereotypes such as “socioeconomic status” and “ethnic minority.
That each individual is just that – individual.
Vygotsky in the 21st Century Classroom
Pavlov in the 21st Century Classroom Pavlov’s Theory Unconditioned Stimulus Pavlov was one of the first theorists to use behaviourism as a theory to explain learning and development. His basis was around 5 key elements, being unconditioned stimuli, unconditioned response, neutral stimulus, conditioned stimulus and conditioned response (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) Pavlov’s work spurned further work by further theorists, mainly Skinner and Watson (Rockey, 2008). Unconditioned Response Neutral Stimulus Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response
There is still room for Piaget’s and Vygotsky‘s theories in the classroom.
There is still some room for Pavlov in the classroom however it is limited as new theories to be embraced.
Skinner’s theories in the classroom may be drawing to an end.
As with any theory, none of the theorists can accurately or adequately predict what is going to work in the individual classroom. Teachers need to adapt to their audience, and this adaptation will have to change not only year to year, but term to term and even week to week.
Using different parts of different theories may be the best way to manage the classroom of the 21st century.
Teachers and Teaching Teachers have been an integral part of Australian education for over 200 years, (History of Australian Education, 2010).
The role of the teacher has changed over the Years.
The training of the teachers has also changed.
Some things remain the same, the desire to teach and impart knowledge to encourage learning for the future.
There will be some changes needed to accommodate the ever changing society in which we live.
Professionalism and Ethics Teachers will always need to be professional. Even more so into the 21st century, to demonstrate this they need to. Be ethical. meet legal requirements to become a teacher. Understand and meet duty of care responsibilities. Have good communication skills with students, parents and colleagues. Demonstrate quality teaching.
Quality Teaching To demonstrate quality teaching teachers need to: be knowledgeable about all areas of teaching. seek understanding of what is being taught, how to teach it, and how learners learn it. be enthusiastic and show enthusiasm about teaching. be confident and committed. be curious and question. be well organized, resourceful and inventive. understand that all learners come from different walks of life. with different experiences and understandings. be patient and persistent.
Teaching Strategies for the 21st Century Using a variety of teaching and learning strategies is vital to education. Use the student’s interest’s, curiosity and enjoyment to motivate them. If the topic and activities are interesting and enjoyable the task its self becomes the reward (Marsh, 2008). Setting of realistic goals for students is important as if the task is perceived as too hard some students “give up”. Plan lessons that are interesting. Students will be motivated to learn if it is fun and interesting. Maintain equity within the classroom. Students are the first to notice if any behaviour or action seems even the slightest bit inequitable. Pace the work and ensure that all students understand what is expected of them both socially and educationally based. Be aware of any emotional or social issues that could impede motivation. Show interest in the students this will build and foster a good teacher student relationships (Eggan & Kauchak, 2010) .
A teacher that uses a teaching model that understands how students learn, appreciates different learning styles, is inventive and resourceful, and uses technology to its full advantage, will always support and allow students to learn to the best of their ability whilst maintaining a common lesson theme throughout the class.
A Student’s View On 21st Century Learning Students in a Changing World
Reference: Brady & Kennedy (2007). Curriculum Construction. 3rd ed. Australia: Pearsons Education Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. (2006). The bioecological model of human development. In R. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1 Theoretical models of human development 6th ed. (pp. 793-828). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Cantin, R. (2010) Eye on IT : The 21st Century Classroom . Retrieved on 27/06/2010 from http://en.ntic.org/dossiers/21st-century-classroom/ Donatelli, J. (n.d.) Piagetian Theories in Online Discussion Forums. Retrieved on 27/06/2010 from https://sites.google.com/a/boisestate.edu/edtechtheories/donatelli Eggen, P & Kauchak, D. (2010) Educational Psychology: Windows on classrooms. (8thed) (p.42). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc. Eggen, P & Kauchak, D. (2010) Educational Psychology: Windows on classrooms. (8thed)(p.203). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.
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Reference cont......... Rockey, R. (2008) An observational study of pre-service teachers’ classroom management strategies. Retrieved on 1/7/2010 from http://dspace.lib.iup.edu:8080/dspace/bitstream/2069/86/1/Rebecca+Rockey.Revised+pdf.pdf Shepard, L. (2010) The Role of Assessment in a Learning Centre. Educational Researcher (29) 7. pp.4-14. Retrieved on 1/7/2010 from http://www.ied.edu.hk/obl/files/The role of assessment in a learning culture.pdf The law handbook (n.d.) children and young people, duty of care, retrieved from www.lawhandbook.org.au/handbook/ch06s03s02.php Van Tessel, G. (n.d.) Classroom Management. Retrieved on 1/7/2010 from http://www.brains.org/classroom_management.htm Whitton, D., Sinclair, C., Barker, K., Nanlohy, P., & Nosworthy, M. (2005). Learning for teaching: teaching for learning (1st Ed.). Australia: Cengage. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes (M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman, Eds. & Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Reference cont......... Songs used Porcelain by Moby. (Moby). Taken from the album Play (1999). UK: V2/BMG Records, Mute Right Here, Right Now by Fatboy Slim. (Norman Cook). Taken from the album You’ve Come a Long Way Baby (1998) UK: Skint Terminal Frost by Pink Floyd. (Gilmour, N.). Taken from the album A Momentary Lapse of Reason (1987). EMI Records.