Andrew Carey Ryan Bernhardt Shaun Hughes Val Bettens Group 1 assessment 2 EDP 155
Theories of learning into the 21st century: Slides 4 to 9 Professionalism of teachers in to the 21st century: Slides 10 to 14 Learners into the 21st century. Slides 15 to 19 Factors impacting 21st century learning Slides 20 to 25 Slides and content
How will the theorists studied, fit in the 21st century classroom? Theorists Pavlov Piaget Skinner Vygotsky
Piaget in the 21st Century Classroom Sensorimotor (0-2 years) Pre Operational (2-7 years) Piaget’s Stages Concrete Operational (7-11 years) Formal Operational (11+ years) Donatelli (n.d.) suggests that Piaget’s theories will still apply, even if in revised and adapted forms as a teacher in an online classroom will still need to be able to display rules, communication, development of students and also socialisation of students. Cantin (2010) states that when keeping in mind Piaget’s definition of learning of “an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts”, he points out that lecture style lesson does not fit in with this theory. He went on to explain a new technological classroom he has visited, using Technology Enabled Active Learning, that was not only modern but emphasised “hands-on, interactive, collaborative learning”. McClure (1988) states that there are less traditional kinds of enquiry to help the student mature and become more capable to grow through Piaget’s stages of development. He includes examples of using ‘real world’ examples in teaching to be able give meaning to the lesson.
Vygotsky’s theory has come to prominence due to a change in thinking away from a biologically based understanding of human behaviour, to the “social/cultural explanation of human activity.”
Vygotsky’s theory of the Zone of Proximal Development has a direct impact on teaching practise as it reveals the hidden potential of a student through scaffolding techniques.
Vygotsky’s theories have teaching professionals rethink the broad stereotypes such as “socioeconomic status” and “ethnic minority.
That each individual is just that – individual.
Vygotsky in the 21st Century Classroom
Pavlov in the 21st Century Classroom Pavlov’s Theory Unconditioned Stimulus Pavlov was one of the first theorists to use behaviourism as a theory to explain learning and development. His basis was around 5 key elements, being unconditioned stimuli, unconditioned response, neutral stimulus, conditioned stimulus and conditioned response (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) Pavlov’s work spurned further work by further theorists, mainly Skinner and Watson (Rockey, 2008). Unconditioned Response Neutral Stimulus Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response
Skinner discovered the theory of Operant Conditioning.
Skinner found behaviour can be manipulated.
Skinner’s theories do not fit in the modern classroom.
Making all students conform to the prescribed norms would take away the student autonomy.
Behaviourism as a theory in the classroom is becoming outdated and replaced more by cognitive and constructivist theories around learning and development.
Skinner in the 21st Century Classroom
There is still room for Piaget’s and Vygotsky‘s theories in the classroom.
There is still some room for Pavlov in the classroom however it is limited as new theories to be embraced.
Skinner’s theories in the classroom may be drawing to an end.
As with any theory, none of the theorists can accurately or adequately predict what is going to work in the individual classroom. Teachers need to adapt to their audience, and this adaptation will have to change not only year to year, but term to term and even week to week.
Using different parts of different theories may be the best way to manage the classroom of the 21st century.
Teachers and Teaching Teachers have been an integral part of Australian education for over 200 years, (History of Australian Education, 2010).
The role of the teacher has changed over the Years.
The training of the teachers has also changed.
Some things remain the same, the desire to teach and impart knowledge to encourage learning for the future.
There will be some changes needed to accommodate the ever changing society in which we live.
Professionalism and Ethics Teachers will always need to be professional. Even more so into the 21st century, to demonstrate this they need to. Be ethical. meet legal requirements to become a teacher. Understand and meet duty of care responsibilities. Have good communication skills with students, parents and colleagues. Demonstrate quality teaching.
Quality Teaching To demonstrate quality teaching teachers need to: be knowledgeable about all areas of teaching. seek understanding of what is being taught, how to teach it, and how learners learn it. be enthusiastic and show enthusiasm about teaching. be confident and committed. be curious and question. be well organized, resourceful and inventive. understand that all learners come from different walks of life. with different experiences and understandings. be patient and persistent.
Teaching Strategies for the 21st Century Using a variety of teaching and learning strategies is vital to education. Use the student’s interest’s, curiosity and enjoyment to motivate them. If the topic and activities are interesting and enjoyable the task its self becomes the reward (Marsh, 2008). Setting of realistic goals for students is important as if the task is perceived as too hard some students “give up”. Plan lessons that are interesting. Students will be motivated to learn if it is fun and interesting. Maintain equity within the classroom. Students are the first to notice if any behaviour or action seems even the slightest bit inequitable. Pace the work and ensure that all students understand what is expected of them both socially and educationally based. Be aware of any emotional or social issues that could impede motivation. Show interest in the students this will build and foster a good teacher student relationships (Eggan & Kauchak, 2010) .
A teacher that uses a teaching model that understands how students learn, appreciates different learning styles, is inventive and resourceful, and uses technology to its full advantage, will always support and allow students to learn to the best of their ability whilst maintaining a common lesson theme throughout the class.
A Student’s View On 21st Century Learning Students in a Changing World
Over the past few decades, technology has developed rapidly, with the upgrading of old technology and the invention of new technology. This has caused many changes to modern society.
The influence of these changes on the 21st Century learner often go unnoticed, however they are increasingly present.
How The World is Changing
In the past, students have relied upon the teacher/instructor to provide them with correct, relevant and educational knowledge.
Until the late 1980’s, teachers taught to students as a group and did not address an individual’s needs. This meant that an individual’s learning was dependant on their pre-existing knowledge.
Technology (Computers, Internet) had very little influence on the education process as they were limited in number and availability.
Learning in the Past
How These Changes Impact Learning Negative
Students are being forced to be Information and Technology literate.
Students from low socio-economic homes may not have access to the same technology as their counter-parts.
New technology has given students access to information which they could not attain otherwise.
Easier access to resources with which they can cross-check their learning.
Learning to use a computer.
Navigate internet sites.
Adjusting their learning practices.
Understand teaching which incorporates modern technology.
How a Student Must Change
The 21st century learner will have access to an unprecedented amount of information and connectivity than ever before
Social networking can give insights into the different cultural contexts learners come from.
Technology also serves in accommodating the Multiple Intelligences (Gardner, 1993) by being able to differentiate content delivery.
As an effective teacher in the 21st century, it will be vital to motivate students to become lifelong learners.
The amount of care that teachers place into lesson planning is important.
The use of praise, along with achieving good grades is a positive reinforcer and motivates the student.
By participating in small group work students are motivated by the support and encouragement that they receive.
One challenge that will be present in the classroom is learner diversity.
Some students will come from backgrounds that will not be conducive to student motivation.
Diversity can be addressed with the use of technology in teaching to appeal to the multiple intelligences of learners.
Learners in the 21st Century will have to be equipped with problem solving skills to help make the most of 21st century life.
Teachers who are offering assistance (scaffolding) to students who are in the zone of proximal development must be aware to not provide too much support.
Social interaction plays a great role in constructivist learning theory.
The role that a caring, encouraging teacher will play in the lives of students cannot be underestimated.
Social and Emotional development
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Reference cont......... Songs used Porcelain by Moby. (Moby). Taken from the album Play (1999). UK: V2/BMG Records, Mute Right Here, Right Now by Fatboy Slim. (Norman Cook). Taken from the album You’ve Come a Long Way Baby (1998) UK: Skint Terminal Frost by Pink Floyd. (Gilmour, N.). Taken from the album A Momentary Lapse of Reason (1987). EMI Records.