Buddhism and indianism

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Buddhism and indianism

  1. 1. BUDDHISM At present Buddhism is one of the major world religions. Thephilosophy of Buddhism is based on the teachings of Lord Buddha,Siddhartha Gautama (563 and 483 BC), a royal prince of Kapilvastu,India. After originating in India, Buddhism spread throughout theCentral Asia, Sri Lanka, Tibet, Southeast Asia, as well as the EastAsian countries of China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan and Vietnam.Buddhism owes its origin to the socio-economic conditionsprevailing in India at that point of time.The founder of Buddhism, Siddhartha Gautama was a prince of theSakya tribe. At the age of twenty nine he left the comforts of hishome to seek answer to the cause of human sufferings. Gautamabecame the enlightened one, the Buddha, after wandering andmeditation for six years. On the full moon of May, with the rising ofthe morning star, Siddhartha attained knowledge at Bodh Gaya.Gautama Buddha delivered his first sermon at Sarnath, nearVaranasi. To preach his religion, Buddha wandered in the North EastIndia for about 40 odd years. His hard work bore fruit and acommunity or Sangha of monks and nuns developed around him.The Sangha pursued practice and propagation of Buddhism.The fundamental principle of Buddhism is to follow the middle path.Buddhism teaches its followers to perform good and wholesomeactions and to purify and train the mind. These practices are aimedat ending the suffering of cyclic existence. Buddhist emphasizes theprinciples of harmlessness and moderation. Buddhism does believein the existence of supernatural beings but it does not ascribe thepower for creation, salvation or judgment to them. Buddhism
  2. 2. believes that the supernatural beings have the power to affect onlyworldly events. Buddha Leadership LessonsBuddha had many life lessons to teach his disciples, here are some ofhis teachings that can relate to you as a leader:1. Balance is keyBuddha believed in a balanced, middle way, not self-indulgent, norself-mortifying.I believe that as a leader, we have to be balanced and flexible in ourapproach as well. For example, sometimes our leadership has to besoft and democratic, sometimes assertive and autocratic, dependingon the situation. A strong leader is able to employ a balance of thesetwo in situations to bring out the best in his followers.2. Look for answers withinBuddha believed that all our answers we are seeking in our lives canbe found within us, not without.I too strongly believe that as a leader, you have to depend on yourheart, intuition and senses a lot more than external influences.
  3. 3. Sometimes there are no correct answers; then, you have to rely onyour gut or intuition to do the right thing.Sometimes your followers might agree, but sometimes they mightnot.Nevertheless, a lot of leaders that have become successful havelearnt to trust their gut when making important decisions, and it’ssomething that you have to learn to do so too with time. Being Peace, by Thich Nhat Hanh.Publisher: Parallax Press (September 9, 2005), ISBN: In order toachieve peace, we must be peace. This simple truth is the theme ofthis inspiring collection of lectures, given by Buddhist monk,scholar, poet and peace activist Thich Nhat Hanh. If we are to changethe world, he explains, we need to begin with ourselves, and awakenthat eternal part of us where true peace resides - our own Buddhanature. His lucid explanations make us realise how easy thisawakening can actually be... and how powerful. For, with innerpeace as the guide and criterion for all our actions, we transform ourway of living into one genuinely capable of bringing lasting peaceinto a troubled world. The book also helps us with some basic
  4. 4. understanding of Buddhism and meditation. The following is what Ihighlighted during my read of this excellent book -- I recommend iton my Top-ten List of Peace resources. My purpose in providingthem is to interest you, the reader, and hope that you will obtain andread the complete work. To properly understand the highlights, youneed to read the book to put them in the proper context.IntroductionIf we are peaceful, if we are happy, we can blossom like a flower, andeveryone in our family, our entire society, will benefit from ourpeace.Chapter 1. Suffering Is Not EnoughIf we are not happy, if we are not peaceful, we can’t share peace andhappiness with others. Life is both dreadful and wonderful. Topractice meditation is to be in touch with both aspects. It is with ourcapacity of smiling, breathing, and being peace that we can makepeace.Chapter 2. The Three GemsBuddhas are as.The root word “budh” means to wake up, to know, to understand. Aperson who wakes up and understands is called a Buddha. InBuddhism, there are three gems: Buddha, the awakened one;Dharma, the way of understanding and loving; and Sangha, thecommunity that lives in harmony and awareness.… practice meditating, breathing, and smiling.
  5. 5. … to develop his awakening, his understanding, and his love …Discourse on Turning the Wheel of the DharmaAnything that can help you wake up has Buddha nature. SaddharmaPundarika SutraChapter 3. Feelings and Perceptions“Don’t waste your life.”We are not capable of understanding each other, and that is themain source of human suffering.… look at things deeply in order to understand their own true nature… in order to take care of you, I have to take care of myself.I have to deal with my anger with care, with love, with tenderness,with nonviolence.If you cannot be compassionate to yourself, you will not be able tobe compassionate to others.We cannot destroy the energy; we can only convert it into a moreconstructive energy. Forgiveness is a constructive energy.Anger is born from ignorance, and is a strong ally of ignorance.We have to perceive our political and economic systems correctly inorder to see what is going wrong.… knowledge is regarded as an obstacle to understanding.Guarding knowledge is not a good way to understand.
  6. 6. Understanding means to throw away your knowledge. You have tobe able to transcend your knowledge the way people climb a ladder.The Buddhist way of understanding is always letting go of our viewsand knowledge in order to transcend. This is the most importantteaching.Chapter 4. The Heart of PracticeIn Buddhism there is no such thing as an individual.We are all children of society, but we are also mothers. We have tonourish society.… alienated people.… I myself feel that I cannot get along with this society very well.But my practice helps me remain in society, because I am aware thatif I leave society, I will not be able to help change it. I hope thatthose who are practicing Buddhism succeed in keeping their feet onearth, staying in society. That is our hope for peace.To me, a meditation centre is where you get back to yourself, you geta clearer understanding of reality, you get more strength inunderstanding and love, and you prepare for your reentry intosociety. If it’s not like that, it’s not a real meditation center. As wedevelop real understanding, we can reenter society and make a realcontribution.Our mind is like a river, with many thoughts and feelings flowingalong. From time to time, it is helpful to recite a gatha, a short verse,to remind us what is going on.
  7. 7. Chapter 5. Working For PeaceThe first practice is Face-to-Face Sitting.The two conflicting monks are present, and they know thateveryhone in the community expects them to make peace.The second practice is Remembrance.… trying to mend the things of the past.The third principle is Non-stubbornness.The outcome is not important. The fact that each monk is doing hisbest to show his willingness for reconciliation and understanding ismost important.You do your best, and that is enough.The fourth practice is Covering Mud with Straw.… the mud is the dispute, and the straw is the loving kindness.The fifth stage is Voluntary Confession. Each monk reveals his ownshortcomings, without waiting for others to say them.The sixth and seventh practices are Decision by Consensus andAccepting the Verdict. It is agreed in advance that the two monkswill accept whatever verdict is pronounced by the whole assembly,or they will have to leave the community.Chapter 6. InterbeingWhen combined with the Western way of doing things, the Buddhistprinciple of seeing and acting nondualistically will totally changeour way of life.
  8. 8. Buddhist is not one. The teaching of Buddhism is many.Buddhism, in order to be Buddhism, must be suitable, appropriate tothe psychology and culture of the society that it serves.… to be in touch with oneself.… in order to find out the source of wisdom, understanding, andcompassion in each of us. Being in touch with oneself is the meaningof meditation, to be aware of what is going on in your body, in yourfeelings, in your mind.… “interbeing” … “mutual” and “to be”. The Fourteen Mindfulness Trainings of the Order. According to theteachings of the Buddha, the mind is the root of everything else. Mindfulness TrainingsThe First Mindfulness Training: OpennessAware of the suffering created by fanaticism and intolerance.Human life is more precious than any ideology or doctrine. One ofthe most basic teachings of the Buddha is that life is precious. Peacecan only be achieved when we are free from fanaticism. The moreyou practice this mindfulness training, the deeper you will go intoreality and understanding the teaching of the Buddha.The Second Mindfulness Training: Non-attachment to Views
  9. 9. Aware of suffering created by attachment to views and wrongperceptions, I am determined to avoid being narrow-minded andbound to present views. I will learn and practise non-attachmentfrom views in order to be open to others’ insights and experiences. Iam aware that the knowledge I presently possess is not changeless,absolute truth. Truth is found in life and I will observe life withinand around me in every moment, ready to learn throughout my life.A scientist with an open mind, who can question the presentknowledge of science, will have more of a chance of discovering ahigher truth. … The way of nonattachment from views is the basicteaching of Buddhism concerning understanding.The Third Mindfulness Training: Freedom of ThoughtAware of the suffering brought about when I impose my views onothers, I am committed not to force others, even my children, by anymeans whatsoever – such as authority, threat, money, propagandaor indoctrination – to adopt my views. I will respect the right ofothers to be different and to choose what to believe and how todecide. I will, however, help others renounce fanaticism andnarrowness through compassionate dialogue.… spirit of free inquiry.The Fourth Mindfulness Training: Awareness of SufferingAware that looking deeply at the nature of suffering can help medevelop compassion and find ways out of suffering, I am determinednot to avoid or close my eyes before suffering. I am committed to
  10. 10. finding ways, including personal contact, images and sounds, to bewith those who suffer, so I can understand their situation deeplyand help them transform their suffering into compassion, peace andjoy.… If we don’t encounter pain, ills, we won’t look for the causes ofpain and ills to find a remedy, a way out of the situation. … But muchof the suffering in the West is unnecessary and can vanish when wesee the real suffering of other people.The Fifth Mindfulness Training: Simple, Healthy LivingAware that true happiness is rooted in peace, solidity, freedom andcompassion, and not in wealth or fame, I am determined not to takeas the aim of my life fame, profit, wealth or sensual pleasure, nor toaccumulate wealth while millions are hungry and dying. I amcommitted to living simply and sharing my time, energy andmaterial resources with those in real need. I will practise mindfulconsuming, not using alcohol, drugs or any other products that bringtoxins into my own and the collective body and consciousness.… The human mind is always searching for possessions, and neverfeels fulfilled. Bodhisattvas move in the opposite direction andfollow the principle of self-sufficiency. They live a simple life inorder to practice the way, and consider the realization of perfectunderstanding as their only career.The Sixth Mindfulness Training: Dealing with AngerAware that anger blocks communication and creates suffering, I amdetermined to take care of the energy of anger when it arises and torecognise and transform the seeds of anger that lie deep in my
  11. 11. consciousness. When anger comes up, I am determined not to do orsay anything, but to practise mindful breathing or mindful walkingand acknowledge, embrace and look deeply into my anger. I willlearn to look with the eyes of compassion on those I think are thecause of my anger.… Learn to look at other beings with the eyes of compassion. …The Seventh Mindfulness Training: Dwelling Happily in thePresent MomentAware that life is available only in the present moment and that it ispossible to live happily in the here and now, I am committed totraining myself to live deeply each moment of daily life. I will try notto lose myself in dispersion or be carried away by regrets about thepast, worries about the future, or craving, anger or jealousy in thepresent. I will practise mindful breathing to come back to what ishappening in the present moment. I am determined to learn the artof mindful living by touching the wondrous, refreshing and healingelements that are inside and around me, and by nourishing seeds ofjoy, peace, love and understanding in myself, thus facilitating thework of transformation and healing in my consciousness.… to live in awareness. …The Eighth Mindfulness Training: Community andCommunicationAware that lack of communication always brings separation andsuffering, I am committed to training myself in the practice of
  12. 12. compassionate listening and loving speech. I will learn to listendeeply without judging or reacting and refrain from uttering wordsthat can create discord or cause the community to break. I will makeevery effort to keep communications open and to reconcile andresolve all conflicts, however small.… The first seven trainings deal with mind, then two with speech,and five with body. … In order to help reconcile a conflict, we have tobe in touch with both sides. We must transcend the conflict; if weare still in the conflict, it is difficult to reconcile. … The world needspeople like this for the work of reconciliation, people with thecapacity of understanding and compassion.The Ninth Mindfulness Training: Truthful and Loving SpeechAware that words can create suffering or happiness, I am committedto learning to speak truthfully and constructively, using only wordsthat inspire hope and confidence. I am determined not to sayuntruthful things for the sake of personal interest or to impresspeople, nor to utter words that might cause division or hatred. I willnot spread news that I do not know to be certain nor criticise orcondemn things of which I am not sure. I will do my best to speakout about situations of injustice, even when doing so may threatenmy safety.… The words we speak can create love, trust, and happiness aroundus, or create a hell. … speak constructively. …The Tenth Mindfulness Training: Protecting the SanghaAware that the essence and aim of a Sangha is the practise ofunderstanding and compassion, I am determined not to use the
  13. 13. Buddhist community for personal gain or profit or transform ourcommunity into a political instrument. A spiritual communityshould, however, take a clear stand against oppression and injusticeand should strive to change the situation without engaging inpartisan conflicts.The Eleventh Mindfulness Training: Right LivelihoodAware that great violence and injustice have been done to theenvironment and society, I am committed not to live with a vocationthat is harmful to humans and nature. I will do my best to select alivelihood that helps realize my ideal of understanding andcompassion. Aware of global economic, political and social realities,I will behave responsibly as a consumer and as a citizen, notinvesting in companies that deprive others of their chance to live.… finding ways to realize a collective right livelihood. … The problemis whether we are determined to go in the direction of compassionor not. If we are, then can we reduce the suffering to a minimum? IfI lose my direction, I have to look for the North Star, and I go to thenorth. That does not mean I expect to arrive at the North Star. I justwant to go in that direction.The Twelfth Mindfulness Training: Reverence for LifeAware that much suffering is caused by war and conflict, I amdetermined to cultivate non-violence, understanding andcompassion in my daily life, to promote peace education, mindfulmediation and reconciliation, within families, communities, nationsand in the world. I am determined not to kill and not to let others
  14. 14. kill. I will diligently practice deep looking with my Sangha todiscover better ways to protect life and prevent war.… Preventing war is much better than protesting against the war.Protesting the war is too late.The Thirteenth Mindfulness Training: GenerosityAware of the suffering caused by exploitation, social injustice,stealing and oppression, I am committed to cultivating lovingkindness and learning ways to work for the well-being of people,animals, plants and minerals. I will practice generosity by sharingmy time, energy and material resources with those who are in need.I am determined not to steal and not to possess anything that shouldbelong to others. I will respect the property of others, but will try toprevent others from profiting from human suffering or the sufferingof other beings.… we can be close to oppressed people and help them protect theirright to life and defend themselves against oppression andexploitation. Letting people profit from human suffering or thesuffering of other beings is something we cannot do. As acommunity we must try to prevent this. How to work for justice inour own city is a problem we have to consider. The bodhisattvas’vow – to help all sentient beings – are immense. …The Fourteenth Mindfulness Training: Right ConductFor lay members: Aware that sexual relations motivated by cravingcannot dissipate the feeling of loneliness, but will create more
  15. 15. suffering, frustration and isolation, I am determined not to engage insexual relations without mutual understanding, love and a long-term commitment. In sexual relations, I must be aware of futuresuffering that may be caused. I know that to preserve the happinessof myself and others, I must respect the rights and commitments ofmyself and others. I will do everything in my power to protectchildren from sexual abuse and to protect couples and families frombeing broken by sexual misconduct. I will treat my body withrespect and preserve my vital energies (sexual, breath, spirit) for therealization of my bodhisattva ideal. I will be fully aware of theresponsibility for bringing new lives in the world, and will meditateon the world into which we are bringing new beings. … urges us to be aware of what we are doing. … Breath energy isthe kind of energy you spend when you talk too much and breatheto little. Spirit energy is energy that you spend when you worry toomuch and do not sleep well. … Buddhist monks observed celibacy,not because of moral admonition, but to conserve energy. Someoneon a long fast knows how important it is to preserve these threesources of energy.We should take good care of ourselves.If you wish to have children, please do something for the world youwill bring them into. That will make you someone who works forpeace, in one way or another.Chapter 7. Meditation in Daily LifeConcentration … is the first practice of meditation. This is insightmeditation. First we are aware of the problem, focusing all ourattention on the problem, and then we look deeply into it in order tounderstand its real nature …
  16. 16. The more we understand, the easier it is for us to have compassionand love. Understanding is the source of love.When you grow a tree, if it does not grow well, you don’t blame thetree. You look into the reasons it is not doing well. It may needfertilizer, or more water, or less sun. You never blame the tree, yetwe blame our son. If we know how to take care of him, he will growwell, like a tree. Blaming has no effect at all. Never blame, never tryto persuade using reason and arguments. They never lead to anypositive effect. That is my experience. No argument, no reasoning,no blame, just understanding. If you understand, and you show thatyou understand, you can love, and the situation will change.… the first step of meditation is stopping, stopping the dispersion,concentrating on one subject. The best subject, the most availablesubject, is your breathing.Stopping and seeing are very close. … Stop and look, that’smeditation … Insight means you have a vision, and insight intoreality.Sit there, stop, be yourself first, and begin from there. That is themeaning of meditation.“Let peace begin with me.” That’s correct. And let me begin withpeace. That is also correct.Satipatthana Sutta: the Buddha’s basic Dharma talk concerningmeditation… to meditate is to be aware of what is going on in your body, inyour feelings, in your mind, and in the objects of your mind, whichare the world. If you are aware of what is going on, then you can seeproblems as they unfold, and you can help prevent many of them.When things explode, it is too late.
  17. 17. … the gatha: “Today, on the table there are good things that Mommyjust cooked. There I see Papa, there I see my brother, there I see mysister, it is so good to be together and eat together like this, whilethere are many who are hungry. I feel very thankful.”This is the best education for peace.There are three things I can recommend to you: arranging to have abreathing room in your home, a room for meditation; practicingbreathing, sitting, for a few minutes every morning at home withyour children; and going out for a slow walking meditation withyour children before going to sleep, just ten minutes is enough.These things are very important. They can change our civilization.FURTHER INFORMATION ABOUT BUDDHISM:Four Noble Truths Of Buddhism Life is suffering; Suffering is due to attachment; Attachment can be overcome There is a path for accomplishing this.The Four Noble Truths1 Life means suffering.
  18. 18. To live means to suffer, because the human nature is not perfect andneither is the world we live in. During our lifetime, we inevitablyhave to endure physical suffering such as pain, sickness, injury,tiredness, old age, and eventually death; and we have to endurepsychological suffering like sadness, fear, frustration,disappointment, and depression. Although there are differentdegrees of suffering and there are also positive experiences in lifethat we perceive as the opposite of suffering, such as ease, comfortand happiness, life in its totality is imperfect and incomplete,because our world is subject to impermanence. This means we arenever able to keep permanently what we strive for, and just ashappy moments pass by, we ourselves and our loved ones will passaway one day, too.2. The origin of suffering is attachment.The origin of suffering is attachment to transient things and theignorance thereof. Transient things do not only include the physicalobjects that surround us, but also ideas, and -in a greater sense- allobjects of our perception. Ignorance is the lack of understanding ofhow our mind is attached to impermanent things. The reasons forsuffering are desire, passion, ardor, pursue of wealth and prestige,striving for fame and popularity, or in short: craving and clinging.Because the objects of our attachment are transient, their loss isinevitable, thus suffering will necessarily follow. Objects ofattachment also include the idea of a "self" which is a delusion,because there is no abiding self. What we call "self" is just animagined entity, and we are merely a part of the ceaseless becomingof the universe.3. The cessation of suffering is attainable.
  19. 19. The cessation of suffering can be attained through nirodha. Nirodhameans the unmaking of sensual craving and conceptual attachment.The third noble truth expresses the idea that suffering can be endedby attaining dispassion. Nirodha extinguishes all forms of clingingand attachment. This means that suffering can be overcome throughhuman activity, simply by removing the cause of suffering. Attainingand perfecting dispassion is a process of many levels that ultimatelyresults in the state of Nirvana. Nirvana means freedom from allworries, troubles, complexes, fabrications and ideas. Nirvana is notcomprehensible for those who have not attained it.4. The path to the cessation of suffering.There is a path to the end of suffering - a gradual path of self-improvement, which is described more detailed in the EightfoldPath. It is the middle way between the two extremes of excessiveself-indulgence (hedonism) and excessive self-mortification(asceticism); and it leads to the end of the cycle of rebirth. The latterquality discerns it from other paths which are merely "wandering onthe wheel of becoming", because these do not have a final object.The path to the end of suffering can extend over many lifetimes,throughout which every individual rebirth is subject to karmicconditioning. Craving, ignorance, delusions, and its effects willdisappear gradually, as progress is made on the path. The Noble Eightfold Path:
  20. 20. The Noble Eightfold Path describes the way to the end of suffering,as it was laid out by Siddhartha Gautama. It is a practical guidelineto ethical and mental development with the goal of freeing theindividual from attachments and delusions; and it finally leads tounderstanding the truth about all things. Together with the FourNoble Truths it constitutes the gist of Buddhism. Great emphasis isput on the practical aspect, because it is only through practice thatone can attain a higher level of existence and finally reach Nirvana.The eight aspects of the path are not to be understood as a sequenceof single steps, instead they are highly interdependent principlesthat have to be seen in relationship with each other.1. Right ViewRight view is the beginning and the end of the path, it simply meansto see and to understand things as they really are and to realize theFour Noble Truth. As such, right view is the cognitive aspect ofwisdom. It means to see things through, to grasp the impermanentand imperfect nature of worldly objects and ideas, and tounderstand the law of karma and karmic conditioning. Right view isnot necessarily an intellectual capacity, just as wisdom is not just amatter of intelligence. Instead, right view is attained, sustained, andenhanced through all capacities of mind. It begins with the intuitiveinsight that all beings are subject to suffering and it ends withcomplete understanding of the true nature of all things. Since ourview of the world forms our thoughts and our actions, right viewyields right thoughts and right actions.2. Right IntentionWhile right view refers to the cognitive aspect of wisdom, rightintention refers to the volitional aspect, i.e. the kind of mental
  21. 21. energy that controls our actions. Right intention can be describedbest as commitment to ethical and mental self-improvement. Buddhadistinguishes three types of right intentions: 1. the intention ofrenunciation, which means resistance to the pull of desire, 2. theintention of good will, meaning resistance to feelings of anger andaversion, and 3. the intention of harmlessness, meaning not to thinkor act cruelly, violently, or aggressively, and to develop compassion.3. Right SpeechRight speech is the first principle of ethical conduct in the eightfoldpath. Ethical conduct is viewed as a guideline to moral discipline,which supports the other principles of the path. This aspect is notself-sufficient, however, essential, because mental purification canonly be achieved through the cultivation of ethical conduct. Theimportance of speech in the context of Buddhist ethics is obvious:words can break or save lives, make enemies or friends, start war orcreate peace. Buddha explained right speech as follows: 1. to abstainfrom false speech, especially not to tell deliberate lies and not tospeak deceitfully, 2. to abstain from slanderous speech and not touse words maliciously against others, 3. to abstain from harshwords that offend or hurt others, and 4. to abstain from idle chatterthat lacks purpose or depth. Positively phrased, this means to tellthe truth, to speak friendly, warm, and gently and to talk only whennecessary.4. Right ActionThe second ethical principle, right action, involves the body asnatural means of expression, as it refers to deeds that involve bodilyactions. Unwholesome actions lead to unsound states of mind, whilewholesome actions lead to sound states of mind. Again, the principle
  22. 22. is explained in terms of abstinence: right action means 1. to abstainfrom harming sentient beings, especially to abstain from taking life(including suicide) and doing harm intentionally or delinquently, 2.to abstain from taking what is not given, which includes stealing,robbery, fraud, deceitfulness, and dishonesty, and 3. to abstain fromsexual misconduct. Positively formulated, right action means to actkindly and compassionately, to be honest, to respect the belongingsof others, and to keep sexual relationships harmless to others.Further details regarding the concrete meaning of right action canbe found in the Precepts.5. Right LivelihoodRight livelihood means that one should earn ones living in arighteous way and that wealth should be gained legally andpeacefully. The Buddha mentions four specific activities that harmother beings and that one should avoid for this reason: 1. dealing inweapons, 2. dealing in living beings (including raising animals forslaughter as well as slave trade and prostitution), 3. working in meatproduction and butchery, and 4. selling intoxicants and poisons,such as alcohol and drugs. Furthermore any other occupation thatwould violate the principles of right speech and right action shouldbe avoided.6. Right EffortRight effort can be seen as a prerequisite for the other principles ofthe path. Without effort, which is in itself an act of will, nothing canbe achieved, whereas misguided effort distracts the mind from itstask, and confusion will be the consequence. Mental energy is theforce behind right effort; it can occur in either wholesome orunwholesome states. The same type of energy that fuels desire,envy, aggression, and violence can on the other side fuel self-
  23. 23. discipline, honesty, benevolence, and kindness. Right effort isdetailed in four types of endeavors that rank in ascending order ofperfection: 1. to prevent the arising of unarisen unwholesomestates, 2. to abandon unwholesome states that have already arisen,3. to arouse wholesome states that have not yet arisen, and 4. tomaintain and perfect wholesome states already arisen.7. Right MindfulnessRight mindfulness is the controlled and perfected faculty ofcognition. It is the mental ability to see things as they are, with clearconsciousness. Usually, the cognitive process begins with animpression induced by perception, or by a thought, but then it doesnot stay with the mere impression. Instead, we almost alwaysconceptualize sense impressions and thoughts immediately. Weinterpret them and set them in relation to other thoughts andexperiences, which naturally go beyond the facticity of the originalimpression. The mind then posits concepts, joins concepts intoconstructs, and weaves those constructs into complex interpretativeschemes. All this happens only half consciously, and as a result weoften see things obscured. Right mindfulness is anchored in clearperception and it penetrates impressions without getting carriedaway. Right mindfulness enables us to be aware of the process ofconceptualization in a way that we actively observe and control theway our thoughts go. Buddha accounted for this as the fourfoundations of mindfulness: 1. contemplation of the body, 2.contemplation of feeling (repulsive, attractive, or neutral), 3.contemplation of the state of mind, and 4. contemplation of thephenomena.8. Right Concentration
  24. 24. The eighth principle of the path, right concentration, refers to thedevelopment of a mental force that occurs in natural consciousness,although at a relatively low level of intensity, namely concentration.Concentration in this context is described as one-pointedness ofmind, meaning a state where all mental faculties are unified anddirected onto one particular object. Right concentration for thepurpose of the eightfold path means wholesome concentration, i.e.concentration on wholesome thoughts and actions. The Buddhistmethod of choice to develop right concentration is through thepractice of meditation. The meditating mind focuses on a selectedobject. It first directs itself onto it, then sustains concentration, andfinally intensifies concentration step by step. Through this practiceit becomes natural to apply elevated levels concentration also ineveryday situations. INDIANISM
  25. 25. Indianism refers to the leaders of india and the world who have contributed for thebetterment of the world by using their morals and lessons which they have learntand experienced throughout their professional and personal lives.They have alsotaken into consideration the teachings of various holy books and saints of olden eraand have reached this destination today. LEADERSHIPSHLOK FOR LEADERSHIP.IN CHAPTER 5 TEXT 21 OF BHAGAVAD GITA SAYS:- Yad Yad acarati srestnas Tad Tad evetaro janah Sa yat pramanam kurute Lokas tad anuvartateMeaning:-"Whatever action a greate man performs common man follows and whateverstandard he sets, exemplary acts all the world pursues"Written thousand of years ago the bhagavad Gita enlightens us on leadership andmanagerial techniques leading to a balanced state of affairs providing guidance toresolve conflicts, poor productivity, absence of motivation and so on- commonplagues in enterprises across the globe. A leader should have the qualities like • A good vision • Exemplary character • Conflicts & self Worth • Comfortable With uncertainy, Ambiguity & Change • Committed to Excellence
  26. 26. • Self-awereness• Be continuous Learner• Humility• Fair & Just• Creativity & Innovation• Compassion• CourageAn examination of KRISHNAS leadership in mahabharata shows that Krishnaas a charismatic leader was able to potentially adapt and shift situationalcontingencies, and that this led to successful outcome. The possibility that suchadaptability can be developed by charismatic leader in organisation would haveimplication for applicaton for organisational survivability and prosperity andshould be explored by scholars in the future.In Indian ethos, the four values are:-Indian ethos teaches one the art of motivating oneself and others from within.The four values or goals accepted in Indian philosophy are universal andcomprehensive in nature. Hinduism recognizes four legitimate and basic desire,as given in the "AGNI PURANA":- 1. DHARMA 2. ARTHA 3. KARMA 4. MOKSHA Lord krishna says most important thing in Bhagavad Gita is the "right attitude to work". "Ntyatam kuru karmatwami karma jyayahya karmanah
  27. 27. sareera yatraipicha tena prasiddhyeda karmanah"Krishna says that karma has to be done with an attitude of "YAGNA". Herethe YAGNA is used in the meaning of devotion, workship and sacrifice. Ifthe work is done with such- an attitude, it become a yagna.Lord Krishna tells Arjuna to do his work with yoganishta- dedication andwith a feeling of samarpan.He says that Yogasthah kuru karmani sangam tyakiwa Dhananjayah siddhya siddhayo ssamo bhootwa samatwam yogamuchyateHe mentioned three important principal for deriving right type of jobsatisfaction here. i.e Doing work as yoga, equal treatment of success andfailure and achieving equality towards oppositesLord krishna employees three more expression while exhurting Arjuna to dohis duty; 1. Aghavam - SMARTNESS 2. Samarthyam - COMPETENCE 3. Kritanischayam - DETERMINATIONThese are applicable to any worker or manager, have to work withsmarthness, competence and determination. Working with such a spirit Oneshould also develop and be prepared to treat happiness and difficulties, profitand loss, success and failure as sameIn 2-38 He says"Sukhadukha same krutwa tabhalabhau jayajayanTato yuddhaya yufyaswa naivam papamavap syast".In real life situations generally there will not be absolute sukha, labha, orjava which are permanent or even on long term basis therefore a manager
  28. 28. should be prepared to accept the opposite also with equal pleasure andshould not allow difficulties, losses and failure to demotivate him.Corporate Governance:-"Ramayana has tought us that we need to obey our Elder. At the sametime has the act of Bharata in Ramayana taught us to act independentlyeven if it is your mother and father who have asked you defy morals. Itteaches us that we need to oppose evil acts even if t hey brings us benefitsin shorter period but disgraces us in long run". "Dharmo rakshati rakshitaha"If a person rules according to dharma, that dharma itself will protect himMEANINGPrincipal of Dharma is the principal of doing the right things, the principalof justice. Each person in a company has his own Dharma and he has to liveup to his dharma. It ids better to die rather than give up ones dharma. TheBRIHADARANYA UPANISHAD points out the basic principal that theresponsibility of the king to protect dharma. This is because it is participatein the decision making and management of the company. "Swadharme nidhanam shreya para dharmo bhayapah"MeaningIf everybody practices the concept of dharma in a company, then that initself brings a "sense of self descipline". In company where there is selfdesciplin, automatically there will be peace and prosperity andimplementation of good corporate governance will be possible.unfortunately this is an ideal situation and does not exist. There are people inthe who are corrupt and they have to be punished if we want maintain goodcorporate governance.
  29. 29. The concept of Dharama Sankata is well known in our Hindu religion."Narova Kunjarova"(human and elephant) was a situation where Yudhistrain Mahabharata lied. For sake of gettin short term benifit, resorting to lies orstraying from the straight and narrow path ultimately leads to a long termfailure. Therefore even at the cost of sacrificing short term benefits, it isbetter for an enterprise to adopt healthy practices. "Karma kar phal ki chinta mat kar"Nishkam KarmaIn Gita, Lord Krishna proposes that one should work without attachment toresult. At the same time he caution that one should not develop attachmentfor inaction. Nishkam karma provides an ideal platform for development ofan effective and creative work culture in Organisation, including armedforces. This will elevate all individuals in an organisation, irrespective to hispositin in hierachy to the next. However, there are no secure happinessfulfillment both in this world and the next. However, there are no short cutsor insant techniques to create a work culture based on Nishkam Karma.Setting self example by high standard of of conduct and performance of dutyat various levels is the begining point Transparency and trust are the two keyelements of this work environment credibility of high order should permeateall levels of Organisation.What is of first important is not the religious or non-religious character ofthe work done, but the inner attitude in which it is done."Action without desire is possible, action without attachment is possible, andaction without ego is possible". "Bahujana sukhaya bahujana hitayacha""The welfare of the many and the happiness of the manyMeaning
  30. 30. Kautilya says in his Arthashastra: "In the happiness of his subject lies thekings happiness, in their welfare his welfare. He shall not consider as goodonly that which pleased him but treat as beneficial to him whatever pleasedhis subject" Likewise implying corporate governance the owner or managerof the company should not only focuses on achieving his personal objectivesbut see to it that every individual related to the company is happy andsatisfied cause his true happiness.TRUSTEESHIP"Trusteeship is a Gandhian concept"It implies that:- • all assets be held and used in trust for the benefits of the community • distribution to be equitable, not equal • owner, manager, worker, subordinates titles be removed • there be continous participationThe gandhian principal of trusteeship expresses the inherent responsibilitiesof a business enterprise to its consumer, worker, share holder and thecommunity; and the mutual responsibilities of these to one another. Makingyou do whatever you do, for the good of other or even of all.The concept is that the manager of an enterprise is like a trustee of property,whose main concern has to be that the property be so provide maximumadvatage to the beneficiaries of the trust and not the trustee. This thought isalso validated by the given to the enterprise by society, in preference todemand for them.Cooperatives in the area of housing, sugar manufacture, milk production,banking and credit,etc are the founded on principal akin to trusteeship. Theyprovide plenty of instances of attempts at sell aggrandizement andexploitation. At the potential level, those entrusted with responsibiliytythrough process of democracy, are expected to do but not necessary act astrustees in the interest of the larger community. Trusteeship is a gandhianconcept based on non-violence and Indian philosophy. It is not a matter ofstructure or of physical distribution of wealth. It has found favor in U.K andGermany, but still have few adherents. It is based on the concept that
  31. 31. something in possession of wealth is not the owner of the same but from the wealth must go to the community and not be appropriated by the one in possesion1) SWAMI VIVEKANANDIndia can be proud that she had many outstanding saints in thisland, and Swami Vivekananda was one of the finest ones whocarried the message to the whole world.Today, the burning need is to follow the teachings of these MEN andsee that we follow the advice to these masters in our life so that wecan actually benefit and progress. CHOOSE any ONE teaching andfollow it with single minded devotion and you see the changeimmediately.UNIVERSAL TEACHINGS OF SWAMI VIVEKANANDASEE GOD IN ALLThis is the gist of all worship - to be pure and to do good to others.He who sees Siva in the poor, in the weak, and in the diseased, reallyworships Siva, and if he sees Siva only in the image, his worship isbut preliminary. He who has served and helped one poor manseeing Siva in him, without thinking of his cast, creed, or race, oranything, with him Siva is more pleased than with the man who seesHim only in temples.
  32. 32. GOD IS WITHIN YOUIt is impossible to find God outside of ourselves. Our own soulscontribute all of the divinity that is outside of us. We are the greatesttemple. The objectification is only a faint imitation of what we seewithin ourselves.PERSEVERE IN YOUR SEARCH FOR GODTo succeed, you must have tremendous perseverance, tremendouswill. "I will drink the ocean," says the persevering soul, "at my willmountains will crumble up." Have that sort of energy, that sort ofwill, work hard, and you will reach the goal.TRUST COMPLETELY IN GODStand up for God; let the world go.LOVE OF GOD IS ESSENTIALGiving up all other thoughts, with the whole mind day and nightworship God. Thus being worshipped day and night, He revealshimself and makes His worshippers feel His presence. HIS SAYINGS1. Love Is The Law Of Life: All love is expansion, all selfishness iscontraction. Love is therefore the only law of life. He who loves lives,he who is selfish is dying. Therefore, love for loves sake, because itis law of life, just as you breathe to live.2. Its Your Outlook That Matters: It is our own mental attitude,which makes the world what it is for us. Our thoughts make things
  33. 33. beautiful, our thoughts make things ugly. The whole world is in ourown minds. Learn to see things in the proper light.3. Life is Beautiful: First, believe in this world - that there ismeaning behind everything. Everything in the world is good, is holyand beautiful. If you see something evil, think that you do notunderstand it in the right light. Throw the burden on yourselves!4. Its The Way You Feel: Feel like Christ and you will be a Christ;feel like Buddha and you will be a Buddha. It is feeling that is the life,the strength, the vitality, without which no amount of intellectualactivity can reach God.5. Set Yourself Free: The moment I have realised God sitting in thetemple of every human body, the moment I stand in reverencebefore every human being and see God in him - that moment I amfree from bondage, everything that binds vanishes, and I am free.6. Dont Play The Blame Game: Condemn none: if you can stretchout a helping hand, do so. If you cannot, fold your hands, bless yourbrothers, and let them go their own way.7. Help Others: If money helps a man to do good to others, it is ofsome value; but if not, it is simply a mass of evil, and the sooner it isgot rid of, the better.8. Uphold Your Ideals: Our duty is to encourage every one in hisstruggle to live up to his own highest idea, and strive at the sametime to make the ideal as near as possible to the Truth.9. Listen To Your Soul: You have to grow from the inside out. Nonecan teach you, none can make you spiritual. There is no otherteacher but your own soul.
  34. 34. 10. Be Yourself: The greatest religion is to be true to your ownnature. Have faith in yourselves!11. Nothing Is Impossible: Never think there is anythingimpossible for the soul. It is the greatest heresy to think so. If thereis sin, this is the only sin - to say that you are weak, or others areweak.12. You Have The Power: All the powers in the universe arealready ours. It is we who have put our hands before our eyes andcry that it is dark.13. Learn Everyday: The goal of mankind is knowledge... now thisknowledge is inherent in man. No knowledge comes from outside: itis all inside. What we say a man knows, should, in strictpsychological language, be what he discovers or unveils; whatman learns is really what he discovers by taking the cover off hisown soul, which is a mine of infinite knowledge.14. Be Truthful: Everything can be sacrificed for truth, but truthcannot be sacrificed for anything.15. Think Different: All differences in this world are of degree, andnot of kind, because oneness is the secret of everything.16. You are bound to be beaten by waves if you stay on surface, godeeper and you would know the difference.
  35. 35. 2) RATAN TATAA SLOW STARTER Early business failures in the Tata Groups electronics and millinterests did not mark Ratan out for a starring role. Indeed, when hesucceeded his uncle, J.R.D. Tata, as chairman in 1991, few expectedthe group to survive the challenges of liberalization. By trimmingthe groups 300 "fiefdoms" and removing managers who didntshare his "global not local" vision, Tata reinvented the company. It is often said that Tatas heart is in the motor industry. Famouslymedia shy, Tata was propelled into the spotlight in 2008 with hisbold takeover of prestige British brands Jaguar and Rover, a movethat was branded as "reverse colonialism". In 1998 he launched theIndica, the first totally Indian car. With typically unwavering beliefin his project to create a peoples car, Tata proved skeptic wrong in2008 with the launch of the "one lakh" ($2,150) car, the Tata Nano. Under Tatas leadership, the group has set a standard forcorporate responsibility. As well as providing housing, educationand medical care to employees, the company ploughs over twothirds of profits into trusts that finance good causes. Unusually inIndia, the company is known to be incorruptible.LEADERSHIP STYLE Audacious, degnified and philanthropic. One of Tatas firstprinciples in business is to be bold but to "do no harm".
  36. 36. Demand for greater transparency and accountability Performance appraisal of Board Members and Management Succession Planning Concept of social welfare Ethics in the way business is carried out. Companies have certain social responsibilities to fulfill an existence of the companies without doin so would b difficult and meaningless.CORE VALUES WHICH DERIVE THE TATA GROUP INTEGRITY- TATA believes in conducting their business fairly, with honesty and transparency. UNDERSTANDING- Must be caring , show respect, compassion and humanity for the colleagues and customers around the world and always work for the benefits of country. EXCELLENCE- Must constantly strive to achieve the highest possible standard in our day to day work and in the quality of the goods and service we provide UNITY-Must work cohesively with our colleagues across the group with our customers and partners around the world, building strong relationships based on tolerance , understanding and mutual co-operation RESPONSIBILTY- Must continue to be responsible, sensitive to the countries communities and environments in which we work, always ensuring that what comes from people goes back to people many times over
  37. 37. BUSINESS LESSONS: PUTTING SOMETHING BACK Tata believes passionately in using his companys growth for thebetterment of his employees lives and the community at large. Hebelieves the companys long-term position and influence depend onthis approach, and that shareholders will prosper in such a regime. Avoid all corrupt activities even when times are difficult and temptation is high. Obey your instincts when they tell you that what you are being offered is too good to be true. Make sure your company listens to the community around it and contributes to its well-being.KEY STRENGTH The ability to think globally. Tata has transformed a lumbering,bureaucratic, Empire-rea conglomerate into a dynamic world player.BEST DECISIONDeciding that Tata Group should make its own cars. Critics said itwas vanity project, but Tata Motors is now Indias second biggestcar maker.3) BILL GATESA floppy, Geeky Appearance and a commitment to large-scalephilanthropy may give the impression that Gates is the easygoingtype, but you dont become the richest man on earth by being gentle.A confrontational manager and an aggressive business operator,Gates broke the mould of the computer nerd. His ability to playbusiness hardball ensured that his company cashed in from the verybeginning of the IT boom, and his demanding managerial presencehas kept Microsoft at the heart of the computing world ever since.
  38. 38. BIOGRAPHY:Born in Seattle in 1955. Gates wrote his first program, a version ofnoughts and crosses, on a school computer. He enrolled at Harvardin 1973, but left to concentrate on his software business.COLLEGE DROP-OUT: After selling a computer program to his school at the age of 17,Gates continued developing software during a brief stint at Harvard.Dropping out of college to concentrate on his IT start-up business,he began creating software for a variety of systems, writing codehimself, reviewing every single piece of code the company produced,and keeping an eye out for growth opportunities. When he wasoffered an agreement to provide the operating system for IBMs newPC in 1980, he saw his big chance.AGGRESSION AND DRIVE: Gates deal with IBM demonstrated his acute business acumen andhis taste for tough dealing. As well as providing the operatingsystem for IBMs ubiquitous PCs, Gates insisted that Microsoft retainthe copyright to the system, in the hope that he would be able tolicense it to order hardware manufactures. This contractual
  39. 39. masterstroke spawned an entire industry of PCs that all dependedon MS-DOS and put Microsoft at the centre of the computingrevolution. That one move provided the basis for Microsoftsphenomenal growth. "Success is a lousy teacher" - Bill GatesGates insisted on the creation of new products to consolidate thecompanys position, and his aggressive management style continuedto drive the business forward. He appointed equally tough partners,such as Steve Ballmer, but also generated a motivating corporatespirit that kept the best people coming to Microsoft. He was evenharder on the competition, doing whatever it look to defendMicrosofts dominance. Since 2006, Gates has devoted an increasingproportion of his time to the charitable Bill & Melinda GatesFoundation.LEADERSHIP STYLE: Confrontational, direct and abrasive. Gates became renowned forhis demanding approach. He also ensured that Microsoft was ameritocracy, that it was product-centred and that it looked after itspeople.BUSINESS LESSONS BECOMING DOMINANT Gatess determination is legendary. Most senior managers knowthat they may have to choose between being well liked and lesssuccessful or well respected and capable of developing companieswith dominant positions. Be prepared to take any steps that will improve your market domination- including litigation.
  40. 40. Accept that your true aim is to be as near to a monopoly as you can and the law allows. When youve established a dominant position, pull out all the stops to defend it. keep pushing or your dominance will crumble.KEY STRENGTH: Looking for improvement, always and everywhere.BEST DECISION: Insisting on keeping the copyright to MS-DOS in the 1980 dealwith IBM. This was the key to Microsofts success.4) STEVE JOBSBIOGRAPHY: Born in 1955 in San Francisco, Steve Jobs is the adopted son ofPaul and Clara Jobs. His biological parents were Joanne CaroleSchieble and Abdulfattah Jandali, the latter a graduate student fromSyria who became a political science professor. Jobs failed tograduate from his literature, poetry and physics course at OregonsReed College.
  41. 41. HIRING AND FIRING UP: One of the keys to jobs enduring success has been his skill inhiring the best team and firing them up. As a young Apple chairmanSteve Jobs boldly stole the then-president of PepsiCo, John Sculley,to be his cheif executive. Yet Jobs autocratic style has also causedhim problems. Fed up with his unwillingness to be a team player, in1985 the other Apple directors kicked him out. Aged 30, Jobs wasout of a job.AN i FOR THE FUTURE: Using the proceeds from the sale of his Apple stocks, Jobs soonbroadened the scope of his business interests with an adroitacquisition, purchasing the computer graphics division of Lucasfilms
  42. 42. (later Pixar) which gave him a key future foothold in entertainmentconcept. He returned to lead an ailing Apple in 1997. In the next decade the companys share price rose 36-fold, thankslargely to the success of the iPod and iTunes. From the iPhone toMacBook Air, Apple products ooze desirability and continue todefine geek chic. Colleagues describe Jobs as brilliant and a greatmotivator, but he pushes his team to their limits, and someemployees have quit shortly after finishing a product. "Steve understands desire" - Alan Kay, GUI poineer and former fellow, Apple Advanced Technology Group Steve Jobs vision and relentless eye for detail have given Apple thekind of brand power other CEOs dream of. He has an unerring abilityto create instantly desirable, "must have" products. He starts byasking his team "what do we want?" rather than "what can weproduce?". Hardware and software are then invented to produce thedream. Products that fail to excite Steve Jobs himself are dropped orstarted again from scratch. Apples strategy focuses on very fewproducts, but these few have become irresistible bestsellers.LEADERSHIP STYLE: Visionary, creative and entrepreneurial. Some say an autocratic micro-manager. He can be charming and engaging, but some have complained about his indelicate language.
  43. 43. BUSINESS LESSONS: ROUTINIZING CHARISMA Steve Jobs drive, passion and creative imagination permeate thework environment at Apple, and allow him to devolve work in histeam. His biographer Leander Kahney has called this phenomenonthe "routinization" of charisma. Think of it as branding the teamwith your own values. Brand yourself within - and outside of - the company, and articulate your value to others. Do what you love, and integrate your passions with your job tasks. Identify supporters and create a network of relationships that support your personal brand.KEY STRENGTH: He has an instinctive understanding not only of where technologyis going but also what makes people want to buy it.BEST DECISION: Developing both the software and hardware elements in the iPodand iTunes combination.LESSONS FROM STEVE JOBS: Innovation distinguishes between a leader and a follower. Be a yardstick of quality. Some people aren’t used to an environment where excellence is expected. The only way to do great work is to love what you do. If you haven’t found it yet, keep looking. Don’t settle. As with all matters of the heart, you’ll know when you find it.
  44. 44. CONCLUSION

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