The English in North America A Power Point Presentation By: Patrick Spohr For History of the Americas 140
American Colonies 7 – Chesapeake Colonies <ul><li>Unlike the Spanish and French, few English nobles emigrated to the Chesapeake. Merchants and planters formed the powerful upper class instead, who were viewed as lacking in cultural grace by the English elite. Initially, this lack of apparent “good breeding” caused a disconnect between the elite and laborers, who expected more of their officials. </li></ul>
American Colonies 7 – Chesapeake Colonies <ul><li>Due to it's size and dispersed population, the Chesapeake was divided into two Commonwealths.
Men were vested with power over their households, or “little commonwealth”, which was considered the backbone of colonial government.
Above the family was the county court and parish, the provincial government in Maryland, and finally the King and Parliament.
The Anglican parish, responsible for churches and assisting the poor, was considered to be an important and necessary link tying together church and government. </li></ul>
American Colonies 7 – Chesapeake Colonies <ul><li>Imperial and Colonial reforms in 1665 severely impacted the colonists. </li><ul><li>New Imperial taxes hurt the profits of tobacco.
Taxes by the Colonial government inflicted additional pain
The best public lands were given to cronies of Governor Berkeley.
Led by Nathaniel Bacon, colonists marched on Jamestown, upset with the taxes as well as government refusal to go to war with the Susquehannock tribe.
Not a popular uprising, “Bacon's Rebellion” was a division amongst the wealthiest colonial farmers. Bacon and his followers were able to convince the common planters to join with extreme promises.
After Bacon's death due to illness, the rebellion died. This rebellion did, however, result in the removal of Berkeley from his post. </li></ul></ul>
American Colonies 9 – Puritans and Indians <ul><li>Unlike the Virginia Indians, southern New England tribes had no political unity.
Natives of the area were capable of high-yield horticulture.
Natives were nomadic, and therefore kept few material goods and shared what they did have.
Despite colonial assumptions, the Indian tribes did practice regular burnings to alter the wooded landscape and make it more suitable for hunting. </li></ul>
American Colonies 9 – Puritans and Indians <ul><li>Puritan trade created competition between tribes to corner the English market. As the number of Puritans grew, the terms changed, and Puritans were openly hostile to their indigenous neighbors, often refusing the type of reciprocity common in Indian treaties and trades. Due to superior weapons, the Puritans were able to force Indians to sacrifice wampum in order to keep the peace. </li></ul>
American Colonies 9 – Puritans and Indians <ul><li>Puritan requests for wampum were the root of the Pequot War of 1636. </li><ul><li>Trades also required Natives to surrender women and children.
The war started with the Pequot killing an English trader. </li></ul><li>Due to old rivalries, the Puritans were able to use rival tribes against the Pequot </li><ul><li>The Narragansett and Mohegan fought alongside the English.
Natives like Miantonomi suggested a Pan-Indian alliance to combat the English menace, but lacking a collective identity, the Indians were unable to unite.
Inabilities to unite as Indians meant Puritans were soon able to outnumber their Native counterparts in the region. </li></ul></ul>
American Colonies 11 - Carolina <ul><li>Leaving from Barbados, colonists founded Charleston in defiance of the Spanish, who claimed the coast as their own.
A push for more English colonists started in 1671, using combination of adventure and open land lost in older colonies.
Large land grants not only attracted middling settlers, but also great planters.
Weak proprietary government resulted in the split of North and South Carolina. </li></ul>
American Colonies 11 - Carolina <ul><li>Seeking a staple crop to base their economy on, and being too far north for sugar cultivation, the Carolina colonies attempted to specialize in cattle and lumber. Eventually, the economy transferred to rice and indigo. The rice trade flourished in South Carolina, especially since African slaves had a good deal more experience cultivating it than the English. Due to it's high labor requirement, a continuous flow of African slaves was necessary. </li></ul>
American Colonies 11 - Carolina <ul><li>The African slave trade in the Carolinas, like what occurred in the West Indies, resulted in the transfer of sub-tropical diseases to the colonies, including malaria and yellow fever. The climate of the colony also resulted in new forms of mosquitoes taking residence. </li></ul><ul><li>Slave trading resulted in a deep fear amongst both slave and non-slave owning whites. To suppress a possible slave rebellion, like the Stono River rebellion in 1739, wealthy and poor whites bonded due to racial similarities, instead of along class lines as was common in England. </li></ul>