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Sc Ience

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SOUND

SOUND

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  • 1. SCIENCE PROJECT<br />Jose Joseph<br />IX-A<br />
  • 2. SOUND<br />
  • 3. Sound, physical phenomenon that stimulates the sense of hearing. In humans, hearing takes place whenever vibrations of frequencies from 15 hertz to about 20,000 hertz reach the inner ear. The hertz (Hz) is a unit of frequency equaling one vibration or cycle per second. Such vibrations reach the inner ear when they are transmitted through air. The speed of sound varies, but at sea level it travels through cool, dry air at about 1,190 km/h (740 mph). The term sound is sometimes restricted to such airborne vibrational waves. Modern physicists, however, usually extend the term to include similar vibrations in other gaseous, liquid, or solid media. Physicists also include vibrations of any frequency in any media, not just those that would be audible to humans. Sounds of frequencies above the range of normal human hearing, higher than about 20,000 Hz, are called ultrasonic.<br />
  • 4. Physical Characteristics<br />
  • 5. FREQUENCY<br />Sounds can be produced at a desired frequency by different methods. Sirens emit sound by means of an air blast interrupted by a toothed wheel with 44 teeth. The wheel rotates at 10 revolutions per second to produce 440 interruptions in the air stream every second. Similarly, hitting the A above middle C on a piano causes a string to vibrate at 440 Hz. The sound of the speaker and that of the piano string at the same frequency are different in quality, but correspond closely in pitch. The next higher A on the piano, the note one octave above, has a frequency of 880 Hz, exactly twice as high. Similarly, the notes one and two octaves below have frequencies of 220 and 110 Hz, respectively. Thus, by definition, an octave is the interval between any two notes whose frequencies are in a two-to-one ratio.<br />
  • 6. AMPLITUDE<br />The amplitude of a sound wave is the degree of motion of air molecules within the wave, which corresponds to the changes in air pressure that accompany the wave. The greater the amplitude of the wave, the harder the molecules strike the eardrum and the louder the sound that is perceived. The amplitude of a sound wave can be expressed in terms of absolute units by measuring the actual distance of displacement of the air molecules, the changes in pressure as the wave passes, or the energy contained in the wave. <br />
  • 7. Types of Sound Waves<br />TRANSVERSE WAVES<br /> LONGITUDINAL WAVES<br />
  • 8. TRANSVERSE WAVES<br />

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