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Helpful PowerPoint on Diets and Weight Loss

Helpful PowerPoint on Diets and Weight Loss

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  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 2 This lecture will cover the essential aspects of weight control. The myths and problems associated with fad diets are described and the benefits of healthy lifestyle approaches are described.
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 Interesting quote!
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 12 Review from a previous concept. The primary factors associated with an increase in body fat with age is a progressive decrease in the metabolism. Basal metabolic rate is highly dependent on the amount of lean body mass an individual has. With age a person's LBM decreases and, therefore, so does the BMR. Exercise is one way of maintaining LBM and keeping BMR elevated. Physical Activity is also known to decrease with age. This decrease is another reason for creeping obesity. To maintain body weight it is necessary for people to either maintain a habit of regular exercise or to progressively decrease their caloric intake as they get older.
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 This graphic shows the number of pounds that Americans say they want to lose.
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 14 There are a number of factors that may influence a person ’ s risk of being overfat. There is considerable evidence to suggest that obesity and body composition are strongly influenced by genetics. Research by Claude Bouchard (1992) has suggested that genetics accounts for about 25% of the variance in body composition among individuals. The concept of somatotypes has been used to understand differences in individual body types. Some people may be genetically predetermined to carry higher amounts of body fat (endomorph) while others are meant to be leaner (ectomorph) Gland problems account for only 2% of cases of overfatness but it is often used as an excuse. It is also possible that individuals with high levels of fat when they are a baby can have a harder time remaining normal weight as an adult. This is because the body has more fat cells (hyperplasia) and has a harder time keeping them all small. While these factors may make it hard for everyone to attain the perfect body everyone can improve their body composition up to their own personal ideal or best through lifestyle behaviors. Modern environments make it harder to live a healthy lifestyle! Bouchard, C. Genetic Aspects of Human Obesity (1992). IN: Bjorntorp, P. & Brodoff, B.N. (Eds.) Obesity. Lippincott Co.., Philadelphia, pp 343-351.
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 3 Dieting is a national obsession in our country. It has been estimated that 40% of all men and 25% of all women in the U.S. are on a diet at any one time. Overall, the weight loss industry has been valued at over 33 billion dollars (1992 estimate). The dieting craze is largely caused by our societies preoccupation with appearance and in particular leanness. (Issues regarding body image can be discussed at this point if desired).
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 4 Most "diets" are unsuccessful. It has been estimated that over 50% of people gain weight back within 2 years (reference) Only 5-10% manage to keep most of the weight off. (see Kramer et al.(1989) Int. J. Obesity 13:123-126 Wadden, J. et al. (1988) J. Consult. Clin. Psych. 56:925-928) Why do diets fail? - Short term (quick fix!) - Not a change in lifestyle
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 5 This figure shows the typical cycle of dieting People begin a diet and have good initial motivation. They may see some initial positive results but eventually they will have trouble with compliance (party, eating out, stress). They may give up and blow diet and gain the weight back. Eventually, people regain inspiration and decide to try again. Because of the initial positive results, most people blame themselves and believe that dieting works. They keep trying new diets to try to find one that they can live with. Because most “ diets ” are inherently short term they will all fail when people come off of the diet. Only long term lifestyle changes will be effective in keeping the weight off.
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 7 The concept of weight cycling or Yo-Yo dieting has recently received a lot of attention in the literature. Some evidence suggests that with repeated cycles of dieting there is increased resistance to weight loss and increased efficiency of weight gain (Essentially the body adapts to fewer calories and becomes more efficient). Some studies have suggested that repeated cycles of weight loss can increase a person's risk for CHD (usually attributed to tendency to store fat in the abdominal region. A recent review in JAMA (1994) suggests that this risk is unfounded and that individuals should persist in their efforts at weight loss. Essentially, they argued that the health risks of obesity far outweigh the potential health risks associated with weight cycling.
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 10 The main problem with fad diets is that they are inherently temporary. If the change is not a part of a healthy lifestyle adherence will be poor. The weight loss that is seen is often water loss and is gained back very quickly The diet treatments (appetite suppressants) can often be addictive and or dangerous. Diet may lack essential vitamins and minerals and create health problems. Extreme caloric restriction may also cause the bodies metabolism to slow down and resist further weight loss.
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 Review issues with Atkins diet and public health concerns
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 Appetite suppresants containing ephedra are dangerous. Refer students to On the Web for more information.
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 A drug combination called fenfluramine/phentermine (fen/phen) was found to lead to a form of valvular heart disease. Products containing these drugs – Redux and Pondimin have been taken off the market. A new drug called Sibutramine is used in a product called Meridia. It alters a person's appetite by making a person feel full. It is approved by the FDA but reports have indicated that it can raise blood pressure and lead some people to have irregular heart beats.
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 8 Weight Control is simply a balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. If you take in more calories than you expend you will gain weight. If you take in less calories than you expend you will lose weight. To maintain weight intake must be balanced by expenditure.
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 9 To lose weight it is necessary to create a caloric deficit (expend more than you take in). There is really only two ways to do this (eat less or exercise more) Despite what the fad diets claim, there are no secret pills or techniques that make weight loss easy.
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 11 A lifestyle approach may take longer than the fad diets claim but the weight loss will be real and it will be allow you to take in enough calories for good health. It will also be easier to live with than an extreme fad diet. Nutritious diet Regular Exercise
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 The following guidelines are healthy dietary patterns.
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 Continued
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 14 There are many benefits of exercise for weight loss 1. Burns calories 2. Maintains LBM which keeps the BMR higher 3. Increases the metabolic rate following exercise so you burn more calories even when resting 4. Exercise promotes greater fat loss. Fad diets, on the other hand, may cause a loss of LBM 5. Suppresses the appetite. Moderate levels of activity can decrease the appetite because the body is somewhat tricked into thinking it is full. Research shows that people who combine diet with exercise may not lose that many more calories but they will keep the weight off more easily.
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 12 The following represent some general weight loss calculations. 1 pound of fat contains 3500 calories. Therefore, to lose 1 pound of fat a person must have a deficit of 3500 calories. To give students a perception of this amount give them some examples: 1. The average diet is approximately 2000 calories per day so this represents nearly 2 days worth of food 2. 1 mile burns off about 100 calories so this amounts to nearly 35 miles of walking/jogging The maximum weight loss per week should be no more than 1-2 pounds to permit a healthy and "livable" diet. Use examples to show required deficit per day and mention that it is easiest to create a greater caloric deficit if efforts at reducing intake and increasing expenditure are combined.
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 16 In summary, there are a few general principles to follow in a weight loss program 1. Set realistic goals. Weight takes a while to put on and therefore it takes time to take it off 2. Be moderate in your behavior change efforts. Extreme changes will not be easy to maintain 3. Be consistent in behavior. It is okay to splurge or miss a day of exercise just get back to it the next day. 4. Seek out positive social support (family, friends)
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 This page provides active hyperlinks if the computer is connected to the Internet.
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 Supplemental graphics follow this slide. Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 Lab information
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 Lab information
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 These and many other studies document the benefits of low fat diets for long term weight control. Kendall et al (1991) AJCN 53, 11224-1129
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 This study compared people that dieted with exercise versus those who dieted without exercise. One would expect those that exercised to lose more weight because of a greater caloric deficit but the participants lost the same amount of weight. Interestingly, participants who exercised lost a larger amount of body fat rather than muscle.
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15
  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15
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  • Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15

Corbin14e ch15 Corbin14e ch15 Presentation Transcript

  • Presentation Package for Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Section V: Concept 15 Managing Diet and Activity for Healthy Body FatnessVarious management strategies for eating and performing physical activity are useful in achieving and maintaining optimal body composition. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 1
  • “We’re raising our children the way we raise calves for veal - keep them in boxes, feed them too much, and allow them no exercise.” Rich Killingsworth Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Creeping Obesity Physical activity decreases and leads to a decrease In metabolic rate. If energy expenditure drops more than energy intake, weight gain will occur. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 3
  • Pounds of Weight American’sWant to Lose Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 4
  • Factors Influencing Weight & FatControl Heredity / Genetics Lifestyles  Consumption of excess calories  Lack of regular physical activity Environment  Easy access to high calorie food makes it harder to eat properly  Modern “conveniences” make activity less likely Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 5
  • Portion DistortionClick here to visit the “Portion Distortion” demonstration visit www.nhlbi.nih.gov Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 6
  • Prevalence of Dieting 40% of all women 25% of all men Diet products are a 33 billion dollar industry. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 7
  • Almost All Diets areUnsuccessful  50% regain all weight within 2 years  5-10% keep weight off permanently Why do diets fail? Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 8
  • Cycle of Dieting START DIET INITIAL REGAIN MOTIVATION INSPIRATION FAIL W / DIET POSITIVE RESULTS BLAME SELF TROUBLE WITH COMPLIANCE Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 9
  • Yo-Yo Dieting Increased resistance to weight loss Increased efficiency of weight gain Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 10
  • Problems withFad Diets Weight loss is often water loss Supplements may be dangerous Diet may lack essential nutrients Metabolism may slow down if caloric intake is very low. Most (if not all) simply do not work for people long term! Web15-03 for information on fad diets Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 11
  • Dangers of the Atkins DietLow carb diets are not a panacea as is typically claimed butthe extreme aspects of the Atkins diet are even moreproblematic. The diet may yield modest weight loss in theshort term but long term studies show negative consequences.The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine has beenworking to counter the pro-Atkins media and slow the hypeabout the Atkins diet.
  • Problems with AppetiteSuppressants Many people use non prescription appetite suppressants to control eating. Ephedrine related products have been found to be dangerous and have been banned by the FDA  Herbal equivalents (e.g. Ma Huang are not safe). Web15-07 for information on ephedra Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 13
  • Problems with Prescription WeightControl Pills Fenfluramine/phentermine (fen/phen)  Used in medicines such as Redux and Pondimin  Contributes to a form of valvular heart disease.  Currently banned by the FDA Sibutramine  Used in a product called Meridia.  Has been approved by the FDA but may raise blood pressure and lead to irregular heart beats. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 14
  • Principles of Weight Control(A balance between intake and expenditure) IN EX IN > EX - Gain Weight IN = EX - Maintain Weight IN < EX - Lose Weight Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 15
  • Lab 15b infoGuidelines for Losing Body Fat Need to create a caloric deficit (2 ways to do it!)  Eat less! Web15-02 for information on different weight control  Exercise more! resources and links Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 16
  • Lifestyle Approach! Healthy eating patterns Regular activity patterns A simple AND effective method for long-term weight control. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 17
  • Lab 15a infoHealthy Eating Patterns Eating a variety of foods Eating smaller, more frequent meals Avoiding bingeing Reducing fat intake  Fat is calorically dense (high in calories)  Fat is more easily stored than carbohydrates or protein Info from studies on dietary fat and weight control Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 18
  • Healthy Eating Patterns continued Low “glycemic load” diets may be a more sensible alternative to low- carbohydrate diets. Artificial sweeteners and fat substitutes may help but cannot be considered a “sure cure” for body fat problems. Avoid anything with ephedra. Restrict “empty” calories. Learn the difference between craving and hunger. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 19
  • Info on exercise and Regular Activity Patterns weight Benefits of Exercise for Weight Control  Burns calories  Maintains LBM  Increases metabolism  Promotes greater fat loss  Suppresses appetite What type of exercise is best?  Aerobic exercise  Strength or muscle endurance exercise Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 20
  • Weight Loss Calculations1 pound of fat = 3500 caloriesMaximum weight loss should beno more than 1-2 pounds per week: 500 calories/day x 7 days/week = 3500 calories/week (1 pound)1000 calories/day x 7 days/week = 7000 calories/week (2 pounds) Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 21
  • Guidelines for Gaining Muscle Mass Young people often have difficulty in gaining weight or muscle mass. Changes in the frequency and composition of meals are important to gain muscle mass. Physical activity is important in gaining muscle mass. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 22
  • Behavior Change Principlesfor Weight Control Set realistic behavioral goals Moderation in behavior Consistency in behavior Social support Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 23
  • Web Resources Online Learning Center “On the Web” pages for Concept Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 24
  • Supplemental Graphics Lab InformationAdditional Graphics on the Effects of Diet and Activity on Weight Control
  • Return to presentation Lab 15a Information Selecting Strategies for Managing Eating Select strategies that you might find useful for effective eating habits from Chart 1. Discuss your personal experiences with eating and describe your need for employing these strategies in your life. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 26
  • Return to presentation Lab 15b Information Evaluating Fast Food Options Compute intake of calories, fat, saturated fat and cholesterol from a typical fast food meal. (see Appendix E) Compare values to recommended amounts to see how fast food meals influence daily intakes. Discuss the results Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 27
  • Benefits of Low Fat Diets for Long Term Weight Control Dietary fat is stored more efficiently - 3% of ingested energy (Tucker, 1991). Energy intake is lower when consuming low fat foods (Lissner, 1987; Kendall, 1991). Body can increase metabolism of carbohydrates but will store excess fat (Thomas, 1992). Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 28
  • Effects of Exercise and Caloric Restriction Weight Loss (kg) Exercise Ex No Ex Fat 6.1 4.6 LBM 2.1 3.7 Total 8.2 8.3Body Weight No Exercise (Hill et al., 1987) Time Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 29
  • Do You Know How Food Portions Have Changed in 20 Years? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Obesity Education Initiative
  • BAGEL 20 Years Ago Today140 calories How many calories3-inch diameter are in this bagel?
  • BAGEL 20 Years Ago Today140 calories 350 calories3-inch diameter 6-inch diameter Calorie Difference: 210 calories
  • Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out How long will you have to rake leaves in order to burn the extra 210 calories?* *Based on 130-pound person
  • Calories In = Calories OutIf you rake the leaves for 50 minutes you willburn the extra 210 calories.* *Based on 130-pound person
  • CHEESEBURGER20 Years Ago Today 333 calories How many calories are in today’s cheeseburger?
  • CHEESEBURGER20 Years Ago Today 333 calories 590 calories Calorie Difference: 257 calories
  • Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out How long will you have to lift weights in order to burn the extra 257 calories?* *Based on 130-pound person
  • Calories In = Calories OutIf you lift weights for 1 hour and 30 minutes,you will burn approximately 257 calories.* *Based on 130-pound person
  • SPAGHETTI AND MEATBALLS 20 Years Ago Today 500 calories How many calories do 1 cup spaghetti with sauce you think are in todays and 3 small meatballs portion of spaghetti and meatballs?
  • SPAGHETTI AND MEATBALLS 20 Years Ago Today 500 calories 1,025 calories 1 cup spaghetti with sauce 2 cups of pasta with sauce and 3 small meatballs and 3 large meatballs Calorie Difference: 525 calories
  • Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out How long will you have to houseclean in order to burn the extra 525 calories?* *Based on 130-pound person
  • Calories In = Calories OutIf you houseclean for 2 hours and 35 minutes,you will burn approximately 525 calories.* *Based on 130-pound person
  • FRENCH FRIES20 Years Ago Today 210 Calories How many calories are in 2.4 ounces today’s portion of fries?
  • FRENCH FRIES20 Years Ago Today 210 Calories 610 Calories 2.4 ounces 6.9 ounces Calorie Difference: 400 Calories
  • Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out How long will you have to walk leisurely in order to burn those extra 400 calories?* *Based on 160-pound person
  • Calories In = Calories OutIf you walk leisurely for 1 hour and 10 minutesyou will burn approximately 400 calories.* *Based on 160-pound person
  • SODA20 Years Ago Today 85 Calories How many calories are 6.5 ounces in today’s portion?
  • SODA20 Years Ago Today 85 Calories 250 Calories 6.5 ounces 20 ounces Calorie Difference: 165 Calories
  • Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out How long will you have to work in the garden to burn those extra calories?* *Based on 160-pound person
  • Calories In = Calories OutIf you work in the garden for 35 minutes,you will burn approximately 165 calories.* *Based on 160-pound person
  • TURKEY SANDWICH20 Years Ago Today 320 calories How many calories are in today’s turkey sandwich?
  • TURKEY SANDWICH20 Years Ago Today 320 calories 820 calories Calorie Difference: 500 calories
  • Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out How long will you have to ride a bike in order to burn those extra calories?* *Based on 160-pound person
  • Calories In = Calories OutIf you ride a bike for 1 hour and 25 minutes,you will burn approximately 500 calories.* *Based on 160-pound person
  • End of PortionDistortion Demo Return to Presentation