What Is Leadership?LeadershipThe ability to influence agroup toward theachievement of goals.ManagementUse of authority inherentin designated formal rankto obtain compliance fromorganizational members.
Early Trait TheoriesTraits Theories of Leadership• Great leaders are born and not made• Theories that consider personality characteristics,physical attributes and abilities, or intellectual traits todifferentiate leaders from non-leaders.
Trait Theory Leadership Traits:• Ambition and energy• The desire to lead• Honest and integrity• Self-confidence• Intelligence• High self-monitoring• Job-relevant knowledge
Trait Theories Limitations: • No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations. • Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations. • Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits. • Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.
Behavioral TheoriesBehavioral Theories of Leadership• Emerged as a response to deficiency of the trait theories• Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiateleaders from non-leaders. • Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. • Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.
Behavioral Theories1. Lewin, Lippitt and White Studies• They identified 3 basic styles of leadershipe. Autocratic Style: A style of leadership in which the leader uses strong, directive, controlling actions to enforce the rules, regulations, activities and relationships in the workf. Democratic Style: Leader takes collaborative, responsive, interactive actions with followers concerning the work and work environmentg. Laissez-faire Style: A style of leadership in which the leader fails to accept the responsibilities of the position
Ohio State Studies• Based on the study conducted on aircrews and pilots usingLeader Behavior Description Questionnaire• Study revealed 2 dimensions of leader behaviourInitiating StructureThe extent to which a leader is likely to define and structurehis or her role and those of sub-ordinates in the search forgoal attainment.ConsiderationThe extent to which a leader is likely to have jobrelationships characterized by mutual trust, respect forsubordinate’s ideas, and regard for their feelings.
Ohio State StudiesHIGH C HUMAN RELATION O DEMOCRATIC N S I D E R A T I O LAISSEZ FAIRE AUTOCRATIC NLOW LOW INITIATING STRUCTURE HIGH People who scored high on both were able to achieve higher levels of performance & job satisfaction
University of Michigan StudiesEmployee-Oriented LeaderEmphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personalinterest in the needs of employees and accepting individualdifferences among members.Production-Oriented LeaderThe style leads to a work environment characterised byconstant influence attempts on the part of the leader, eitherthrough direct, close supervision or through the use of manywritten and unwritten rules and regulations for behaviour.The focus is on getting work done.
The Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton)• Developed with a focus on attitudes• The underlying dimensions aree. Concern for peoplef. Concern for production•Originally identified 5 distinct managerial styles andfurther development of grid led to 2 more styles
The Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton)
The Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton) 1,1 – Impoverished Management Exhibit no concern for people or work.Often fail as leaders 1,9 – Country Club Management High concern for people, low concern for production 9,1 – Authoritarian style of leadership High concern for production, low concern for people 9,9 – Team Management High concern for both people & production 5,5 – Middle of the Road Management Balances the necessity to get work done and maintains the morale of people at satisfactory level
The Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton) NEW STYLES Opportunistic Management Leaders adapt and shift to any grid style needed to gain the maximum advantage. Performance occurs according to a system of selfish gain. Effort is given only for an advantage for personal gain. 9+9: Paternalism/Maternalism Management Reward and approval are bestowed to people in return for loyalty and obedience; failure to comply leads to punishment
Scandinavian StudiesDevelopment-Oriented LeaderOne who values experimentation, seeking new ideas,and generating and implementing change.Researchers in Finland and Sweden questionwhether there are only two dimensions (production-orientation and employee-orientation) that capturethe essence of leadership behavior. Their premiseis that in a changing world, effective leaders wouldexhibit development-oriented behavior.
Contingency Theories ( If –Then Theories)Contingency theories involve the belief thatleadership style must be appropriate for theparticular situation Situation Favorable/Unfavorable Choose Style
Contingency Theories ( If –Then Theories)Fiedler’s Contingency ModelProposes that the fit between the leader’s need,structure and the favorableness of the leader’ssituation determine the team’s effectiveness in workaccomplishment.Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) QuestionnaireAn instrument that purports to measure whether aperson is task- or relationship-oriented.
Fiedler’s Model: Defining the SituationLeader-Member RelationsThe degree of confidence, trust, and respectsubordinates have in their leader.Task StructureThe degree to which the job assignments areprocedurized.Position PowerInfluence derived from one’s formal structuralposition in the organization; includes power to hire,fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases.
Findings of the Fiedler Model Good Task-Oriented Performance Relationship -Oriented Poor Favorable Moderate Unfavorable• Category I II III IV V VI VII VIII• Leader-Member Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Poor Relations• Task Structure High High Low Low High High Low Low• Position Power Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak
Findings from Fiedler Model
Cognitive Resource Theory• Developed by Fred Fiedler and Joe Garsia in 1987• The theory focuses on the influence of the leaders intelligence andexperience on his or her reaction to stress.• A theory of leadership that states that stress can unfavorably affect asituation and that intelligence and experience can lessen the influenceof stress on the leader.Research Support:• Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under high stress than do more intelligent individuals.• Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low stress than do more experienced people.
Cognitive Resource Theory Qualities Situation Performance Situation Performance High High Stress Poor Low Stress Good IntelligenceLow Intelligence High Stress Good Low Stress Poor Experienced High Stress Good Low Stress Poor Less High Stress Poor Low Stress Good Experienced
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)• A contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness.• Readiness is the function of ability and willingness Unable and Unable but Able and Able and Unwilling Willing Unwilling Willing Follower readiness: ability and willingness Leader: decreasing need for support and supervision Directive/Telling Selling/Coaching Supportive/ Monitoring/Delegating Participative
Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness (Hersey and Blanchard)Follower Unwilling WillingReadiness Able Supportive/ Monitoring/D Participative elegating Leadership Styles Unable Directive/ Telling Selling
Leader–Member Exchange TheoryProposed by George Green & MitchellLeader(LMX) TheoryLeaders create in-groups and out-groups, andsubordinates with in-group status will have higherperformance ratings, less turnover, and greater jobsatisfaction.
Leader–Member Exchange Theory Traditional theories assume that leaders treat all employees alike George Green & Mitchell in 1979-leaders often act differently towards different subordinates-LMX Leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of subordinates, usually early in their interaction-in group Rest-out group
Leader–Member Exchange Theory Leaders trust the subordinates who belong to the in- group, give them more attention, interact with them frequently & offer them special privileges Generally favor people who have attitudes & personality characteristics that are similar In-group Characteristics - Higher level of competence & extraversion - Receive high performance ratings-rewards & promotion - Lower turnover
Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Path-Goal Theory• Propounded by Robert House• Borrows from Ohio & Expectancy Theories• Path-Goal TheoryThe theory that it is the leader’s job to assistfollowers in attaining their goals and to provide themthe necessary direction and/or support to ensure thattheir goals are compatible with the overall objectivesof the group or organization.
Path-Goal Theory• Leader should provide the required support & guidance to his followers & help them achieve organizational goals• Should establish individual/ group goals for employees that are compatible with the broad organizational goals• The behavior of a leader is acceptable as long as : – The subordinates find that the satisfaction of their needs depends on their effective performance – They are provided with guidance, support & rewards
Leader-Participation/Decision Making Model• Proposed by Victor Vroom, Philip Yetton and Arthur Jago• Model helps leaders to know when to have employeeparticipation in decision making process• Model provides a set of rules to determine the form andamount of participative decision making in differentsituations.
Contingency Variables in the Leader-Participation Model1. Importance of the decision2. Importance of obtaining follower commitment to the decision3. Whether the leader has sufficient information to make a good decision4. How well structured the problem is5. Whether an autocratic decision would receive follower commitment6. Whether followers “buy into” the organization’s goals7. Whether there is likely to be conflict among followers over solution alternatives8. Whether followers have the necessary information to make a good decision9. Time constraints on the leader that may limit follower involvement10. Whether costs to bring geographically dispersed members together is justified11. Importance to the leader of minimizing the time it takes to make the decision12. Importance of using participation as a tool for developing follower decision skills
Leader-Participation/Decision Making ModelLeadership Styles3.Autocratic-I: Leaders individually solves problem using the informationalready available5.Autocratic-II: Leaders obtains the information and then decides7.Consultative-I: Leader explains the problem to individual subordinatesand obtains idea from each before deciding9.Consultative-II: Leader meets with group of subordinates to share theproblem and obtain inputs, and then decides11.Group: Leader shares problem with group and facilitates a discussionof alternatives and a reaching of group agreement on a solution