Grammar elements and their effect on writing
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  • 1. Importance of Elements of Grammar in Writing Presented By: Shobitash Jamwal MBA HR
  • 2. The term Grammar is derived from the Greek Word grammatike, where gram meant something written.The part tike derived from techne meant art.Hence grammatike is the art of writing. ● The first grammar of English, Bref Grammar for English was written by William Bullokar and was published in 1585. Grammar And Its Origin
  • 3. Is Proper Grammar necessary for creative writing?  Grammar is a tool that we can use to communicate our message properly.  If our grammar is poor, we risk blurring our message.  If our work is full of grammatical mistakes, our readers are going to have a hard time getting through it. Nothing is more distracting than being pulled out of a good story because a word is misspelled or a punctuation mark is misplaced.  Our grammar skills, or lack thereof, reflect our credibility, or lack thereof.
  • 4. Is Proper Grammar necessary for creative writing? ✔ Proper grammar is necessary for credibility, readability, communication, and clarity. ✔ People will judge us based on our writing, so we need to make sure our writing reflects the way we want it to. ✔ People are often judged by the way they speak and authors are judged by the way they write.
  • 5. Elements Of Grammar affecting Writing Skills Few Important elements of Grammar which affect writing skills are as follows: ● Punctuation ● Capitaliztation ● Spellings ● Parts Of Speech
  • 6. Punctuation & Its Importance Punctuation marks are symbols that indictae the structure and organization of written language.Primary Reasons for using Punctuation as a tool are as follows: ● It helps us distingusih between types of sentences. ● It also helps to make the meaaning of a sentence completely clear. Commonly used Punctuation Marks are as follows: ● Punctuations that end a sentence e.g. !,? . ● Commas ● Apostrophes ● Colon ● Semicolon
  • 7. Types Of Punctuation Continued
  • 8. Punctuation that Ends a Sentence Quotation Marks: 1)Period or Full Stop:Indictaes a declarative sentence.(.) 2)Question Mark:Indicates the interrogative sentence.(?) 3)Exclamation Mark:Indicates an exclamatory sentence.(!) Usage Of same sign can convey different message from text: I went shopping. (Ho, hum. It was uneventful.) I went shopping! (I had the best time and bought wonderful things!) I went shopping? (I must have had a black-out or something. I don’t remember going shopping.)
  • 9. The Comma (,) 1. Precedes a coordinating word that links two main clauses. 2. Seprates items in a list. 3. Follows a phrasse that precedes the subject of a sentence. 4. Set off words or phrases that interrupt the flow of the sentence. Examples I threw the party, and my friends enjoyed it. We ate cake,blew up balloons,gave presents, and sang songs. When autumn arrived,the trees lost their leaves. Aspens,for example,lose their leaves by october.
  • 10. The Apostrophe (') The main use of apostrophe are as follows: ● Forming Contradictions:indicating when two words have been pushed together to form one word. ● Creating possessive froms of nouns to show belonging. Examples ● You are becomes You're. ● It is becomes It's. ● To show possession like Trophy team can be written as Team's Trophy.
  • 11. Caution While Using Apostrophe ● An apostrophe is never used to make a word plural. (Cats not Cat's) ● An apostrophe is only used in the word “it's” when we mean “it is” or “it has”.The possessive form of “it” is its , without an apostrophe.
  • 12. The Colon (:) ● Colon can be used after a complete sentence if it's introducing a list of items in the sentence. ● Use of a colon after a complete sentence if it's introducing a formatted list. ● Use of a colon between two complete sentences if the second explains or illustrates the first sentence. I need the following items: shoes,socks, and gloves. It's good for your health to eata apples: these fruits energize your mind and keep you alert.
  • 13. Semicolon(;) ● Semicolon joins two related clauses in a sentence.The second clause could probably stand on its own,but may feel “weaker” than the first clause, and seems better attached to the first sentence. Example I could hardly wait for the party; it was going to be great! ● Use a semicolon between two sentences or independent clauses that are joined by a conjunctive adverb(e.g. However ,nevertheless, furthermore etc) Example I slept well;however, I was still tired.
  • 14. Quotation Marks(“) ● Can be placed around dialogue to indicate direct speech. ● Can be used to give short titles of articles, poems, short stories, etc. ● We need to put all punctuation marks inside Quotation marks when quoted within sentence. Example “What are you doing?” he asked. ● However if the quoted question is at the end of sentence then its done differently.No periods are included at the end. Example He asked, “What are you doing?”
  • 15. Capitalization ● The first word in a sentence ● Names(of people, places, things) ● Titles(but not all the words) ● Days & Months (but not the seasons) ● Seasons can be capitalized only if they are part of proper name. ● We don't capitalize “minor” words in titles.
  • 16. Spelling & Its Rules Put i before e Except after c Or when it sounds like a As in neighbor or neigh. Examples: Line 1:mischief (i before e) Line 2:receiver (except after c) Line 3:weight (as in neigh) Some i before e Exceptions: neither leisure foreign
  • 17. Spelling Rules (Cont.) If the suffix or verb ending begins with a vowel, drop the final e. Examples: amuse + ing = amusing creative + ity = creativity If the suffix or verb ending begins with a consonant, keep the final e. Examples: measure + ment = measurement definite + ly = definitely
  • 18. Spelling Rules (Cont.) If the word has a consonant before the y, change the y to i. Example: mercy + less = merciless If the word has a vowel before the y, keep the y. Example: deploy + ed = deployed Words that end in ss, sh, ch or x add -es. Example: stitch = stitches; box=boxes For words that have a consonant before a final y, change the y to i before adding -es. Example: summary = summaries
  • 19. ENGLISH SPELLING RULES FOR SHORT AND LONG VOWELS Short Vowels 1. To spell a short vowel sound, only one letter is needed: Examples: combat shred exit hot super Long Vowels 2. To spell a long sound you usually must add a second vowel, or you may use the consonants y or w in place of the vowel. Examples: reach loose soup seize sky Now, pick out the short and long vowel sounds in this word: Psychological Spelling Rules (Cont.) Answer: Psychological
  • 20. Spelling Rules (Cont.) “There are two kinds of suffixes, those that begin with a vowel and those that begin with a consonant. [Usually] spelling problems . . . occur with vowels.” Vowel Suffixes Consonant Suffixes - - - age - - -ist - - - ness - - - cess - - - ant - - - ish - - -less - - -ment - - -ance - - -ing - - -ly - - -ty - - - al - - -ar - - -ful - - -ry - - -ism - - -o - - -hood - - -ward - - -able - - -on - - -wise - - -an - - -ous - - - a - - -or - - -es - - -ual - - -ed - - -unt - - -er - - -um - - -est - - -us - - -y - - -ive Source: http://www.dyslexia.org/spelling_rules.shtml
  • 21. Spelling Rules (Cont.) Homonyms & Homophones HOMONYMS – words that sound similar, but have different meanings and spellings Example: affect-effect; they're-their-there; fell-fail Hint: Often, you can use affect as a verb. Verb: His rowdy behavior negatively affects (influences) many people. Hint: The word effect is used as a noun or verb. Noun: Researchers are studying the effects of the war on children. Verb: Only the president can effect (bring about or cause) positive changes. HOMOPHONE – a word (type of homonym) that is pronounced the same as another word. The words may be spelled differently or the same. Examples: foul (odor) / fowl (bird) or rose (flower) / rose (past tense of “rise”)
  • 22. Spelling Rules (Cont.) CONTRACTION -- A word or phrase that has been shortened by leaving out some of the letters is called a contraction. An apostrophe is used to show that the letters have been omitted (won’t - will not), (o’clock - of the clock).
  • 23. List of Homonyms / Practice Review the list. When we use the wrong homonym, we change the entire meaning of a sentence. Practice Examples (Which ones are correct and why?): (1)It’s time that people stop fighting. Its time that people stop fighting. (2)The cat hopped because it’s paw hurt. The cat hopped because its paw hurt. (3)Their heads appeared pointed and large. There heads appeared pointed and large. They’re heads appeared pointed and large.
  • 24. Spelling Rules – Capitalization Unless rules of capitalization are followed, a word can contain all of the correct alphabets in the correct order, yet still be wrongly spelled. • The names of holidays are capitalized (Christmas, Valentine’s Day). • The names of the months of the year and the days of the week are capitalized (January, Monday). • The names of countries and continents are capitalized (United States, Antarctica). • When you write the name of a particular avenue or street, capitalize the words avenue and street (Fifth Avenue, Oak Street). • The abbreviations Mr., Mrs. and Ms. are always capitalized and followed by a period (Mr. Smith, Mrs. Woods, Ms. Day). • The names of deities are capitalized (God, Allah, Buddha, Saviour). • The word republican is capitalized when it refers to the Republican party (The Republicans won the election.). • When words like senator and general are used as titles with a person’s name, they are capitalized (General Powell) • Capitalize the words capitol, senate, building, supreme and court when referring to the Capitol Building, the Senate, the Supreme Court of Canada.
  • 25. Spelling Rules (cont.) ~ SOME CUES to HELP YOU SPELL SPECIAL WORDS ~ Compound Words are made by writing two small words together to make one larger word. (news+ paper = newspaper; some + body= somebody) A root word is the root, or beginning word, from which another word is made. Play is the root word of plays, played and playing. Knowledge of roots can cue you into correctly spelling some words. (Remember the list of vocabulary roots I handed at the Writing Descriptively workshop.) Derived words are words that come from other words. Suitable is derived from suit; advertisement from advertise. Sometimes the spelling of the root word is slightly changed in the derived word.
  • 26. General Spelling Rules For Numbers Spell small numbers out in sentences. Small numbers, such as whole numbers smaller than ten, should be spelled out. Examples and Exceptions: 1.Ten students passed the exam. 2.Only 1000 students passed the exam. 3.One thousand students took the exam. (Spell out any number if it starts a sentence.) 4.Of the 1000 students that took the exam, only 25 passed it with at least a grade of D and only 9 students scored a grade of C or better on it. (Be as consistent as possible.)
  • 27. Parts Of Speech Different parts of speech are as follows: 1) Noun 2) Verb 3) Adjective 4) Adverb 5) Pronoun 6) Conjunction 7) Preposition 8) Interjection
  • 28. 1) A NOUN is a naming word. A noun names all sorts of things, such as: •a person •a place •an object •an idea •a quality •an animal
  • 29. A special kind of noun: Proper Nouns •Common nouns name general places, things, ideas, or people. •Proper nouns name specific places, things, ideas, or people. Common nouns: man, mountain, day Proper Nouns: John, Mount Fuji, Monday
  • 30. 2) A VERB describes what you are doing (action) or how you are being or feeling (abstract). Action Verbs: jump, run, sing, laugh, eat, fall, cook, remember, believe, think Abstract Verbs: am, want, own, seem, like, fear, owe, mind, need, belong, love Notice that action words are not always acts that a physical body or object does. Your mind can also perform some actions, like thinking. What matters about verbs (both types) is that they tell you what is happening!
  • 31. 3) An ADJECTIVE describes or modifies a noun. Example: "the tall teacher" The adjective tells you something about the noun  (teacher) -- that the teacher is tall. Example: "the slow computer" The adjective "slow" describes the noun  (computer).   
  • 32. 4) An ADVERB describes or modifies a verb. It tells you the way in which something happens. Example: "He spoke clearly." The adverb "clearly" tells you the way he spoke (verb). Example: "She sang well." The adverb "well" tells you the way she "sang" (verb).   
  • 33. 5) A PRONOUN acts like a noun, but stands in place of it. Example: "I love my bike. I ride it all the time." "Bike" is the noun. "It" is the pronoun, taking the place  of "bike." A pronoun is often used to avoid constant repetition of the same noun in a sentence.   
  • 34. You always need to know what the noun is first, before you can use a pronoun. Incorrect: I love it, and I always use it. The reader doesn't know what "it" refers to in these  sentences. Correct: I brought my lunch and ate it. "Lunch" is the noun, so "it" refers to the lunch.   
  • 35. 6) A CONJUNCTION joins two words, phrases, or sentences together. Example: "I love my bike. I ride it all the time." To join the two sentences into one sentence, use "and" as the conjunction: Like this: "I love my bike, and I ride it all the time."   
  • 36. 7) A PREPOSITION joins a noun, pronoun, or phrase to another part of the sentence. The preposition usually comes before the noun it refers to. That noun is the object of the preposition. "The dog jumped over the fence." Over is the preposition, and fence is its object.    Over the fence is called a prepositional phrase.   
  • 37. Prepositions often show location or position. •in the room •on the table •across the water •under the covers But prepositions are not always location words. They can link parts of a sentence in other ways and for other purposes.   
  • 38. 8) An INTERJECTION expresses emotion! oIt is often one word standing alone. oIt is often followed by an exclamation mark. Sometimes it may introduce a sentence, but it is not really connected in meaning to the events in the sentence.   
  • 39. Examples of Interjections • Wow! That's wonderful! • Ah! I see. • Okay, I believe you. • Ouch! That hurt! • You won! Hurray! • Well, that was interesting. Notice that there is not always an exclamation mark, and that the interjection is not always on its own.   
  • 40. Thank You Any Queries?