Cm Leung


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Cm Leung

  1. 1. Trends & Issues of Global e-Learning Professor C. M. Leung Vice President (Technology and Development) The Open University of Hong Kong 9th Hong Kong Web Symposium (6 December 2003)
  2. 2. Outline • Introduction: a macro perspective • Changing landscape: trends & issues • Some random thoughts
  3. 3. A Major Challenge Integrating technology & pedagogy for learning in a networked multimedia environment with keen local & global competitions for diversified learning & learners
  4. 4. International Distance Education Rensselaer Troy, NY CityU Hong Kong Time difference: 13 hours Early 1997 Distance: 8,000 miles
  5. 5. Equipment Setup In te rn e t / In tra n e t Instructor PC S erver PC v id e o c o n fe re n cin g b rid g e P ictureTel P ictureTel C ity U s e tu p R e n s s e la e r s e tu p
  6. 6. Evolution of Computing Technology cost centers productivity tools competitive advantage 2000’s (short) networked Increasing Interactivity (global) Internet Computing 1990’s (1 – 3 years) networked (local) Client-Server, PCs 1980’s (5 – 8 years) distributed Mini-Computers 1960’s (10 – 15 years) centralized Mainframes Time
  7. 7. Changing Paradigm of Learning networked learning community Increasing Interactivity (global) networked collaboration / teamwork (local) individual learning distributed master - apprentice centralized Time
  8. 8. Convergence of 3 Sectors technology The Perfect Storm business education corporatization of education
  9. 9. Changing Educational Landscape I. Borderless Education Boundaries crossed: • Level & type of education • Public & private • Not-for-profit & for-profit (public good vs. private gain) • Political boundaries: states & countries • Time & space (virtual learning environment; online learning programs)
  10. 10. Educational Providers international political boundary private public & & international international national private public & & national national private public funding
  11. 11. Changing Educational Landscape II. New Providers • Corporate universities (Microsoft Univ.) • Private & for-profit providers (U. of Phoenix) • Media & publishing businesses (Pearsons & Thompson Learning) • Educational brokers (Scottish Knowledge) • National virtual universities (African Virtual Univ.) • International consortia (Universitas 21) • Other forms of transnational education (collaborative; non-collaborative)
  12. 12. Information in Astronomy visible (50 years ago) Information radio NOW ! x - ray IR  - ray Frequency (Hz)
  13. 13. Trends & Issues Trends Issues • learner-centered • common core value • lifelong learning • quality assurance • open standards / access • accreditation • commercialization • qualification recognition • e-business practices • privacy & security • intellectual property rights
  14. 14. Some Thoughts on IT & Education
  15. 15. Hype Cycle technology peak trough of slope of plateau of Time trigger of inflated disillusionment enlightenment productivity expectations
  16. 16. IT Applications in Education Internet 2 Learning Portals Chat Rooms (Synchronous) Wireless Simulations (Compute-Intensive) Online Assessment Tools, Online Degrees Groupware, Outsourcers, Back Office Listservs/Discussion Lists Just-in-Time Training (CRM) Simulations (Simple) Online Courses e-Enrollment Mgmt./Reg./Billing Virtual Classrooms (Asynchronous) Virtual Libraries Training Management Virtual Classrooms (Synchronous) Time Technology Peak of Inflated Trough of Slope of Plateau of Trigger Expectations Disillusionment Enlightenment Productivity Source: Gartner Group
  17. 17. Other Random Thoughts • Lifelong learning (cf. software license) • Open source (e.g., Linux) • Other analogies – units of measurement (e.g., metric system) – currency (e.g., Euro) – universal adaptor
  18. 18. A Major Challenge Integrating technology & pedagogy for learning in a networked multimedia environment with keen local & global competitions for diversified learning & learners
  19. 19. Thank you !
  20. 20. Goals of Experiment  Explore the technical viability of synchronous distance learning using ISDN technology  Understand the cultural aspects of international education  Test the feasibility of “paperless” communications in teaching & learning
  21. 21. Course Information “Survival Skills for Research Scientists” • for graduate students in physics • from late January to mid-April, 1997 • 10 weekly sessions, each 1-1/2 hours long • classes start at 7 am in US, 8 pm in HK • 12 students from US; 20 students from HK • homework, in-class exercises, grant proposal, oral presentation, no exams
  22. 22. Course Content  information retrieval  technical writing  making presentations  basic research skills
  23. 23. Course Logistics In-class communications • visual and verbal --- PictureTel (30 fps) • data --- Internet using LearnLinc Communications outside of classroom • announcements by electronic mail • homework submitted in electronic form by ftp; graded and returned electronically by ftp • course notes distributed in printed form
  24. 24. Technical Requirements Software Hardware • room video-conferencing • LAN software (Novell) system (PictureTel) • Windows 95 • networked PCs with • Web browser Internet connectivity • LearnLinc I-Net • server PC • Microsoft Office • document camera • Scientific Work Place • video projectors & screens • video tape player/recorder
  25. 25. Higher Education in Hong Kong private part time public part time part time learning mode 1 – OUHK many non-local (HKMA) (self-financing) + overseas many (Deakins) public private full time full time full time 8 – UGCs a few (80% funding) (Shue Yan) public private funding source
  26. 26. The Learning Matrix e - learning different e - learning computer- self-paced based distance training learning TIME traditional interactive same classroom distance learning instruction e - learning same different PLACE
  27. 27. Critical Success Factors people Resource and process make things possible; people make things happen. obstacles in implementation process resource
  28. 28. Balance & Conflicts quality challenges In implementation access cost
  29. 29. Characteristics of the Web  Hypermedia (multimedia + hyperlinks)  Connectivity (links to other resources)  Interactivity (discussion + collaboration)  Flexibility (time + place + pace) Changing Educational Paradigms learner-centered, interactive, hypermedia cooperative, customized, just-in-time
  30. 30. The Technology Hype Cycle Key Visibility Will reach the “plateau” in: Portals Linux Less than two years Jini Bluetooth Two to five years Knowledge Biometrics Five to 10 years X Management More than 10 years Wearable XML X Computers Java Voice Over IP PDAs Language Synthetic X Characters E-Cash X Data Mining Text Mining xDSL/Cable Modems Smart Cards Digital Ink 3D Web X X Speech Recognition Peak of Quantum Slope of Plateau of Trough of Inflated Computing Expectations Disillusionment Enlightenment Productivity Technology Trigger Maturity
  31. 31. Applications of IT in Education Critical Improvements • breakdown of time & space • choice of learning style • mass education • personalized learning materials & services • easy and interactive access to learning resources • individualized tracking of learning processes • tools for fast search & retrieval of information • assessments & monitoring • learning on demand • communications between learners and teachers • learning communities
  32. 32. Trends & Issues pedagogy learner oriented, emphasis on interactive, collaborative, peer, and just-in-time learning technology less print oriented, less classroom bound, less labor intensive, more modular & portable challenges distribution, scalability, laboratory work, integration of technology & pedagogy
  33. 33. Problems & Issues (I) institutional lack of expertise & resources; resistance to change; ingrained infrastructure miscellaneous copyright issues; censorship against access academic staff: heavy workload, no incentive pedagogical pedagogical effectiveness not proven not suitable for certain subjects
  34. 34. Problems & Issues (II) technological bandwidth: availability, distribution language: input method, search engine, software social rich vs. poor: affordability digital divide --- have’s & have-not’s cultural language barrier: most websites are in English computer illiteracy: lack basic computer skills
  35. 35. E - Learning information What is e-learning ? study material It is a learning environment for delivering communication interactive multimedia education assessment using the WWW as a communication medium. management
  36. 36. Learning Environment Provider feedback knowledge mechanism (medium) delivery Learner method Learning involves communications !
  37. 37. Teaching is a Learning Learning & process ! wisdom teaching / pedagogy learning / antragogy knowledge information data numbers graphs interpretation
  38. 38. Terminology cyber education digital learning electronic (e) Internet (i) instruction online teaching virtual training Web-based data information knowledge wisdom
  39. 39. Balanced Scorecard (when applied to an organization) Financial Customer Learning Internal & Process Innovation Developed by David Norton & Robert Kaplan in early 1990s.
  40. 40. What is the trend ? • Shift toward Web-centric teaching/learning • Fast adoption of distance-learning technologies by traditional universities • Commercialization of “high-profit” courses and programs • Proliferation of online course offerings • Adoption of e-business practices
  41. 41. Lifelong learning: How much time or effort ? Learning required by a knowledge worker: • a college degree every 27 years • 4-1/2 weeks per year • 45 minutes every work day
  42. 42. Astronomy, IT & Management
  43. 43. What is Information Technology ? • IT is the technology associated with information handling and processing (e.g., collection or production, manipulation or organization, recording, storage, retrieval, display, interpretation, transmission, and distribution). • IT results from the merging or convergence of three technologies: computing, telecommunications, and microelectronics. • UNESCO definition: IT is the scientific, technological and engineering disciplines and the management techniques used in information handling and processing, their applications, computers and their interaction with men and machines, and associated social, economic and cultural matters.
  44. 44. What is Multimedia ? Use of a computer with links & tools to present and that let the user combine • navigate • text • create • graphics / images • communicate • animation • collaborate • sound [interact] • video Multimedia is not mixed media !
  45. 45. What is NOT Multimedia ? • mixed media • no computer to provide interactivity • bookshelf • no links to indicate structure & dimension • movie • no navigational tools to decide course of action • television * • cannot create and contribute one’s ideas * You can navigate a TV by switching channels.
  46. 46. About the OUHK Facts & Figures Academic Program • • Kowloon, Hong Kong 4 Schools • • Science & Technology established in 1989 (OLI) • • Business & Admin. university status in 1997 • • Arts & Social Sciences self-financing, non-profit • • Education & Languages open & distance learning • • open to anyone >17 years LiPACE (continuing & of age (working adults) professional) • • over 22,000 students CRIDAL (research) • • average student age: 33 110 sub-degree & degree • 520 staff + 1300 pt tutors programs • • about 120 academic staff 380 credit-bearing courses • • annual budget: HK$500M No face-to-face instruction
  47. 47. Vision of IT Development To create an environment and culture in which appropriate technologies can be effectively deployed to support and enhance all OUHK activities, both in learning and support for our students and in administration for our staff. Use IT to enhance interaction, promote communication, or facilitate operations.
  48. 48. IT Development Plan Take a holistic approach ! student student learning support environment Period: 3 years (2000-03) services Budget: HK$100M Over 70 projects/tasks staff external support & relations IT training
  49. 49. Measure of Success Take a holistic approach ! effectiveness You cannot manage or improve what you do not measure. quality of experience
  50. 50. Criterion for Effective Use To what extent has the new technology been deployed to perform tasks that cannot be accomplished with the old one ? [If you can still go backward, you have not really succeeded in moving forward.] Examples: electronic presentation vs. transparencies motion picture vs. live stage performance
  51. 51. Some Final Thoughts
  52. 52. Some Other Thoughts • Serendipity and human networking • Order-of-magnitude estimates to decision- making • Research vs. administration – solve own problems vs. others’ problems – deal with inanimate objects vs. people – wreck your brain vs. your guts
  53. 53. Thank you ! Questions ?
  54. 54. Evolution of Economic Growth Knowledge Age Increasing Complexity Information Age Industrial Age Agricultural Age Time
  55. 55. Outline • Higher Education Trends in Hong Kong • OUHK’s Strategies in Hong Kong • Higher Education Trends in Mainland China • OUHK’s Strategies in Mainland China • IT development at the OUHK
  56. 56. Evolving Web Functionality collaborate (process) Increasing Functionality workflow, fulfillment, settlement transact queries, payments, funds transfer interact forms, registration, games publish information, advertizing, marketing Time or Maturity
  57. 57. Real-Time Enterprise (RTE) RTE: enterprise that compete by using up-to-date information to progressively remove delays in managing and executing its critical business processes. Time is money ! Objective: do business faster and smarter.
  58. 58. OUHK Mission & Vision • Mission – To make higher education available to adults, principally through a system of open access and distance education • Key Values – believe in open access of HE to all those aspiring to it, regardless of previous qualification, gender or race – provide a variety of courses to meet lifelong learning needs – strive for excellence in teaching, scholarship, research and public service – provide sustainable courses & programs affordable to students – use appropriate ICT to support learning • Vision – Strive to be a leader among universities providing learning opportunities by open and distance education, and to excel as a provider of HE in general
  59. 59. Critical Success Factors  Commitment (what separates excellence from mediocrity)  Communication (secret to success; pass it on)  Cooperation (problems becomes opportunities)  Courage (taking a chance in spite of our fears)  Creativity (the best way to predict the future is to create it) Change into something greater than we already are !
  60. 60. cost diamond
  61. 61. Non-local HE Providers • No. of providers: – 150 educational institutions (UK, Australia,…) – 40 professional bodies • Qualifications offered: – degrees: bachelor, master & doctoral – professional memberships • Programs: 645 total – 327 registered (via HK Council for Academic Accreditation) – 318 exempted (via local institutions)
  62. 62. Trends & Challenges pedagogy learner oriented, emphasis on interactive, collaborative, peer, and just-in-time learning technology less print oriented, less classroom bound, less labor intensive, more modular & portable challenges distribution, scalability, laboratory work, integration of technology & pedagogy
  63. 63. Changing Paradigm for Learning learner-centered teacher-centered Traditional: broadcast learning teacher as facilitator teacher as transmitter New: interactive learning construction, discovery instruction learning how to learn absorbing materials hypermedia learning linear, sequential individual work cooperative learning interdisciplinary specialized, disciplinary just-in-time learning stable content customized one-size-fits-all continuous, life-long one-time learning
  64. 64. Governance of Public Universities • Education and Manpower Bureau (EMB) – funded: 7 universities & 1 institute • (HKU, CUHK, HKUST, CityU, PolyU, Baptist U, Lingnan U, HKIEd) – self-financing: OUHK • Five advisors – Education Commission – University Grants Committee (UGC) – Research Grants Council (RGC) – HK Council for Academic Accreditation (HKCAA) – Vocational Training Council (VTC)
  65. 65. UGC Institutions - Statistics 1991 - 92 1996 - 97 2000 - 01 Sub-degree 14,001 14,540 13,212 Undergraduate 29,199 45,965 45,645 Postgraduate 4,279 8,517 9,939 Total (FTE) 47,480 69,022 68,796 Total (headcount) 64,942 85,550 81,472 Participation rate (*) 13.0% 18.1% 16.7% Total Grant (HK$B) $6.46 $11.64 $14.06 Cost per FTE student $136K $168K $204K % of education expend. 33.2% 30.8% 27.2% % of public expenditure 6.0% 5.5% 5.1% (*) = % of age group (age 17-20) provided with FYFD places
  66. 66. EC’s Reform Proposal (2000) • Establish a lifelong learning ladder – a “diversified higher education system” • universities • post-secondary colleges • continuing education – characteristics • student-focused • flexible academic structure • a transferable credit unit and qualification system • diversity • multiple entry and exit points • Move towards a four-year university system
  67. 67. Higher Education Trends in HK • Education is top priority (Government pledge) • Diversified higher education sector: – multiple entry, multiple exit – change of funding mechanism and model • By 2010, 60% of secondary school graduates will have access to post-secondary education • Emergence of Associate Degree • HK$5B Continuing Education Fund
  68. 68. Widening Access: 60% Target A bout 30% 18% D egree   D eg ree F irst-y ear   H ig h er first-d eg ree D ip lo m a   A sso ciate S u b-degree A bout 12% d eg ree 18% F irst-y ear 12% P ro fessio n al  su b -d eg ree FYFD d ip lo m a FYSD P u b lic P riva te 30%: to S6/7 30%: post-secondary 85%: S3 proceed to S4/5 100%: 9 Year Education up to S3
  69. 69. Recent Government Initiatives Associate Degree Continuing Ed. Fund • community college concept • total: HK$5B • self-financing • up to HK$10K per applicant • $1000 land, interest-free loan • degree holders not eligible as start up incentive • at least 500,000 to benefit • 2001, first year: 2400 places • limited to 6 sectors: • 2002: > 4000 new places China Business, Design, • almost all public universities Language, Logistics, Tourism, Financial Services offer it
  70. 70. UGC’s Higher Education Review Rationale Implication Establish a credit accumulation and transfer system • facilitate articulation of AD recipients funding dictated by student • enhance student mobility among enrollment ( more competition) institutions Maintain dual funding system & expand role of RGC • UGC block grant for infrastructural support; competitive project expanding role of of RGC to other funds through RGC research funding sources ( more • RGC as vetting agent for other uniform funding criteria) sources of research funding UGC to conduct periodic self-audit and another HE review in 5 years • review responsibilities & operations; long-term existence of UGC adjust to changing needs ensured
  71. 71. Strategies of the OUHK in Hong Kong
  72. 72. Vision of IT Plan To create an environment and culture in which appropriate technologies can be effectively deployed to support and enhance all OUHK activities, both in learning and support for our students and in administration for our staff.
  73. 73. Thank you ! Professor Chun Ming LEUNG Vice President (Technology & Development) The Open University of Hong Kong 30 Good Shepherd Street, Homantin Kowloon, HONG KONG Email: