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Psychology Assignment Learning & Memory


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  • 1. Federal Urdu University ofArts, Science & TechnologyOrasoft Training InstitutePsychologyLearning & MemoryASSIGNMENTBy:Shoaib Anwer (BBA6-07)To:Sir Owais
  • 2. LearningWe learn from the things that happen to us ­ our experiences. For example, we learned thatlightning is followed by thunder, we learned not to tell lies because it can cause us to lose ourcredibility and to lose our friends, or that we learned how to dance by watching othersdemonstrate dance steps to us.Orienting ResponseInborn tendency to notice and repsond to stimuli or surprising events collection of responses thatassist in “blocking out” the event. For example with a loudsound the pupils constrict and heartrate increases. It turns out that novelty is a tricky term to define. The sound of a certain person’svoice (your mother’s) may be routine at home, but may well elicit an Orienting Response at aparty this Friday night.Classical ConditioningIn classical conditioning, an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another. The                       organism learns that the first stimulus is a cue for the second stimulus. In Pavlov’s experiment,                             the tuning fork cued the dogs that food might be coming.Pavlo DiscoveryTo experiment on classical conditioning, Pavlov utilized a tuning fork and meat powder. He hit                           the tuning fork and followed the sound with the meat powder. Pavlov presented the sound                           (tuning fork) with the meat powder at the exact same time increments. In the beginning, the dog                               salivated only to the meat powder, but after this was repeated, salivated at the sound of the                               tuning fork. Even when Pavlov took away the meat powder, the dog continued to salivate at the                               sound of the tuning fork.Unconditional StimuliA stimulus that elicits a response without conditioning such as tuning fork and no salivation in the                               mouth of dog.Unconditional ResponseAutomatic response elicited by the unconditioned stimulus, after tuning fork the dog reacts no                         salivation before meat powder and when the dog sees meat powder it starts salivation in his                             mouth.Conditional StimuliA neutral stimulus that when paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) elicits a similar                         response. As conditioned stimulus the dog automatically responds the salivating as tuning fork                       rings,
  • 3. Conditional ResponseA response that is learned by pairing the originally neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) with the                           unconditioned stimulus (UCS), if the meat powder is not put in the mouth of dog the dog will still                                   salivate because its conditioned.Basic Principles of Classical ConditioningAcquisitionThe acquisition phase is the consistent pairings of the CS (bell) and the UCS (food) that                             produces a CR (salivation). In the example above, this phase occurs when the dog begins to                             salivate at the sound of the bell. Conditioning occurs more rapidly when the food follows the bell                               by a half a second.ExtensionThe extinction phase is when the conditioned response no longer occurs after repeated pairings                         without the unconditioned stimulus. The dog’s response to the bell can be extinguished by                         repeatedly presenting the bell (CS) without the food (UCS). The dog has not completely                         forgotten the association between the bell and the food. If the experimenter waits a day, the dog                               may have a spontaneous recovery of the conditioned response and salivate again to the bell.Spontaneous recoverySpontaneous recovery is a phenomenon of learning and memory which was first seen in                         classical (Pavlovian) conditioning and refers to the re­emergence of a previously extinguished                     conditioned response after a delay.GeneralizationOccurs when there is a small difference in the presented stimulus and the original conditioned                           stimulus.   If Pavlov’s dog heard a bell of a similar tone, the dog would still salivate.DiscriminationThe opposite of generalization, discrimination happens when a conditioned response does not                     occur when there is a difference between the presented stimulus and the original conditioned                         stimulus. If Pavlov’s dog heard a bell with a different tone and was not awarded the                             unconditioned stimulus (food), the dog would learn not to salivate to the second tone.PhobiaA phobia is an irrational and excessive fear of an object or situation. In most cases, the phobia                                 involves a sense of endangerment or a fear of harm. For example, those suffering from                           agoraphobia fear being trapped in an inescapable place or situation.
  • 4. Operant ConditioningOperant conditioning forms an association between a behavior and a consequence, For                     example, you might tell a friend that youll buy dinner for them since they helped you move, or a                                   parent might explain that the child cant go to summer camp because of her bad grades.Law of EffectThe law of effect basically states that “responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular                             situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a                           discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation.Operant ChamberAn operant conditioning chamber (also known as the Skinner box) is a laboratory apparatus used                           in the experimental analysis of behavior to study animal behavior.The three­term contingencySometimes a response will have certain consequences; sometimes it will not. Our daily                       behaviour is guided by many different kinds of discriminative stimuli, For example, consider                       answering the telephone. The phone rings, you pick it up and say ‘hello’ into the receiver. Most of                                 the time, someone on the other end of the line begins to speak.● Positive ReinforcementPositive reinforcement refers to an increase in the frequency of a response that is regularly and                             reliably followed by an appetitive stimulus. Your enjoyment of the food (the appetitive stimulus)                       reinforces your going to the restaurant and ordering dinner (the response).● Positive ReinforcementNegative reinforcement refers to an increase in the frequency of a response that is regularly and                             reliably followed by the termination of an aversive stimulus. An aversive stimulus is unpleasant or                           painful.● PunishmentPunishment refers to a decrease in the frequency of a response that is regularly and reliably                             followed by an aversive stimulus.Other operant procedures and phenomenaShapingShaping involves reinforcing any behaviour that successively approximates the desired                 
  • 5. response. Imagine that we want to train a rat to press a lever when a red light is lit The lever on                                         the wall of the chamber is attached to an electrical switch that is wired to electronic control                               equipment or a computer.Intermittent reinforcementThe term intermittent reinforcement refers to situations in which not every occurrence of a                         response is reinforced. The relation between responding and reinforcement usually follows one                     of two patterns: each response has a certain probability of being reinforced, or responses are                           reinforced after particular intervals of time have elapsed.● Fixed Ratio ScheduleA fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement involves offering reinforcement only after a specified                       number of responses. Collecting Tokens in a Video Game: In many video games, you have to                             collection so many tokens, object, or points in order to receive some type of reward.● Variable ratio scheduleThe variable­ratio schedule is a schedule of reinforcement where a response is reinforced after                         an unpredictable number of responses.Call centers often offer random bonuses to employees.                     Workers never know how many calls they need to make in order to receive the bonus, but they                                 know that they increase their chances the more calls or sales they make.● Fixed interval scheduleA fixed­interval schedule is a schedule of reinforcement where the first response is rewarded                         only after a specified amount of time has elapsed.A weekly paycheck is a good example of a                               fixed­interval schedule. The employee receives reinforcement every seven days, which may                   result in a higher response rate as payday approaches.● Variable interval scheduleA variable­interval schedule is a schedule of reinforcement where a response is rewarded after                         an unpredictable amount of time has passed.Checking Your Email: Typically, you check your                       email at random times throughout the day instead of checking every time a single message is                             delivered.Generalization and DiscriminationGeneralizationDiscrimination results when different situations occasion different responses based on the                   contingencies of reinforcement. Inappropriate stimulus generalization occurs when those               different situations fail to produce discriminative operant responding. Generalization is not always                     inappropriate and occurs when you respond the same to two stimuli that are not identical.For                           example, a child may learn to say "apple" when it sees the drawing of an apple in a book. If the                                       
  • 6. child later says "apple" when it sees an orange on the street, it has generalized between the two                                 distinct stimuli.DiscriminationIn operant conditioning responding only when a specific discriminative stimulus is present but not                         when similar stimuli are present.● Primary reinforcera biologically significance appetitive stimuli such as food or water.● Primary Punisherbiologically significance aversive stimuli such as pain.● Condition reinforcerAssociation with a primary reinforcer some time referred to as secondary reinforcer.
  • 7. MemoryMemory is the process of encoding, storing and retrieving information. Encoding refers to the                         active process of putting stimulus information into a form that can be used by our memory                             system.● EncodingThe process by which sending information is converted into a form that can be used by the brain                                 memory system.● StorageThe process of maintaining information in memory.● RetrievalThe active process of locating & using storage information.Types of MemorySensory MemorySensory memory is memory in which representations of the physical features of a stimulus are                           stored for a very brief time, perhaps for a second or less.For example, sensory memory                           contains a brief image of a sight we have just seen or a fleeting echo of a sound we have just                                       heard.Short Term Memoryimmediate memory for stimuli that have just been perceived. Its capacity is limited in terms of                             the number of items that it can store and of its duration. For example, most people who look at                                   the set of numbers 1 4 9 2 3 0 7 close their eyes and recite them back, will have no trouble                                         remembering them. If they are asked to do the same with the following set they might have a little                                   more trouble: 7 2 5 2 3 9 1 6 5 8 4 Very few people can repeat 11 numbers. Even with practice, it                                             is difficult to recite more than 7–9 independent pieces of information that you have seen only                             once.Long Term Memoryinformation that is represented on a permanent or near permanent basis. Unlike short­term                       memory, long­term memory has no known limits and, as its name suggests, is relatively                         durable.Sensory MemorySensory memory refers to the initial, momentary recording of information in our sensory                       systems. When sensations strike our eyes, they linger briefly in the visual system. The person’s                           
  • 8. sensory system records information as a raw and non­meaningful stimulus: e.g., a fly that sat on                             your nose in the park this morning, the sound of the car that passed by you, or the feel of the dry                                         leaf that landed on your head when you were waiting for the bus.● Iconic MemoryThe information gathered by our visual sense is reflected by the iconic memory; memory in the                             visual domain .● Echoic MemoryThe information coming from our auditory sense is dealt with by the echoic memory; i.e.,                           Memory for sounds.Short Term / Working Memoryshort­term memory to refer to the ability to hold information in mind over a brief period of time. As                                   conceptions of short­term memory expanded to include more than just the brief storage of                         information. The term working memory is now commonly used to refer to a broader system that                             both stores information briefly and allows manipulation and use of the stored information.This                       system is higher in functioning than sensory memory, as it stores information in terms of                           meaning and not just simple sensory stimulation. Short­term memory retains information for 15                       to 25 seconds, unless it is moved into the long­ term memory.● Primacy EffectThe tendency to remember the words at the beginning of the list is called the primacy effect.● Recency EffectThe tendency to remember words at the end of the list is called the recency effect.Limits of working MemoryThe experimenters presented participants with a stimulus composed of three consonants, such                     as JRG. With rehearsal, the participants easily recalled it 30 seconds later. They prevented                         participants from rehearsing. After they presented the participants with JRG, they asked them to                         count backwards by three from a three­digit number they gave them immediately after they had                           presented the set of consonants.● ChunkingThe information stored in short­term memory is in the form of a single unit, comprising several                             chunks. A chunk is an understandable or meaningful set or grouping of stimuli e.g., “001023” can                             be learnt as “0 0 1 0 2 3” OR “00 10 23”.
  • 9. Learning & Encoding in Long Term MemoryMemory involves both active and passive processes. Sometimes, we use deliberate strategies                     to remember something (encode the information into long term memory), for example,                     rehearsing the lines of a poem or memorising famous dates for a history exam.Consolidation HypothesisThis transfer of information from short­term memory into long­term memory has been called                       consolidation Through rehearsal for example, by means of the articulatory loop, the neural                       activity responding to sensory stimulation can be sustained; and if enough time passes, the                         activity causes structural changes in the brain. These structural changes are more or less                         permanent and solid hence, the term consolidation, and are responsible for long­term memory.● Levels of processing Hypothesis1. Shelo ProcessingThe analyses of the superficial characteristics of a stimuli such as it size or                         shape. for example the a very big mobile phone.2. Deep ProcessingThe analyses of the complex characteristics such as its meaning or its                     relationship. such as talking styles of people or smell of that fragrance.Improving Long Term Memory through MnemonicsWhen we can imagine information vividly and concretely, and when it fits into the context of what                               we already know, it is easy to remember later, Mnemonic systems do not simplify information                           but make it more elaborate. More information is stored, not less. However, the additional                         information makes the material easier to recall. Mnemonic systems organise new information                     into a cohesive whole so that retrieval of part of the information ensures retrieval of the rest of it.Method of LociA mnemonic system in which items to be remembered are mentally associated with specific                         physical locations. For example, if a person wanted to remember a short shopping list without                           writing it down and the list consists of five items: cheese, milk, eggs, soy sauce and lettuce, the                                 person might first think of a familiar place, perhaps their house. Next, they would mentally walk                             through the house, visually placing different items from the list at locations.Peg­word methodA similar technique, the peg­word method, involves the association of items to be remembered                         with a set of mental pegs that are already stored in memory.
  • 10. The Organisation of long term memoryEpisodic memoryEpisodic memory provides us with a record of our life experiences. Events stored there are                           autobiographical and there appears to be cross­cultural agreement on when such memories are                       acquiredSemantic MemorySemantic memory consists of conceptual information such as general knowledge; it is a                       long­term store of data, facts and information. Our knowledge of what psychology is, the names                           of the authors of this book.Explicit MemoryMemory can be discovered verbally and of which a person is therefore aware.Implicit MemoryMemory that cannot be described verbally and which a person is not aware.RememberingTip of the tongue phenomenaAn occasional problem with retrieval of occasional problem that we sure we know but can not                             immediately remember.Retrieval CuesContextual variables includes physical objects recall information from memory.