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  • 1. World Population Dynamics
  • 2. Population Distribution
    • Population distribution is where people live, this can be on a global, regional or local scale.
    • Places with lots of people usually have habitable environments they either:
    • wealthy and industrial e.g. Europe, Japan etc.
    • poor with rapidly growing populations e.g. India, Ethiopia
    • Places with few people are usually hostile environments, e.g. Antarctica, Sahara Deserts, Alaska etc.
  • 3.  
  • 4. Areas of Large Population
    • River Valleys.
    • e.g. Ganges valley in India, Rhine valley in Germany, Indus Valley in Pakistan.
    • Lowlands Plains.
    • e.g. Denmark (very low lying and famous for dairy farms), East Anglia in the UK (good location for growing cereals)
    • Area rich in natural resources.
    • Coastal Plains.
    • e.g. New York in the U.S.A.
  • 5. The Population Explosion
  • 6. Population Explosion a recent event
    • Last 200 years or less for MDCs
      • Industrial Revolution
      • Improvement in sanitation and medicine
    • Last 50 years or less for LDCs
      • Transfer of technology, i.e. medical, agricultural (Green Revolution)
  • 7. Components Influencing Pop. Growth
    • The Pop. of a country changes because of the relationship between:
    • the birth rate — number of live births per
    • 1000 of the population per year.
    • the death rate — number of deaths per 1000
    • of the population per year.
    • migration — number of people moving into
    • or out of a country.
  • 8. Rates of Global Pop. Change
    • CBR (crude birth rate) = number of births per 1000 population
      • 1990: 24 Today: 21.3
    • CDR (crude death rate) = number of deaths per 1000 population
      • 1990: 9 Today: 8.93
    • growth rate = birth rate - death rate (often in %)
      • 1990: 1.5% Today: 1.3%
      • growth rates have come down
  • 9. Special Kinds of Fertility and Mortality Rates
    • TFR (total fertility rate) =
      • number of children born to a woman during her reproductive years (or life time)
      • 1990: 3.1 2000: 2.8
    • IMR (infant mortality rate) =
      • infant deaths per 1000 live births (infant < 1 yr)
      • 1990: 62 2000: 56 (1900: 200)
  • 10. Pop. Growth and Resources
    • The relationship b/w the population grwoth and the resources can be understand by the following three key concepts:
    • Overpopulation — when pop. is more than the available resources.
    • Under population — when pop. is less than the available resources.
    • Optimum population — when population is a/c to the available resources.
  • 11. Factors Affecting Pop. Growth
    • 2. Leading to a high
    • death rate
    • Health Care
    • Infant mortality rate
    • Better hygiene
    • Life expectancy
    • HIV/AIDS
    • 1. Leading to a high birth
    • rate
    • Health Care
    • Preference for sons
    • Early marriages
    • Need for human labor
    • Lack of information on family planning
  • 12.
    • 3. Migration
  • 13. Percentage Population Change 1900-1990 5 7 10 11 16 23 27 25 33 33 Death rate 27 34 42 45 46 44 39 31 32 34 Birth rate                     MEXICO 7 7 7 8 9 10 11 13 13 16 Death rate 14 15 17 27 27 22 24 29 34 27 Birth rate                     CANADA 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 13 15 17 Death rate 15 16 16 23 25 20 22 27 30 33 Birth rate                     USA 1990 1980 1970 1960 1950 1940 1930 1920 1910 1900 COUNTRIES
  • 14. Consequences of Pop. Growth Benefits Problems
  • 15.
    • Benefits:
    • Problems:
    • Competition for jobs
    • Competition for housing
    • Educational opportunities
    • Shortage of food supply
    • Sanitation and sewage
    • Transportation
    • Health care
    • Controls:
    • Incentives and penalties
    • Family planning
  • 16. Population, population change, growth rates
    • Population: number of persons
    • Population change: increase in the number of persons (per year)
    • Growth rates: rate of change (per year)
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20. Doubling Time
    • Number of years in which a population reaches twice its size
    • doubling time can be approximated using growth rates
    • doubling time = 69 : growth rate
      • rate: 1.4 doubling time: 49
      • rate: 2.0 doubling time: 34.5
      • rate: 0.5 doubling time: 138
      • rate: -0.5 doubling time: ????
  • 21. Population Pyramids
    • Graphic device: bar graph
    • shows the age and gender composition of a region
    • horizontal axis: gender
      • male: left-hand female: right-hand
      • absolute number of people or %
    • vertical axis: age
      • 5-year or 10-year age groups
  • 22. The Demographic Transition
  • 23. Five Stages of the Demographic Transition
    • birth rates, death rates and growth rates systematically change through time as societies change:
      • modernize, urbanize
      • gain access to technology
  • 24. Stage 1
    • high birth rates, high (at time erratic) death rates, low growth rates
    • stage for much of human history, traditional societies
    • practically no country today
  • 25. Stage 2
    • high birth rates, declining death rates, rising growth rates
    • improvements in sanitation (water) and medicine
    • in Europe during Industrial Revolution
    • in developing countries since the 50s/60s
    • much of Africa today, some countries of Asia (Afghanistan, Nepal, etc.)
  • 26. Stage 3
    • continued decline of death rates, declining birth rates, growth rates decline from high to lower levels
    • change in behavior: adaptation to lower death rate, in particular infant mortality rate
    • economic change: urbanization (incentive to have fewer children)
    • E.g. Mexico, China
  • 27. Stage 4 & 5
    • Stage 4: low birth rates, low death rates, low growth rates
      • United States today
    • Stage 5: low birth rates, rising death rates, declining growth rates (if birth rates drop below death rates: negative growth rates)
      • Western Europe, Japan
  • 28. Population Pyramid with young cohorts
  • 29. Population Pyramids and Demographic Stages
    • characteristics shapes of ‘pyramids’
      • wide base (true pyramid)
      • wide middle (bulge), somewhat wider base
      • urn- or bottle-shaped
      • reversed pyramid
    • different shapes--different dynamics
  • 30. Population Pyramid and Demographic Transition
    • Stage 2: wide base
  • 31. Population Pyramid and Demographic Transition
    • stage 3: wide middle
  • 32. Population Pyramid and Demographic Transition
    • stage 4: slender
  • 33. Population Pyramid and Demographic Transition
    • stage 5: narrow base
  • 34. Population Dependency in LEDCs & MEDCs
    • Population dependency is a ratio comparing the number of working age (16-64)* with the number of dependents (0-15 and over 65)*.
    • It’s normally written as a single number which is the number of dependents for every one hundred people of working age.
    • * The range of these age group can be vary.
  • 35. Dependency Ratio = no. of children(0-15) + old people(65+)x100 no. of people of working age (16-64)
    • Example:
    • The dependency ratio for the UK (1995)
    • in millions == 11,360 + 9,029 x100 == 53.84
    • 37,867
    • This means that for every 100 economically active
    • people , there are nearly 54 people are dependent.
    • Note that: D.R.  50-60  MEDCs
    • D.R.  60-100  LEDCs
  • 36.  
  • 37. use: International Data Base http:// www.census.gov/ipc/www/idbnew.html , then Online Demographic Aggregation
  • 38. Frequency of Vital Events: The Population Clock
    • Population Clock
    • http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html
    • Vital Events (per time unit)
    • http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/ipc/pcwe
    • The global population reached 6 billion in fall of 1999
  • 39. Population Pyramids
    • Population Pyramids on the Web
    • http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idbpyr.html