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IoT - Apps & Services

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Presented at Technology Challenges for the Internet of Things 2011 – Winter School …

Presented at Technology Challenges for the Internet of Things 2011 – Winter School

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  • Introduce CONTEXT
  • ACID properties (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability),
  • We so far described out to extract information and storeBy definition, a middleware “is a software layer or a set of sub-layers interposed between the technological and the application levels
  • Standardized Service Contracts, Service Loose Coupling, Service Abstraction, Service Reusability, Service Autonomy, Service Statelessness, Service Discoverability, Service Composability, Service-Orientation and Interoperability
  • Fitbit (it’s just an accelerometer)
  • Transcript

    • 1. Internet of Things Applications/Services Diogo Gomes <dgomes@ua.pt> Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 2. source GSMA, 2011 Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 3. source GSMA, 2011 Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 4. Information is produced 24/7 Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winterhttp://embedded-computing.com/current-trends-cyber-attacks-mobile-embedded-systems Source: School
    • 5. What have we achieved so far…• We have connected billions of devices to the Internet, but… – What are we doing with it ? • We are following a 1 sensor 1 application model – We have create vertical silos of information • Energy information is kept by the Energy Company • Home automation is a self-contained application – We have over engineered our solutions • e.g. wireless mesh networks in well served locations • e.g. using generic sensing platforms to monitor limited amount of variables Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 6. Technology Challenges for the InternetSource: of 2011, Gartner Hype Cycle28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 7. … what are we targeting?• What is done with all this information?• Who gathers this information?• Who stores this information?• Potential for new IoT Applications and Services – New players who do not own or operate any IoT devices – New players who are in charge of managing Information and providing new applications and services to users Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 8. M2M vs IoT Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 9. M2M vs IoT New Service Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 10. IoT Services• The vision of an Internet of Things has changed the concept of a service from traditional notion of web services.• In the Internet of Things domain, the term ‘service’ refers to enhancing real world resources with interaction support.• These so-called “real world services” are provided by resources that are linked directly to the physical world.• The resources have sensing, processing or actuating devices that provide information on entities in the real world, provide interactions or generate events about them. Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 11. IoT and the IoS• IoT is about connecting “things” to the Internet.• IoS will be about what we do with the information provided by those Data Information “things” – IoT can gather data, but it is up to the IoS to process that data into Information and Knowledge. IoT IoS• IoS will enable the control and management of real world resources Actions Information and devices – IoT will provide the actuators, by which the Virtual/Service world will interact with the real world. Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 12. IoT deployment Internet Data Information Knowledge Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 13. IoS - Internet of Services• IoS is about the software fabric that will connect service providers and consumers• IoS will enable the exchange of information and knowledge between internet users (both human and machines)• In order to achieve this goal, IoS requires data• IoT will enable data to flow Anytime, Anyplace, with Anything and Anyone, ideally using Any path/network and Any service Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 14. How to connect the IoT to the IoS• The IoT must export interfaces to the IoS• Connecting devices to the Internet – Directly: e.g. 6lowpan – Indirectly: through service gateways• IoT is very heterogeneous – Multiple Technologies, Multiple Information Sources• How to overcome such heterogeneity ? – Through Semantic Interfaces – Through Data Mining – Through Machine Learning Techniques Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 15. Semantic Interfaces• Semantic interoperability can be achieved between heterogeneous information systems (service providers and service requestors) in a multitude of ways. – development of comprehensive shared information models can facilitate semantic interoperability among the participant applications and businesses • Problem: it is rigid and inflexible when it comes to business processes – appropriate semantic mediators (translators) at each participant’s end, to facilitate the conversion to the information format which the participant understands • Problem: add’s complexity to all participants (many IoT devices to not have enough resources for these semantic mediators) Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 16. Data Mining• An alternative and/or complementary approach is to use Data Mining techniques to extract information from the raw data collected by IoT devices. – Through processes such as: • Classification • Cluster Analysis • Regression Analysis • Structured Data Analysis – Each IoT device can have their own interface and data representation format. – The IoS Application/Service will take the task to sort out relationships between collect data. Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 17. Machine Learning• At a higher level we will find machine learning techniques that will assist us at creating relationships between the collected information, and at extracting knowledge from the IoT. – Relevant Machine Learning techniques include • Sparse Dictionary Learning • Representation learning • Artificial neural networks • Support Vector Machines Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 18. How to store IoT Data ? Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 19. What to do with all the collect Information?• When we consider that we have billions of connected devices all publishing information we are faced with data gathering and storage issues: – We require a distributed network capable of aggregating and processing information on the network before it reaches the storage servers – We require a highly efficient storage architecture that efficiently store and process all data collected Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 20. Storing Information• There are currently two main solutions to store information – Relational Databases (traditionally referred to as SQL- based), which are based on the relational model in which information is stored in rows and grouped into tables – NoSQL Databases, a more recent technology that tries to overcome some of the relational databases problems related to performance and scalability at the expense of some of the ACID properties of relational databases. Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 21. NoSQL Solutions• NoSQL is not a class by itself, but a set a different technologies that do not adhere to the traditional relational model. – Key/Value Store – Wide Column Store – Document Oriented• Most NoSQL storage systems are also schemaless, or schema-free, where no schema is configured or enforced when using the database. – This is an important aspect when considering the heterogeneity of IoT Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 22. We collect and properly store information Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 23. Creating IoT Services and Applications• How to develop and execute applications on top of the collect information and knowledge?• A middleware architecture approach is of importance in the IoT domain due to its role in simplifying the development of new services and integration of legacy technologies into new ones Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 24. IoT middleware platforms B2B / B2C Web Portais Applications API’s Service Delivery Platform OSS Information/Knowledge Management Smart Objects Management WAN : 2G/3G/LTE, xDSL, GPON Sensor/Device Networks Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 25. Service Creation and Deployment• Most middleware architectures follow SOA approaches, and adhere to it’s principals, providing: – service composition environment. – abstracting the devices’ functionalities and communication capabilities, – provision of a common set of services Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 26. Examples of middleware’s• Several research projects have proposed middleware platforms – FP7 PERSIST: proposed a P2P middleware – FP7 ICT m:Ciudad project: middleware as a mobile application (Service Creation Kit) – FP7 SENSEI: Service creation and composition is handled by a Task Plan Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 27. Pachube• Pachube is a web service that enables a user to store, share and discover real time data from objects.• It is a generalized real time data brokerage platform, that facilitate interaction between remote environments, both physical and virtual• It is based on the concept of feeds and datastreams, – Feed corresponds to a single location (for example a house), – Datastream is the information associated to a given sensor with that location (for example temperatures, power consumption).• Pachube provides two modes for data capture: – pull method (automatic feed type), where data is collected from an http server; – push method (manual feed type) where data is written to Pachube using an http client. Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 28. Evrythng• Evrythng provides an unique online identity and profile for any physical object – allows users to create an active digital presence for any sort of physical object and to share information about these real things in real time – allows sharing active information about objects to enable others to build services and applications around those objects.• A Thng is a unique identity and profile for an object in Evrythng – accessed through a globally unique URI on the Web and through the Evrythng API toolkit Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 29. XCoA• XCoA is a Broker-based Context Management Architecture built around the XMPP protocol – It is built on top of the results of EU FP7 project C-Cast – Built on Federation principals – Provided as an adaptation and control layer independent of Context Sources and Applications• Context is described through XML documents exchanged between parties• CxB PubSub stores context information into a NoSQL db. Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 30. Standards• Mostly focused on M2M• ETSI – Proposes an Horizontal Architecture for M2M service deployment – Standardizing IT friendly API’s based on HTTP/REST• 3GPP – Still focused on communication aspects• OMA – BBF TR069 & OMA DM – data models for ETSI M2M device management Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 31. Standards• W3C Semantic Sensor Networks Incubator Group (SSN-XG) – has developed an ontology for describing sensors. – models the sensor from device, process and system point of views. – It includes different operational, device related and quality of information attributes that are related to sensing devices. – describes the operational range, battery and power and environmental ranges that are specified for sensor devices. – Information gathered by a sensor is out of scope of SSN-XG• W3C Ubiquitous Web Applications Group – Follow on to former Device Independence WG – Plus broadened focus on Ubiquitous Web Applications – Looking for people interested in working on • device abstraction layer for web applications • enabling applications across multiple devices • content adaptation for multi-channel delivery Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 32. IoT Applications/Services Business Opportunities• Added Value Services with clear value proposition for users• Supplement low profit margins on devices with services• Built upon tested models – Service contracts – Pay as you go – Advertisements – Freemium Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 33. Conclusion• IoT is of no value without an interconnection with the IoS through service API’s• IoT poses several important requirements on: – Scalability – Heterogeneous Interfaces – Storage – Middleware platforms• There are several commercial and academic endeavors in the area of IoT Applications and Services, but not enough standardization.• I’ve intentionally left Security, Privacy and Ethical issues out of this presentation  Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 34. “The most profound technologies are those thatdisappear. They weave themselves into thefabric of everyday life until they areindistinguishable from it”. – (Mark Weiser in The Computer for the 21st Century) Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School
    • 35. Thank you for your attention… …Questions? Technology Challenges for the Internet of28/01/12 - dgomes@ua.pt Things 2011 – Winter School

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