10 leadership web

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  • 1. LEADERSHIP
  • 2. The Issues Definition of interpersonal power The bases of power Common leadership models The selection and training implications of each model How to manage neutralizers and substitutes for leadership
  • 3. Comments on Power & Politics “Power is America’s last dirty word. It is easier to talk about money—and much easier to talk about sex —than it is to talk about power.” (Kantor, 1979, p. 65). “…those who love laws and sausages should not watch either being made…. We honor leaders for what they achieve, but we often prefer to close our eyes to the way they achieve it” (Pfeffer, 1992, p. 33). “…the qualities required for leadership are not necessarily those that we would want our children to emulate—unless we wanted them to be leaders” (Pfeffer, 1992, p. 33).
  • 4. Interpersonal Power Definition The ability to influence others and maintain control over your own fate
  • 5. Bases Of Power Le ate itim g ard ew R ive erc Co Ref (ch ere ar i s n t ma tic) Ex pe Re so rt u rc e
  • 6. Legitimate Power Exists when one person believes that another person has the right to influence him or her (authority)
  • 7. Reward Power Exists when one person believes another person can and will provide or withhold rewards
  • 8. Coercive Power Exists when one person believes another person can and will provide or withhold punishment
  • 9. Referent (Charismatic) Power Exists when one person finds another attractive and wants to be associated with or affiliated with that person
  • 10. Expert Power Exists when one person believes another person has desired expertise and is willing to share or withhold it
  • 11. Resource Power Exists when one person believes that another person has desired (nonexpert) resources and is willing to share or withhold them
  • 12. Principles of Power Power is perception based Power is relative Power bases must be coordinated Power is a double-edged sword (used and abused)
  • 13. LEADERSHIP Definition: An interpersonal process in which influence is exercised in a social system for the achievement of organizational goals by others Purpose To achieve organizational and personal goals To develop commitment to the organization To be satisfied with the leadership process
  • 14. FOR DISCUSSION Good leaders are born One “best kind” of leader ? ? Anyone can become a good leader Match leader to situation
  • 15. ORGANIZING PERSPECTIVE Theoretical Approach Focal Construct Universal Traits Behaviors Contingent Universal Traits SituationContingent Traits Universal Behaviors SituationContingent Behaviors
  • 16. UNIVERSAL LEADERSHIP TRAITS MODEL Assumption: Possible to identify the person who has “the right stuff” to be a good leader in any situation Some Purported Traits Physical characteristics Social background Intellectual ability Personality Cont.
  • 17. UNIVERSAL LEADERSHIP TRAITS MODEL Assumption: Possible to identify the person who has “the right stuff” to be a good leader in any situation Some Purported Traits Physical characteristics Social background Intellectual ability Some Promising Traits Personality Energy level Self-confidence Need for achievement Need for power Cont.
  • 18. A CONTEMPORARY UNIVERSAL TRAIT MODEL? Transformational (Charismatic) Leadership Transactional Leaders Focus on selfinterest through exchange with the organization (the Path-Goal Model is an example) Transformational Leaders Focus on development of trust, confidence, admiration, loyalty, and commitment. This is an inspirational leader. Cont.
  • 19. TRAITS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS High self-confidence Articulates a vision Assumes personal risk to pursue vision Uses unconventional strategies Perceives self as change agent
  • 20. UNIVERSAL LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS MODEL Assumption: Possible to identify the behaviors required to be a good leader in any situation Initiating Structure Consideration The degree to which a Behavior leader clarifies and The degree to which a defines roles for leader attends to the followers welfare, comfort, needs, and satisfaction of followers Cont.
  • 21. UNIVERSAL BEHAVIORS EXAMPLE M ANAGERIAL GRID™ 9,9 Team M gt Concern for People High 1,9 Country Club Mgt Organization M an M gt 5,5 Authority- Impoverished Obedience Low 1,1 9,1 Concern for Low High Production From Leadership Dilemmas - Grid Solutions, by Robert R. Blake and Anne Adams McCanse. © 1991 by Robert R. Blake and the Estate of Jane S. Mouton.
  • 22. SITUATION-CONTINGENT LEADERSHIP TRAITS MODEL Assumption: Possible to create a match between the situation and traits of the leader Logic Find stable leader characteristics Find important situational characteristics Find or produce a match between leader and situation Example Fiedler’s Contingency Model Cont.
  • 23. FIEDLER’S CONTINGENCY MODEL Key Leader Trait Relationship- vs. task orientation Key Situational Characteristics Degree to which the leader or followers have control over the situation Called “situational favorableness” and measured by Leader-member relations Task structure Leader position power Cont.
  • 24. LEADER-SITUATION MATCHES & PERFORMANCE LeaderMember Relations Task Structure Position Power Preferred Leadership Style Good Poor High Low High Low Structure Structure Structure Structure Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power 1 2 3 Low LPCs Middle LPCs 4 5 6 High LPCs 7 8 Low LPCs
  • 25. SITUATION-CONTINGENT LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR MODEL Assumption: Possible to create a match between the situation and the behaviors of the leader Logic Help followers perform effectively by providing direction Make rewards (thus, satisfaction) contingent on performance Be perceived as instrumental in obtaining satisfaction Example Evans & House’s Path-Goal Model Cont.
  • 26. KEY LEADER BEHAVIORS Directive (structure) Supportive (consideration) Achievement-oriented (creating and defining challenges and opportunities to succeed) Participative (involving followers in problem-solving and decision-making)
  • 27. SITUATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS Followers Authoritarianism Locus of control Task-related ability Need for achievement Environmental Nature of task (structuring? rewarding?) Formal authority (does leader have authority?) Primary work group (structuring? rewarding?) Cont.
  • 28. SELECTION & TRAINING IMPLICATIONS Theoretical Approach Focal Construct Universal Traits Behaviors Contingent Universal Traits SituationContingent Traits Universal Behaviors SituationContingent Behaviors
  • 29. SELECTION & TRAINING IMPLICATIONS UNIVERSAL TRAIT MODEL Identify critical traits Find people with these traits and appoint them leaders Encourage leaders to exhibit key traits
  • 30. SELECTION & TRAINING IMPLICATIONS UNIVERSAL BEHAVIOR MODEL Identify critical behaviors Find people with these behaviors and appoint them leaders OR Teach leaders to behave appropriately Encourage leaders to behave appropriately
  • 31. SELECTION & TRAINING IMPLICATIONS SITUATION-CONTINGENT TRAIT MODEL Assess critical situation characteristics Assess traits of leaders Place leaders into situations where traits will be effective OR (Re)Engineer situation so current leaders’ traits become effective
  • 32. SELECTION & TRAINING IMPLICATIONS SITUATION-CONTINGENT BEHAVIOR MODEL Assess characteristics of followers (e.g., personality) Assess characteristics of the environment (e.g., task structure, authority, group factors) Appoint leaders who behave appropriately for situation OR Teach leaders how to behave for situation OR Change situation to match behavior of leader
  • 33. NEUTRALIZERS OF AND SUBSTITUTES FOR LEADERSHIP Neutralizers Substitutes Factors that reduce the ability of leaders to exert influence Factors that reduce the necessity for leadership
  • 34. POTENTIAL NEUTRALIZERS Indifference toward (or unavailability of) organizational rewards Low leader position power Environmental inflexibility (e.g., rigid rules & procedures) Limited interaction of leaders and followers
  • 35. POTENTIAL SUBSTITUTES Follower ability, training, and experience Professional orientation of followers Task structure (routine, unambiguous) Feedback from the task itself Intrinsically satisfying tasks Work group cohesiveness Formalization (e.g., plans, goals, responsibilities) Leader
  • 36. The Issues Definition of interpersonal power The bases of power Common leadership models The selection and training implications of each model How to manage neutralizers and substitutes for leadership