Wildlife of India
The wildlife in India comprises a mix of species of different types of organisms.
Apart from a
handful of the major farm animals such as cows, buffaloes, goats, poultry, pigs & sheep, India
has an amazingly wide variety of animals native to the country. It is home to Bengal
lions, Leopards, Pythons, Wolves,Foxes, Bears, Crocodiles, Rhinoceroses, Camels, Wild
dogs, Monkeys, Snakes, Antelope species, Deer species, varieties of bison and not to mention
the mightyAsian elephant. The region's rich and diverse wildlife is preserved in 89 national parks,
18 Bio reserves and 400+ wildlife sanctuaries across the country.India has some of the most
biodiverse regions of the world and hosts three of the world’s 34 biodiversity hotspots – or
treasure-houses – that is the Western Ghats, the Eastern Himalayas and Indo- Burma.
India is home to a number of rare and threatened animal species, wildlife management in the
country is essential to preserve these species.
According to one study, India along with 17
mega diverse countries is home to about 60-70 % of the world's biodiversity.
India, lying within the Indomalaya ecozone, is home to about 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6%
of avian, 6.2% of reptilian, and 6.0% of flowering plant species.
Many ecoregions, such as
the shola forests, also exhibit extremely high rates of endemism; overall, 33% of Indian plant
species are endemic. India's forest cover ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman
Islands, Western Ghats, and Northeast India to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya. Between
these extremes lie the sal-dominated moist deciduous forest of eastern India; teak-dominated dry
deciduous forest of central and southern India; and the babul-dominated thorn forest of the
central Deccan and western Gangetic plain.
Important Indian trees include the medicinal neem,
widely used in rural Indian herbalremedies. The pipal fig tree, shown on the seals of Mohenjo-
daro, shaded the Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment.
Many Indian species are descendants of taxa originating in Gondwana, to which India originally
belonged. Peninsular India's subsequent movement towards, and collision with,
the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic
change 20 million years ago caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms. Soon
thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes on either side
of the emerging Himalaya.As a result, among Indian species, only 12.6% of mammals and
4.5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of
Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the brown and
carmine Beddome's toad of the Western Ghats. India contains 172, or 2.9%, of IUCN-designated
threatened species. These include the Asiatic lion, the Bengal tiger, and the Indian white-
rumped vulture, which suffered a near-extinction from ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-treated
In recent decades, human encroachment has posed a threat to India's wildlife; in response, the
system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was substantially
expanded. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard
crucial habitat; further federal protections were promulgated in the 1980s. Along with over 515
wildlife sanctuaries, India now hosts 18 biosphere reserves, four of which are part of the World
Network of Biosphere Reserves; 26 wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.
The varied and rich wildlife of India has had a profound impact on the region's popular culture.
The common name for wilderness in India is Jungle, which was adopted into the English
language. The word has been also made famous in The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling. India's
wildlife has been the subject of numerous other tales and fables such as the Panchatantra.
India is home to several well-known large mammals, including the Asian Elephant, Bengal
Tiger, Asiatic Lion, Leopard,Sloth Bear and Indian Rhinoceros. Some other well-known large
Indian mammals are: ungulates such as the rare Wild Asian Water buffalo,
common Domestic Asian Water buffalo, Gail, Gaur, and several species of deer and
antelope. Some members of the dog family, such as the Indian Wolf, Bengal
Fox and Golden Jackal, and the Dhole or Wild Dogs are also widely distributed. However,
the dole, also known as the whistling hunter, is the most endangered top Indian carnivore,
and the Himalayan Wolf is now a critically endangered species endemic to India.[citation
It is also home to the Striped Hyena, Macaques, Languors and Mongoose species.
The need for conservation of wildlife in India is often questioned because of the apparently
incorrect priority in the face of direct poverty of the people. However, Article 48 of the
Constitution of India specifies that, "The state shall yendeavour to protect and improve the
environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country" and Article 51-A states
that "it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural
environment including forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife and to have compassion for living
Large and charismatic mammals are important for wildlife tourism in India, and several
national parks and wildlife sanctuaries cater to these needs. Project Tiger, started in 1972, is
a major effort to conserve the tiger and its habitats.
At the turn of the 20th century, one
estimate of the tiger population in India placed the figure at 40,000, yet an Indian tiger
census conducted in 2008 revealed the existence of only 1,411 tigers. 2010 Tiger census
revealed that there are 1700 tigers left in India.
The passing of the Forest Rights Act by
the Indian government in 2008 has been the final nail in the coffin and has pushed the Indian
tiger to the verge of extinction. Various pressures in the later part of the 20th century led to
the progressive decline of wilderness resulting in the disturbance of viable tiger habitats. At
the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)
General Assembly meeting in Delhi in 1969, serious concern was voiced about the threat to
several species of wildlife and the shrinkage of wilderness in India. In 1970, a national ban
on tiger hunting was imposed, and in 1972 the Wildlife Protection Act came into force. The
framework was then set up to formulate a project for tiger conservation with
an ecological approach. However, there is not much optimism about this framework's ability
to save the peacock, which is the national bird of India. George Schaller wrote about Tiger
"India has to decide whether it wants to keep the tiger or not. It has to decide if it is
worthwhile to keep its National Symbol, its icon, representing wildlife. It has to decide if it
wants to keep its natural heritage for future generations, a heritage more important than the
cultural one, whether we speak of its temples, the Taj Mahal, or others, because once
destroyed it cannot be replaced."
Illustration of a Himalayan Quail fromA. O. Hume's work. Last seen in 1876
The exploitation of land and forest resources by humans along with hunting and trapping for
food and sport has led to the extinction of many species in India in recent times. These
species include mammals such as the Indian/Asiatic Cheetah, Wild Zebu, Javan Rhinoceros,
and Sumatran Rhinoceros.
While some of these large mammal species are confirmed
extinct, there have been many smaller animal and plant species whose status is harder to
determine. Many species have not been seen since their description.
Some species of birds have gone extinct in recent times, including the Pink-headed
Duck (Rhodonessa caryophyllacea) and the Himalayan Quail (Ophrysia superciliosa). A
species of warbler, Acrocephalus orinus, known earlier from a single specimen collected
by Allan Octavian Hume from near Rampur in Himachal Pradesh, was rediscovered after
139 years in Thailand.
Forestry in India
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Part of a series on the
Wildlife of India
Forestry in India is a significant rural industry and a major environmental issue.
Dense forests once covered India. As of 2002, the Food and Agriculture Organisation of
the United Nations estimates India's forest cover to be about 64 millionhectares, or 19.5% of the
country's area. However, in terms of availability of forest land per person in India, the rate is one
of the lowest in the world at 0.08 ha, against an average of 0.5 ha for developing countries and
0.64 ha for the world. Forest degradation is a matter of serious concern.
In 2002, forestry industry contributed 1.7% to India's GDP.
In 2010, the contribution to GDP
dropped to 0.9 %, largely because of rapid growth of the economy in other sectors and the
government's decision to reform and reduce import tariffs to let imports satisfy the growing Indian
demand for wood products.
India produces a range of processed forest (wood and non-wood) products ranging from wood
panel products and wood pulp to make bronze, rattazikistan ware and pern resin. India's paper
industry produces over 3,000 metric tonnes annually from more than 400 mills.
and craft industry is another consumer of wood.
India's wood-based processing industries consumed about 30 million cubic metres of industrial
wood in 2002.
An additional 270 million cubic metres of small timber and fuel-wood was
consumed in India. An important cause for suboptimal wood use is its relatively low price
because of subsidies on wood raw materials and free fuel-wood supply.
India is the world's largest consumer of fuel-wood.
India's consumption of fuel-wood is about
five times higher than what can be sustainably removed from forests.
However, a large
percentage of this fuel-wood is grown as biomass remaining from agriculture, and is managed
outside forests. Fuel-wood meets about 40 % of the energy needs of the country.
Around 80 %
of rural people and 48 % of urban people use fuel-wood.
Unless India makes major, rapid and
sustained effort to expand electricity generation and power plants, the rural and urban poor in
India will continue to meet their energy needs through unsustainable destruction of forests and
fuel wood consumption.
India's dependence on fuel-wood and forestry products as a primary energy source is not only
environmentally unsustainable, it is claimed[by whom?]
to be the primary cause of India's near-
permanent haze and air pollution.
Forestry in India is more than just about wood and fuel. India has a thriving non-wood forest
products industry, which produces latex, gums, resins, essential oils, flavours, fragrances and
aroma chemicals, incense sticks, handicrafts, thatching materials and medicinal plants. About
60 % of non-wood forest products production is consumed locally. About 50 % of the total
revenue from the forestry industry in India is in non-wood forest products category.
non-wood forest products were a source of significant supplemental income to over 400 million
people in India, mostly rural.
Recent developments in Indian forestry
Over the last 20 years, India has reversed the deforestation trend. Specialists of the United
Nations report India's forest as well as woodland cover has increased. A 2010 study by the
Food and Agriculture Organisation ranks India amongst the 10 countries with the largest
forest area coverage in the world (the other nine being Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada,
United States of America, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Australia, Indonesia
India is also one of the top 10 countries with the largest primary forest
coverage in the world, according to this study.
From 1990 to 2000, FAO finds India was the fifth largest gainer in forest coverage in the
world; while from 2000 to 2010, FAO considers India as the third largest gainer in forest
Some 500,000 square kilometres, about 17 % of India's land area, were regarded as Forest
Area in the early 1990s. In FY 1987, however, actual forest cover was 640,000 square
kilometres. Some claim, that because more than 50 % of this land was barren or bushland,
the area under productive forest was actually less than 350,000 square kilometres, or
approximately 10 % of the country's land area.
India's 0.6 % average annual rate of deforestation for agricultural and non-lumbering land
uses in the decade beginning in 1981 was one of the lowest in the world and on a par
In 2002, India set up a National Forest Commission to review and assess India's policy and
law, its effect on India's forests, its impact of local forest communities, and to make
recommendations to achieve sustainable forest and ecological security in India.
made over 300 recommendations including the following:
India must pursue rural development and animal husbandry policies to address local
communities need to find affordable cattle fodder and grazing. To avoid destruction of
local forest cover, fodder must reach these communities on reliable roads and other
infrastructure, in all seasons year round.
The Forest Rights Bill is likely to be harmful to forest conservation and ecological
security. The Forest Rights Bill became a law since 2007.
The government should work closely with mining companies. Revenue generated from
lease of mines must be pooled into a dedicated fund to conserve and improve the quality
of forests in the region where the mines are located.
Power to declare ecologically sensitive areas must be with each Indian state.
The mandate of State Forest Corporations and government owned monopolies must be
Government should reform regulations and laws that ban felling of trees and transit of
wood within India. Sustainable agro-forestry and farm forestry must be encouraged
through financial and regulatory reforms, particularly on privately owned lands.
India's national forest policy expects to invest US$ 26.7 billion by 2020, to pursue nationwide
afforestation coupled with forest conservation, with the goal of increasing India's forest cover
from 20 % to 33 %.
The role of forests in the national economy and in ecology was further emphasised in the
1988 National Forest Policy, which focused on ensuring environmental stability, restoring the
ecological balance, and preserving the remaining forests. Other objectives of the policy were
meeting the need for fuelwood, fodder, and small timber for rural and tribal people while
recognising the need to actively involve local people in the management of forest resources.
Also in 1988, the Forest Conservation Act of 1980 was amended to facilitate stricter
conservation measures. A new target was to increase the forest cover to 33 % of India's land
area from the then-official estimate of 23 %. In June 1990, the central government adopted
resolutions that combined forest science with social forestry, that is, taking the sociocultural
traditions of the local people into. The cumulative area afforested during the 1951-91 period
was nearly 179,000 square kilometres. However, despite large-scale tree planting
programmes, forestry is one arena in which India has actually regressed since
independence. Annual fellings at about four times the growth rate are a major cause.
Widespread pilfering by villagers for firewood and fodder also represents a major decrement.
In addition, the 1988 National Forest Policy noted, the forested area has been shrinking as a
result of land cleared for farming and development programmes.
Between 1990 and 2010, as evidenced by satellite data, India has reversed the
deforestation trend. FAO reports India's rate of forest addition has increased in recent years,
and as of 2010, it is the third fastest in the world in increasing forest cover.
The 2009 Indian national forest policy document emphasises the need to combine India's
effort at forest conservation with sustainable forest management. India defines forest
management as one where the economic needs of local communities are not ignored, rather
forests are sustained while meeting nation's economic needs and local issues through
Endangered Animals in India | Top 8 Endangered Animals
Here is a list of critically endangeredanimals in India and this does not limited to land
animals only, there are several marine species that are undergoing rapid population
decline. Some of the foremost reasons for the decline is widespread hunting,
overfishing, and pollution. Let’s take a look at these critically endangered animals.
Critically Endangered Animals in India
The Sumatran rhino belongs to thefamily of Rhinocerotidae and is one of the five extant
rhino species. Of all the rhinoceros family, Sumatran rhino is the smallest member. The
shoulder height of Sumatran rhino measures around 112 – 145 cm (3.67 – 4.76 feet),
with the length measuring at 2.36 – 3.18 meters (7.7 – 10.4 feet) excluding tail. They
have a tail measuring up to 35 – 70 cm (14 – 28 inches). The weight of these species
measure around 500 – 1,000 kg (1,100 – 2,200 lb), along with the mean weight
measuring at 700 – 800 kg (1,500 – 1,800 lb), the heaviest measured at 2,000 kg (4,400
lb). The Sumatran rhinoceros, like other rhinos, display two horns that typically
measures at 15 – 25 cm (5.9 – 9.8 inches). The Sumatran rhinos once lived in the
swamps, cloud forests, and tropical rainforests in Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Laos,
Thailand, Indonesia, China, and Bangladesh. In the primitive times, these animals
dwelled in the southwest China. Unfortunately they are now critically endangered
species as no more than 275 individuals are left in the wild. The Sumatran rhino is
mostly a solitary species except for the courtship and offspring-rearing.
Sumatran Rhinoceros (Courtesy wwf.panda.org)
Hawksbill Sea Turtle | Endangered Animals in India
The hawksbill sea turtle belongs to the family of Cheloniidae and is criticallyendangered
species. These turtles inhabit all throughout the Pacific range and are also found in
Atlantic and indo-pacific regions. The hawksbill sea turtles look very much similar to that
of aquatic turtles. In general, they have horizontal body together with flipper-like arms
that supports them for swimming. Depending entirely on the water temperature, the
hawksbill shells fairly change their colors. They spend most of their time in shallow
lagoons and coral reefs. On the negative side, the population of these turtles faced
drastic decline thus making them endangered species. Human fishing practices are
mainly responsible for this much reduction.
Hawksbill Sea Turtle
The gharial is a crocodile that belongs to the family of Gavialidae and is endemic to the
Indian Subcontinent. Gharial is also known as fish-eating crocodile. Since the crocodile
underwent both chronic as well as rapid short-term decline it is listed as critically
endangered species by the IUCN. These species are very small at birth; hatchlings
measure around 37 cm (15 inches), but they can reach a length of 1 meter (3.3 feet) in
about eighteen months. The mean weight is up to 159 – 250 kg (350 – 550 lb). The
length of the males measures around 3 – 5 meters (9.8 – 16 feet), while females reach a
length of 2.7 – 3.75 meters (8.9 – 12.3 feet). One of the largest gharial crocodiles was
hunted in Gogra River of Faizabad in 1927 measuring at 6.5 meters (21 feet). These
species are too quick underwater. They are known to reach a speed of 40 km/h (25
Ganges Shark | Endangered Animals in India
The Ganges shark is a rare species of requiem shark that is native to the Ganges River
of India. However, since bull shark and Ganges shark dwells in the Ganges River,
Ganges sharks are also referred to as bull shark which is incorrect. Ganges shark is
characterized by its wide rounded and small eyes. These shark species display gray-
brownish color, lacking marked pattern. True to its name, Ganges shark inhabit in the
waters of western and
India; West Bengal Ganges Brahmaputra, Hooghly River, Bihar, Orissa, Assam, and
Mahanadi in particular. These sharks are only found in inshore marine, freshwater, and
estuarine systems. The length of the Ganges shark is 55 – 60 cm at birth with
the maximum length it reaches is 2 meters (6.6 feet). They are classified as highly
endangered species by the IUCN. Widespread overfishing and hunting makes these fish
at the verge of extinction.
Asiatic Lion | Endangered Animals in India
The Asiatic lion also called Indian Lion, is a subspecies of a lion. These lions are usually
found in the Gir Forests of Gujarat (India). Asiatic lions are placed amongst the five
major extant cats in India such as clouded leopard, tiger, snow leopard, and Bengal
tiger. These lions inhabit all along the northeast Indian Subcontinent. The adult males
reach a length of 340 mm (13 inches), while females measure at 266 – 277 mm in
length. The weight of these species is up to 160 – 200 kg (350 – 440 lb) in males, while
females weigh around 110 – 120 kg (240 – 260 lb). The longest Asiatic lion ever
recorded was at 292 cm (115 inches), with the maximum shoulder height is up to 107
cm (42 inches). Asiatic lions are considered to be highly social animals and they tend to
live in smaller groups. They primarily prey on antelope, wild boar, sambar, chital, water
buffalo, and chinkara.
Asiatic Lion (Courtesy thehindu.com)
Woolly Flying Squirrel
The woolly flying squirrel is the lone species of genus Eupetaurus. Not more than 11
skins were gathered in the 19th century but the latest research development reveals out
that there are some individuals dwelling in the Pakistani part of Kashmir. According to a
study, woolly flying squirrel is the most massive gliding animal known and it glides
efficiently like other flying squirrels. They are known to reside in Gilgit (Pakistan). Some
of the specimens have also been caught in Gorabad, Yunnan (China), Tibet, Chitral
(Pakistan), and Balti Gali. These animals prefer to live in the conifer forests that are
related to the cliffs and caves. The length of these squirrels measure around 45 – 60 cm
(18 – 24 inches)
Woolly Flying Squirrel (Courtesy wonders-world.com)
Sei Whale | Endangered Animals in India
The sei whale is a baleen whale and is being the third-largest rorqual that comes after
the blue whale and fin whale. Sei whale is known to occupy almost all the major oceans
including deep offshore water except in Polar Regions and tropical waters. These
animals migrate each year from cool waters to the moderate or subtropical waters in
summer. They reach a length of around 19.5 meters (64 feet), with the weight measures
at 28 tonnes (28 short tons). The sei whale consumes as much as 900 kg (2,000 lb). The
sei whale preys on krill, zooplankton, copepods, and cetaceans. They are capable to
reach a speed of about 50 km/h (31 mph) through in short bursts.
Wild Water Buffalo
The wild water buffalo also known as Asian Buffalo, is a large bovine endemic to
theSoutheast Asia. These animals are regarded as highly endangered species by the
IUCN. There are no more than 4,000 individuals left in the wild, amongst which 3,100
lives in Assam, India. These buffaloes are the second largest bovid that comes after the
gaur. The African buffalo is closely associated with the water buffalo. These buffaloes
weigh as much as 700 – 1,200 kg (1,500 – 2,600 lb). They can reach a length of 240 –
300 cm (94 – 120 inches), with a tail measuring at 60 – 100 cm (24 – 39 inches). Wild
water buffalo measures around 150 – 190 cm in shoulder height.
Wildlife conservation as a government involvement
The Wildlife Conservation Act was enacted by the Government of India in 1972. Soon after
the trend of policy makers enacting regulations on conservation a strategy was developed to
allow actors, both government and non-government, to follow a detailed "framework" to
successful conservation. The World Conservation Strategy was developed in 1980 by the
"International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources "(IUCN) with advice,
cooperation and financial assistance of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
and the World Wildlife Fund and in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
The strategy aims to "provide an intellectual framework and
practical guidance for conservation actions."
This thorough guidebook covers everything
from the intended "users" of the strategy to its very priorities and even a map section
containing areas that have large seafood consumption therefore endangering the area to
over fishing. The main sections are as follows:
The marking off of a sea turtle nest. Anna Maria, FL. 2012.
The objectives of conservation and requirements for their achievement:
1. Maintenance of essential ecological processes and life-support systems.
2. Preservation of genetic diversity that is flora and fauna.
3. Sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems.
Priorities for national action:
1. A framework for national and subnational conservation strategies.
2. Policy making and the integration of conservation and development.
3. Environmental planning and rational use allocation.
Priorities for international action:
1. International action: law and assistance.
2. Tropical forests and drylands.
3. A global programme for the protection of genetic resource areas.
1. Tropical forests
2. Deserts and areas subject to desertification.
As “major development agencies” became “discouraged with the public sector” of
environmental conservation in the late 1980s, these agencies began to lean their support
towards the “private sector” or non-government organizations (NGOs).
In a World Bank
Discussion Paper it is made apparent that “the explosive emergence of nongovernmental
organizations” was widely known to government policy makers. Seeing this rise in NGO
support, the U.S. Congress made amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act in 1979 and
1986 “earmarking U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funds
From 1990 moving through recent years environmental conservation in
the NGO sector has become increasingly more focused on the political and economic impact
of USAID given towards the “Environment and Natural Resources”.
After the terror attacks
on the World Trade Centers on September 11, 2001 and the start of former President
Bush’s War on Terror, maintaining and improving the quality of the environment and natural
resources became a “priority” to “prevent international tensions” according to the Legislation
on Foreign Relations Through 2002
and section 117 of the 1961 Foreign Assistance
Furthermore in 2002 U.S. Congress modified the section on endangered species of
the previously amended Foreign Assistance Act.
Cause and Effects
Pollution corrupts the natural environment cycle, most importantly water. Water is at the bottom
of the food chain meaning everything needs water: plants, animals and humans are all water-
based.There are natural, intentional, and accidental causes of pollution to water and air.
Natural causes are those of which we don't control, such as; volcanoes, tsunamis, and
earthquakes. There are 1,900 active volcanoes acting as vents for the earths' core. Added to
magma, lava and ashes, volcanoes further have a multitude of gases. Two main gases that are
included in eruptions are carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Carbon dioxide is agreenhouse
gas that can cause global warming and health problemsif nearby excessive amounts.
Whilesulfur dioxide promotes global cooling but is also an ingredient to acidic rain. During the
eruption of volcanoes, gases combine in the air over time and become apart of our water cycle
making harmful substances to all life. It's believed human activity causes more pollution than a
volcano. (Quick Links above)
Intentional causes are those of which we do deliberately; Industrial and agricultural
waste. Industrial waste is when chemical and acidic products are dumped because of the
expensive and difficult disposal into the natural environment. Agriculturalwaste comes from water
runoff unfortunately containing chemicals and pesticides from farmlands. Even the smallest
damages like oil dripping from your car can be washed down into the ground where other water
collects and contaminates.
Accidental causes are not on purpose but caused from human activities. Consistent oil spilling
in the ocean, accidental littering to the titanic sinking are all unintentional catastrophes. In 2010,
BP had the largest oil leak yet, killing livestock of fish and other animals. Prey, including humans,
can be polluted from eating contaminated livestock. Water cooling stations can also be
considered pollution, the smallest changes in water can hurt animals because of the change in
Since 1807, The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),have been
comprehending and predicting climate, weather, including oceans and coasts activities Insuring
people are aware of their surroundings. Additionally conserving the ecosystem, depositing
millions into coastal maintenance in turn protecting life and natural resources.(Quick Links
The uncontrollable gases of the earth combined with human activity causes global warming.
Major greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere are sorted as; anthropocentric causes
(man-made) and natural causes, even both combined. Global warming is taking bamboo
from panda bears, homes of penguins, and lives of polar bears, salmon, and puffins.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is naturally emitted through photosynthesis into organic matter.
Unfortunately there are anthropocentric causes of this byproduct, such as; combustion of fossil
fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal) for our electricity and transportation, solid waste, trees and wood
products. Current levels of carbon dioxide are over 380 parts per million by volume (ppmv), the
highest level the earth has ever seen over the past 20 million years. The only way it can be
removed is through plants and the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide has a low global warming
potential (GWP) of 1 but persists in the atmosphere for thousands of years.
Methane(CH4) is from agricultural causes such as livestock and the decay of organic waste in
landfills. Sources of methane also reside in the
and transportation of oil, natural gas and coal. CH4 has a GWP of 21 in other words it would take
21 pounds of CO2 to equal 1 CH4. Higher GWP means the gas traps more energy and heat in a
pound. Methane has a higher GWP than carbon dioxide although it's in the atmosphere for about
Nitrous oxide (aka. laughing gas or N2O ) has been used for multiple occasions over the
centuries. In the 1800's the British upper class used nitrous oxide for a recreational drug and
even round the bend parties. In 2003, kids the age of 12 and older reportedly abused laughing
gas more than marijuana, a medical drug. Recreational use of nitrous can reduce red cell blood
count leading to nerve and organ damage. CO2 becomes forbidden to leave the body, reducing
oxygen flow to the brain causing hyperventilation, seizures, asphyxiation and death because of
the replacement of oxygen. Nitrous oxide has also been used medically as an anesthetic,
numbing pain,and as fuel in cars and planes. Nitrous oxide is a byproduct from industrial
production of nitric acid used for synthetic fertilizer. Farmers add a nitrogen based synthetic
fertilizer to soil which by far brings the most N2O agricultural pollution. Nitrous oxide has a GWP
of 310 and lasts in the atmosphere for about 100 years, capable of holding the most heat.
The Mighty Dollar
Now you might see the biggest cause of these threatened, endangered, and extinct animals.
Money is something everyone wants, everyone "needs" because money is power. People will do
anything for money, like; going to a dead end job that you hate for a little cash, hunting down
animals for fur, or even hunt people for another. There are so many crazy things people will do
for money cause you can do what you want or pay for what you really need like rent, food and
Deforestation roots back down to money because someone else pays other people to preform
the damage. Even paper companies would loose money if we used a different source, such as;
hemp, which so happens to be what the Declaration of Independence is made up of. So on same
for poaching, if there was nobody in demand for the fur and ivory there would be no market for it.
Putting a value on skin and bones is just disgusting, but some people would do anything to look
amazing. Supposing we didn't use oil as a fuel, gas and oil companies even the government
would be loosing money from the tax. People have made solar powered, water powered and
even grease going cars. Yes, everyone complains about gas going up but nobody seems to buy
a non-oil vehicle because there isn't a big market. Money doesn't matter but we are blinded with
luxuries. It's 2013, I believe it's time to make a change and start caring about the earth we evolve
in besides ourselves and money for once.
How Can I Help Endangered Species?
There is more than one way you can help these suffering animals. You can donate or adopt an
animal from the world wildlife fund and they use all proceeds to help save animals. Link below for
more information.Another way to help save animals and save the money in your pocket is by
turning off unused items even unplugging them can lower the pollution rate of electric companies.
There is a demand for tiger pelts and ivory don't be apart of the demand. If you are really
committed to saving the environment for future generations to come you could also buy an eco
car. Eco cars are a thing of the future that can run off electricity or biodegradable vegetable oil.
These options are something to think about because its not your lifetime but your children and
there kids lifetime and so on, because one day we could pollute ourselves to extinction.
Flora of India
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Flora of India is one of the richest of the world due to a wide range of climate, topology
and environments in the country. It is thought there are over 15000 species of flowering
plants in India, which account for 6 percent of the total plant species in the world. Due to the
wide range of climatic conditions, India holds rich variety of flora that no other country can
boast of. India covers more than 45,000 species of flora, out of which there are several
species that are not found anywhere else. Since ancient times, use of plants as a source of
medicines has been the inherent part of life in India. There are more than 3000 officially
documented plants in India that holds great medicinal potential. India comprises seven
percent of world's flora. India is divided into main eight floristic regions namely - Western
Himalayas, Eastern Himalayas, Assam, Indus plain, Ganga plain, the Deccan, the Malabar
and the Andamans.
The Indian government has established 18 Biosphere Reserves in India,
roughly corresponding to IUCN Category V Protected areas), which protect larger areas of
natural habitat (than a National Park or Animal Sanctuary), and often include one or more
National Parks and/or preserves, along buffer zones that are open to some economic uses.
Protection is granted not only to the flora and fauna of the protected region, but also to the
human communities who inhabit these regions, and their ways of life. Animals are protected
and saved here.
List of Biosphere Reserves
In 2009, India designated Cold Desert of Himachal Pradesh as a biosphere reserve. On
September 20, 2010, the Ministry of Environment and Forests designated Seshachalam
Hills as the 17th biosphere reserve. Panna (Madhya Pradesh) was scheduled to become the
18th on August 25, 2011.
Biosphere reserves of India (area wise)
Location State Type Key Fauna
of Kutch, Rajkot, Surendr
anagar and Patan
Gujarat Desert Indian Wild Ass
Indian part of Gulf of
Mannar extending from
Rameswaram island in
Tamil Nadu Coasts
Dugong or Sea
Biosphere reserves of India (area wise)
Location State Type Key Fauna
the North to Kanyakumari
in the South of Tamil
Nadu and Sri Lanka
Part of delta
of Ganges and Barahama
putra river system
Pin Valley National Park
and Sarchu & Kibber
Parts of Chamoli
District & Bageshwar
Biosphere reserves of India (area wise)
Location State Type Key Fauna
of Waynad, Nagarhole, B
andipur and Mudumalai,
Valleyand Anaimalai Hills
Nilgiri Tahr, Lion-
Part of Siang and Dibang
Parts of Betul
District and Chhindwara
Seshachalam Hill Ranges
covering parts of Chittoor
and Kadapa districts
Simlipal Part of Mayurbhanj district Odisha Deccan
Biosphere reserves of India (area wise)
Location State Type Key Fauna
of Annupur, Dindori and B
of Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon,
Barpeta, Nalbari, Kamrup
and Darrang Districts
Parts of Kanchanjunga
Neyyar, Peppara and She
Sanctuary and their
Biosphere reserves of India (area wise)
Location State Type Key Fauna
Southern most islands
of Andaman and Nicobar
Nokrek Part of Garo Hills Meghalaya
Red Panda 820
of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia
Golden Langur 765
of Panna and Chattarpur
Tiger, Chital, Chi
nd Sloth bear