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  1. 1. Wildlife of India The wildlife in India comprises a mix of species of different types of organisms.[1] Apart from a handful of the major farm animals such as cows, buffaloes, goats, poultry, pigs & sheep, India has an amazingly wide variety of animals native to the country. It is home to Bengal tigers, Asiatic lions, Leopards, Pythons, Wolves,Foxes, Bears, Crocodiles, Rhinoceroses, Camels, Wild dogs, Monkeys, Snakes, Antelope species, Deer species, varieties of bison and not to mention the mightyAsian elephant. The region's rich and diverse wildlife is preserved in 89 national parks, 18 Bio reserves and 400+ wildlife sanctuaries across the country.India has some of the most biodiverse regions of the world and hosts three of the world’s 34 biodiversity hotspots – or treasure-houses – that is the Western Ghats, the Eastern Himalayas and Indo- Burma.[2] Since India is home to a number of rare and threatened animal species, wildlife management in the country is essential to preserve these species.[3] According to one study, India along with 17 mega diverse countries is home to about 60-70 % of the world's biodiversity.[4] India, lying within the Indomalaya ecozone, is home to about 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of avian, 6.2% of reptilian, and 6.0% of flowering plant species.[5] Many ecoregions, such as the shola forests, also exhibit extremely high rates of endemism; overall, 33% of Indian plant species are endemic.[6][7] India's forest cover ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman Islands, Western Ghats, and Northeast India to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya. Between these extremes lie the sal-dominated moist deciduous forest of eastern India; teak-dominated dry deciduous forest of central and southern India; and the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan and western Gangetic plain.[8] Important Indian trees include the medicinal neem, widely used in rural Indian herbalremedies. The pipal fig tree, shown on the seals of Mohenjo- daro, shaded the Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment. Many Indian species are descendants of taxa originating in Gondwana, to which India originally belonged. Peninsular India's subsequent movement towards, and collision with, the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic change 20 million years ago caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms.[9] Soon thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya.[8]As a result, among Indian species, only 12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of amphibians.[5] Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome's toad of the Western Ghats. India contains 172, or 2.9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species.[10] These include the Asiatic lion, the Bengal tiger, and the Indian white- rumped vulture, which suffered a near-extinction from ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle. In recent decades, human encroachment has posed a threat to India's wildlife; in response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial habitat; further federal protections were promulgated in the 1980s. Along with over 515 wildlife sanctuaries, India now hosts 18 biosphere reserves, four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; 26 wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention. The varied and rich wildlife of India has had a profound impact on the region's popular culture. The common name for wilderness in India is Jungle, which was adopted into the English language. The word has been also made famous in The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling. India's wildlife has been the subject of numerous other tales and fables such as the Panchatantra.
  2. 2. Fauna[edit] India is home to several well-known large mammals, including the Asian Elephant, Bengal Tiger, Asiatic Lion, Leopard,Sloth Bear and Indian Rhinoceros. Some other well-known large Indian mammals are: ungulates such as the rare Wild Asian Water buffalo, common Domestic Asian Water buffalo, Gail, Gaur, and several species of deer and antelope. Some members of the dog family, such as the Indian Wolf, Bengal Fox and Golden Jackal, and the Dhole or Wild Dogs are also widely distributed. However, the dole, also known as the whistling hunter, is the most endangered top Indian carnivore, and the Himalayan Wolf is now a critically endangered species endemic to India.[citation needed] It is also home to the Striped Hyena, Macaques, Languors and Mongoose species. Conservation[edit] The need for conservation of wildlife in India is often questioned because of the apparently incorrect priority in the face of direct poverty of the people. However, Article 48 of the Constitution of India specifies that, "The state shall yendeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country" and Article 51-A states that "it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures."[11] Large and charismatic mammals are important for wildlife tourism in India, and several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries cater to these needs. Project Tiger, started in 1972, is a major effort to conserve the tiger and its habitats.[12] At the turn of the 20th century, one estimate of the tiger population in India placed the figure at 40,000, yet an Indian tiger census conducted in 2008 revealed the existence of only 1,411 tigers. 2010 Tiger census revealed that there are 1700 tigers left in India.[13] The passing of the Forest Rights Act by the Indian government in 2008 has been the final nail in the coffin and has pushed the Indian tiger to the verge of extinction. Various pressures in the later part of the 20th century led to the progressive decline of wilderness resulting in the disturbance of viable tiger habitats. At the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) General Assembly meeting in Delhi in 1969, serious concern was voiced about the threat to several species of wildlife and the shrinkage of wilderness in India. In 1970, a national ban
  3. 3. on tiger hunting was imposed, and in 1972 the Wildlife Protection Act came into force. The framework was then set up to formulate a project for tiger conservation with an ecological approach. However, there is not much optimism about this framework's ability to save the peacock, which is the national bird of India. George Schaller wrote about Tiger conservation:[14] "India has to decide whether it wants to keep the tiger or not. It has to decide if it is worthwhile to keep its National Symbol, its icon, representing wildlife. It has to decide if it wants to keep its natural heritage for future generations, a heritage more important than the cultural one, whether we speak of its temples, the Taj Mahal, or others, because once destroyed it cannot be replaced." Recent extinctions[edit] Illustration of a Himalayan Quail fromA. O. Hume's work. Last seen in 1876 The exploitation of land and forest resources by humans along with hunting and trapping for food and sport has led to the extinction of many species in India in recent times. These species include mammals such as the Indian/Asiatic Cheetah, Wild Zebu, Javan Rhinoceros, and Sumatran Rhinoceros.[15] While some of these large mammal species are confirmed extinct, there have been many smaller animal and plant species whose status is harder to determine. Many species have not been seen since their description. Some species of birds have gone extinct in recent times, including the Pink-headed Duck (Rhodonessa caryophyllacea) and the Himalayan Quail (Ophrysia superciliosa). A species of warbler, Acrocephalus orinus, known earlier from a single specimen collected by Allan Octavian Hume from near Rampur in Himachal Pradesh, was rediscovered after 139 years in Thailand.[16][17] Forestry in India From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  4. 4. Part of a series on the Wildlife of India Forestry in India is a significant rural industry and a major environmental issue. Dense forests once covered India. As of 2002, the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations estimates India's forest cover to be about 64 millionhectares, or 19.5% of the country's area. However, in terms of availability of forest land per person in India, the rate is one of the lowest in the world at 0.08 ha, against an average of 0.5 ha for developing countries and 0.64 ha for the world. Forest degradation is a matter of serious concern.[1] In 2002, forestry industry contributed 1.7% to India's GDP.[1] In 2010, the contribution to GDP dropped to 0.9 %, largely because of rapid growth of the economy in other sectors and the government's decision to reform and reduce import tariffs to let imports satisfy the growing Indian demand for wood products. India produces a range of processed forest (wood and non-wood) products ranging from wood panel products and wood pulp to make bronze, rattazikistan ware and pern resin. India's paper industry produces over 3,000 metric tonnes annually from more than 400 mills.[1] The furniture and craft industry is another consumer of wood. India's wood-based processing industries consumed about 30 million cubic metres of industrial wood in 2002.[1] An additional 270 million cubic metres of small timber and fuel-wood was consumed in India. An important cause for suboptimal wood use is its relatively low price because of subsidies on wood raw materials and free fuel-wood supply. India is the world's largest consumer of fuel-wood.[1] India's consumption of fuel-wood is about five times higher than what can be sustainably removed from forests.[1] However, a large percentage of this fuel-wood is grown as biomass remaining from agriculture, and is managed outside forests. Fuel-wood meets about 40 % of the energy needs of the country.[1] Around 80 % of rural people and 48 % of urban people use fuel-wood.[1] Unless India makes major, rapid and sustained effort to expand electricity generation and power plants, the rural and urban poor in India will continue to meet their energy needs through unsustainable destruction of forests and fuel wood consumption. India's dependence on fuel-wood and forestry products as a primary energy source is not only environmentally unsustainable, it is claimed[by whom?] to be the primary cause of India's near- permanent haze and air pollution. Forestry in India is more than just about wood and fuel. India has a thriving non-wood forest products industry, which produces latex, gums, resins, essential oils, flavours, fragrances and aroma chemicals, incense sticks, handicrafts, thatching materials and medicinal plants. About 60 % of non-wood forest products production is consumed locally. About 50 % of the total revenue from the forestry industry in India is in non-wood forest products category.[1] In 2002, non-wood forest products were a source of significant supplemental income to over 400 million people in India, mostly rural.[1] Recent developments in Indian forestry[edit] Over the last 20 years, India has reversed the deforestation trend. Specialists of the United Nations report India's forest as well as woodland cover has increased. A 2010 study by the Food and Agriculture Organisation ranks India amongst the 10 countries with the largest
  5. 5. forest area coverage in the world (the other nine being Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, United States of America, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Australia, Indonesia and Sudan).[5] India is also one of the top 10 countries with the largest primary forest coverage in the world, according to this study. From 1990 to 2000, FAO finds India was the fifth largest gainer in forest coverage in the world; while from 2000 to 2010, FAO considers India as the third largest gainer in forest coverage.[5] Some 500,000 square kilometres, about 17 % of India's land area, were regarded as Forest Area in the early 1990s. In FY 1987, however, actual forest cover was 640,000 square kilometres. Some claim, that because more than 50 % of this land was barren or bushland, the area under productive forest was actually less than 350,000 square kilometres, or approximately 10 % of the country's land area. India's 0.6 % average annual rate of deforestation for agricultural and non-lumbering land uses in the decade beginning in 1981 was one of the lowest in the world and on a par with Brazil. In 2002, India set up a National Forest Commission to review and assess India's policy and law, its effect on India's forests, its impact of local forest communities, and to make recommendations to achieve sustainable forest and ecological security in India.[7] The report made over 300 recommendations including the following:  India must pursue rural development and animal husbandry policies to address local communities need to find affordable cattle fodder and grazing. To avoid destruction of local forest cover, fodder must reach these communities on reliable roads and other infrastructure, in all seasons year round.  The Forest Rights Bill is likely to be harmful to forest conservation and ecological security. The Forest Rights Bill became a law since 2007.  The government should work closely with mining companies. Revenue generated from lease of mines must be pooled into a dedicated fund to conserve and improve the quality of forests in the region where the mines are located.  Power to declare ecologically sensitive areas must be with each Indian state.  The mandate of State Forest Corporations and government owned monopolies must be changed.
  6. 6.  Government should reform regulations and laws that ban felling of trees and transit of wood within India. Sustainable agro-forestry and farm forestry must be encouraged through financial and regulatory reforms, particularly on privately owned lands. India's national forest policy expects to invest US$ 26.7 billion by 2020, to pursue nationwide afforestation coupled with forest conservation, with the goal of increasing India's forest cover from 20 % to 33 %.[8] Conservation[edit] The role of forests in the national economy and in ecology was further emphasised in the 1988 National Forest Policy, which focused on ensuring environmental stability, restoring the ecological balance, and preserving the remaining forests. Other objectives of the policy were meeting the need for fuelwood, fodder, and small timber for rural and tribal people while recognising the need to actively involve local people in the management of forest resources. Also in 1988, the Forest Conservation Act of 1980 was amended to facilitate stricter conservation measures. A new target was to increase the forest cover to 33 % of India's land area from the then-official estimate of 23 %. In June 1990, the central government adopted resolutions that combined forest science with social forestry, that is, taking the sociocultural traditions of the local people into. The cumulative area afforested during the 1951-91 period was nearly 179,000 square kilometres. However, despite large-scale tree planting programmes, forestry is one arena in which India has actually regressed since independence. Annual fellings at about four times the growth rate are a major cause. Widespread pilfering by villagers for firewood and fodder also represents a major decrement. In addition, the 1988 National Forest Policy noted, the forested area has been shrinking as a result of land cleared for farming and development programmes. Between 1990 and 2010, as evidenced by satellite data, India has reversed the deforestation trend. FAO reports India's rate of forest addition has increased in recent years, and as of 2010, it is the third fastest in the world in increasing forest cover. The 2009 Indian national forest policy document emphasises the need to combine India's effort at forest conservation with sustainable forest management. India defines forest management as one where the economic needs of local communities are not ignored, rather forests are sustained while meeting nation's economic needs and local issues through scientific forestry.[8]
  7. 7. Endangered Animals in India | Top 8 Endangered Animals ? Here is a list of critically endangeredanimals in India and this does not limited to land animals only, there are several marine species that are undergoing rapid population decline. Some of the foremost reasons for the decline is widespread hunting, overfishing, and pollution. Let’s take a look at these critically endangered animals. Critically Endangered Animals in India Sumatran Rhinoceros The Sumatran rhino belongs to thefamily of Rhinocerotidae and is one of the five extant rhino species. Of all the rhinoceros family, Sumatran rhino is the smallest member. The shoulder height of Sumatran rhino measures around 112 – 145 cm (3.67 – 4.76 feet), with the length measuring at 2.36 – 3.18 meters (7.7 – 10.4 feet) excluding tail. They have a tail measuring up to 35 – 70 cm (14 – 28 inches). The weight of these species measure around 500 – 1,000 kg (1,100 – 2,200 lb), along with the mean weight measuring at 700 – 800 kg (1,500 – 1,800 lb), the heaviest measured at 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). The Sumatran rhinoceros, like other rhinos, display two horns that typically measures at 15 – 25 cm (5.9 – 9.8 inches). The Sumatran rhinos once lived in the swamps, cloud forests, and tropical rainforests in Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Indonesia, China, and Bangladesh. In the primitive times, these animals dwelled in the southwest China. Unfortunately they are now critically endangered species as no more than 275 individuals are left in the wild. The Sumatran rhino is mostly a solitary species except for the courtship and offspring-rearing. Sumatran Rhinoceros (Courtesy wwf.panda.org)
  8. 8. Hawksbill Sea Turtle | Endangered Animals in India The hawksbill sea turtle belongs to the family of Cheloniidae and is criticallyendangered species. These turtles inhabit all throughout the Pacific range and are also found in Atlantic and indo-pacific regions. The hawksbill sea turtles look very much similar to that of aquatic turtles. In general, they have horizontal body together with flipper-like arms that supports them for swimming. Depending entirely on the water temperature, the hawksbill shells fairly change their colors. They spend most of their time in shallow lagoons and coral reefs. On the negative side, the population of these turtles faced drastic decline thus making them endangered species. Human fishing practices are mainly responsible for this much reduction. Hawksbill Sea Turtle Gharial The gharial is a crocodile that belongs to the family of Gavialidae and is endemic to the Indian Subcontinent. Gharial is also known as fish-eating crocodile. Since the crocodile underwent both chronic as well as rapid short-term decline it is listed as critically endangered species by the IUCN. These species are very small at birth; hatchlings measure around 37 cm (15 inches), but they can reach a length of 1 meter (3.3 feet) in about eighteen months. The mean weight is up to 159 – 250 kg (350 – 550 lb). The length of the males measures around 3 – 5 meters (9.8 – 16 feet), while females reach a length of 2.7 – 3.75 meters (8.9 – 12.3 feet). One of the largest gharial crocodiles was hunted in Gogra River of Faizabad in 1927 measuring at 6.5 meters (21 feet). These species are too quick underwater. They are known to reach a speed of 40 km/h (25 mph)
  9. 9. Gharial Crocodile Ganges Shark | Endangered Animals in India The Ganges shark is a rare species of requiem shark that is native to the Ganges River of India. However, since bull shark and Ganges shark dwells in the Ganges River, Ganges sharks are also referred to as bull shark which is incorrect. Ganges shark is characterized by its wide rounded and small eyes. These shark species display gray- brownish color, lacking marked pattern. True to its name, Ganges shark inhabit in the waters of western and northeastern India; West Bengal Ganges Brahmaputra, Hooghly River, Bihar, Orissa, Assam, and Mahanadi in particular. These sharks are only found in inshore marine, freshwater, and estuarine systems. The length of the Ganges shark is 55 – 60 cm at birth with the maximum length it reaches is 2 meters (6.6 feet). They are classified as highly endangered species by the IUCN. Widespread overfishing and hunting makes these fish at the verge of extinction. Ganges Shark
  10. 10. Asiatic Lion | Endangered Animals in India The Asiatic lion also called Indian Lion, is a subspecies of a lion. These lions are usually found in the Gir Forests of Gujarat (India). Asiatic lions are placed amongst the five major extant cats in India such as clouded leopard, tiger, snow leopard, and Bengal tiger. These lions inhabit all along the northeast Indian Subcontinent. The adult males reach a length of 340 mm (13 inches), while females measure at 266 – 277 mm in length. The weight of these species is up to 160 – 200 kg (350 – 440 lb) in males, while females weigh around 110 – 120 kg (240 – 260 lb). The longest Asiatic lion ever recorded was at 292 cm (115 inches), with the maximum shoulder height is up to 107 cm (42 inches). Asiatic lions are considered to be highly social animals and they tend to live in smaller groups. They primarily prey on antelope, wild boar, sambar, chital, water buffalo, and chinkara. Asiatic Lion (Courtesy thehindu.com) Woolly Flying Squirrel The woolly flying squirrel is the lone species of genus Eupetaurus. Not more than 11 skins were gathered in the 19th century but the latest research development reveals out that there are some individuals dwelling in the Pakistani part of Kashmir. According to a study, woolly flying squirrel is the most massive gliding animal known and it glides efficiently like other flying squirrels. They are known to reside in Gilgit (Pakistan). Some of the specimens have also been caught in Gorabad, Yunnan (China), Tibet, Chitral (Pakistan), and Balti Gali. These animals prefer to live in the conifer forests that are related to the cliffs and caves. The length of these squirrels measure around 45 – 60 cm (18 – 24 inches)
  11. 11. Woolly Flying Squirrel (Courtesy wonders-world.com) Sei Whale | Endangered Animals in India The sei whale is a baleen whale and is being the third-largest rorqual that comes after the blue whale and fin whale. Sei whale is known to occupy almost all the major oceans including deep offshore water except in Polar Regions and tropical waters. These animals migrate each year from cool waters to the moderate or subtropical waters in summer. They reach a length of around 19.5 meters (64 feet), with the weight measures at 28 tonnes (28 short tons). The sei whale consumes as much as 900 kg (2,000 lb). The sei whale preys on krill, zooplankton, copepods, and cetaceans. They are capable to reach a speed of about 50 km/h (31 mph) through in short bursts.
  12. 12. Sei Whale Wild Water Buffalo The wild water buffalo also known as Asian Buffalo, is a large bovine endemic to theSoutheast Asia. These animals are regarded as highly endangered species by the IUCN. There are no more than 4,000 individuals left in the wild, amongst which 3,100 lives in Assam, India. These buffaloes are the second largest bovid that comes after the gaur. The African buffalo is closely associated with the water buffalo. These buffaloes weigh as much as 700 – 1,200 kg (1,500 – 2,600 lb). They can reach a length of 240 – 300 cm (94 – 120 inches), with a tail measuring at 60 – 100 cm (24 – 39 inches). Wild water buffalo measures around 150 – 190 cm in shoulder height. Wildlife conservation as a government involvement[edit] The Wildlife Conservation Act was enacted by the Government of India in 1972. Soon after the trend of policy makers enacting regulations on conservation a strategy was developed to allow actors, both government and non-government, to follow a detailed "framework" to successful conservation. The World Conservation Strategy was developed in 1980 by the "International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources "(IUCN) with advice, cooperation and financial assistance of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Wildlife Fund and in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco)"[11] The strategy aims to "provide an intellectual framework and practical guidance for conservation actions."[11] This thorough guidebook covers everything from the intended "users" of the strategy to its very priorities and even a map section
  13. 13. containing areas that have large seafood consumption therefore endangering the area to over fishing. The main sections are as follows: The marking off of a sea turtle nest. Anna Maria, FL. 2012.  The objectives of conservation and requirements for their achievement: 1. Maintenance of essential ecological processes and life-support systems. 2. Preservation of genetic diversity that is flora and fauna. 3. Sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems.  Priorities for national action: 1. A framework for national and subnational conservation strategies. 2. Policy making and the integration of conservation and development. 3. Environmental planning and rational use allocation.  Priorities for international action: 1. International action: law and assistance. 2. Tropical forests and drylands. 3. A global programme for the protection of genetic resource areas. Map sections: 1. Tropical forests
  14. 14. 2. Deserts and areas subject to desertification. Non-government involvement[edit] As “major development agencies” became “discouraged with the public sector” of environmental conservation in the late 1980s, these agencies began to lean their support towards the “private sector” or non-government organizations (NGOs).[12] In a World Bank Discussion Paper it is made apparent that “the explosive emergence of nongovernmental organizations” was widely known to government policy makers. Seeing this rise in NGO support, the U.S. Congress made amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act in 1979 and 1986 “earmarking U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funds for biodiversity”.[12] From 1990 moving through recent years environmental conservation in the NGO sector has become increasingly more focused on the political and economic impact of USAID given towards the “Environment and Natural Resources”.[13] After the terror attacks on the World Trade Centers on September 11, 2001 and the start of former President Bush’s War on Terror, maintaining and improving the quality of the environment and natural resources became a “priority” to “prevent international tensions” according to the Legislation on Foreign Relations Through 2002[13] and section 117 of the 1961 Foreign Assistance Act.[13] Furthermore in 2002 U.S. Congress modified the section on endangered species of the previously amended Foreign Assistance Act. Cause and Effects Pollution corrupts the natural environment cycle, most importantly water. Water is at the bottom of the food chain meaning everything needs water: plants, animals and humans are all water- based.There are natural, intentional, and accidental causes of pollution to water and air. Natural causes are those of which we don't control, such as; volcanoes, tsunamis, and earthquakes. There are 1,900 active volcanoes acting as vents for the earths' core. Added to magma, lava and ashes, volcanoes further have a multitude of gases. Two main gases that are included in eruptions are carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Carbon dioxide is agreenhouse gas that can cause global warming and health problemsif nearby excessive amounts. Whilesulfur dioxide promotes global cooling but is also an ingredient to acidic rain. During the eruption of volcanoes, gases combine in the air over time and become apart of our water cycle making harmful substances to all life. It's believed human activity causes more pollution than a volcano. (Quick Links above) Intentional causes are those of which we do deliberately; Industrial and agricultural waste. Industrial waste is when chemical and acidic products are dumped because of the expensive and difficult disposal into the natural environment. Agriculturalwaste comes from water runoff unfortunately containing chemicals and pesticides from farmlands. Even the smallest
  15. 15. damages like oil dripping from your car can be washed down into the ground where other water collects and contaminates. Accidental causes are not on purpose but caused from human activities. Consistent oil spilling in the ocean, accidental littering to the titanic sinking are all unintentional catastrophes. In 2010, BP had the largest oil leak yet, killing livestock of fish and other animals. Prey, including humans, can be polluted from eating contaminated livestock. Water cooling stations can also be considered pollution, the smallest changes in water can hurt animals because of the change in temperature. Since 1807, The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),have been comprehending and predicting climate, weather, including oceans and coasts activities Insuring people are aware of their surroundings. Additionally conserving the ecosystem, depositing millions into coastal maintenance in turn protecting life and natural resources.(Quick Links above) Global Warming The uncontrollable gases of the earth combined with human activity causes global warming. Major greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere are sorted as; anthropocentric causes (man-made) and natural causes, even both combined. Global warming is taking bamboo from panda bears, homes of penguins, and lives of polar bears, salmon, and puffins. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is naturally emitted through photosynthesis into organic matter. Unfortunately there are anthropocentric causes of this byproduct, such as; combustion of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal) for our electricity and transportation, solid waste, trees and wood products. Current levels of carbon dioxide are over 380 parts per million by volume (ppmv), the highest level the earth has ever seen over the past 20 million years. The only way it can be removed is through plants and the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide has a low global warming potential (GWP) of 1 but persists in the atmosphere for thousands of years. Methane(CH4) is from agricultural causes such as livestock and the decay of organic waste in landfills. Sources of methane also reside in the production and transportation of oil, natural gas and coal. CH4 has a GWP of 21 in other words it would take 21 pounds of CO2 to equal 1 CH4. Higher GWP means the gas traps more energy and heat in a pound. Methane has a higher GWP than carbon dioxide although it's in the atmosphere for about a decade. Nitrous oxide (aka. laughing gas or N2O ) has been used for multiple occasions over the centuries. In the 1800's the British upper class used nitrous oxide for a recreational drug and even round the bend parties. In 2003, kids the age of 12 and older reportedly abused laughing gas more than marijuana, a medical drug. Recreational use of nitrous can reduce red cell blood count leading to nerve and organ damage. CO2 becomes forbidden to leave the body, reducing oxygen flow to the brain causing hyperventilation, seizures, asphyxiation and death because of the replacement of oxygen. Nitrous oxide has also been used medically as an anesthetic, numbing pain,and as fuel in cars and planes. Nitrous oxide is a byproduct from industrial
  16. 16. production of nitric acid used for synthetic fertilizer. Farmers add a nitrogen based synthetic fertilizer to soil which by far brings the most N2O agricultural pollution. Nitrous oxide has a GWP of 310 and lasts in the atmosphere for about 100 years, capable of holding the most heat. The Mighty Dollar Now you might see the biggest cause of these threatened, endangered, and extinct animals. Money is something everyone wants, everyone "needs" because money is power. People will do anything for money, like; going to a dead end job that you hate for a little cash, hunting down animals for fur, or even hunt people for another. There are so many crazy things people will do for money cause you can do what you want or pay for what you really need like rent, food and electricity. Deforestation roots back down to money because someone else pays other people to preform the damage. Even paper companies would loose money if we used a different source, such as; hemp, which so happens to be what the Declaration of Independence is made up of. So on same for poaching, if there was nobody in demand for the fur and ivory there would be no market for it. Putting a value on skin and bones is just disgusting, but some people would do anything to look amazing. Supposing we didn't use oil as a fuel, gas and oil companies even the government would be loosing money from the tax. People have made solar powered, water powered and even grease going cars. Yes, everyone complains about gas going up but nobody seems to buy a non-oil vehicle because there isn't a big market. Money doesn't matter but we are blinded with luxuries. It's 2013, I believe it's time to make a change and start caring about the earth we evolve in besides ourselves and money for once. How Can I Help Endangered Species? There is more than one way you can help these suffering animals. You can donate or adopt an animal from the world wildlife fund and they use all proceeds to help save animals. Link below for more information.Another way to help save animals and save the money in your pocket is by turning off unused items even unplugging them can lower the pollution rate of electric companies. There is a demand for tiger pelts and ivory don't be apart of the demand. If you are really committed to saving the environment for future generations to come you could also buy an eco car. Eco cars are a thing of the future that can run off electricity or biodegradable vegetable oil. These options are something to think about because its not your lifetime but your children and there kids lifetime and so on, because one day we could pollute ourselves to extinction. Flora of India From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Flora of India is one of the richest of the world due to a wide range of climate, topology and environments in the country. It is thought there are over 15000 species of flowering plants in India, which account for 6 percent of the total plant species in the world. Due to the wide range of climatic conditions, India holds rich variety of flora that no other country can boast of. India covers more than 45,000 species of flora, out of which there are several species that are not found anywhere else. Since ancient times, use of plants as a source of medicines has been the inherent part of life in India. There are more than 3000 officially
  17. 17. documented plants in India that holds great medicinal potential. India comprises seven percent of world's flora. India is divided into main eight floristic regions namely - Western Himalayas, Eastern Himalayas, Assam, Indus plain, Ganga plain, the Deccan, the Malabar and the Andamans. The Indian government has established 18 Biosphere Reserves in India,[2] (categories roughly corresponding to IUCN Category V Protected areas), which protect larger areas of natural habitat (than a National Park or Animal Sanctuary), and often include one or more National Parks and/or preserves, along buffer zones that are open to some economic uses. Protection is granted not only to the flora and fauna of the protected region, but also to the human communities who inhabit these regions, and their ways of life. Animals are protected and saved here. List of Biosphere Reserves[edit] In 2009, India designated Cold Desert of Himachal Pradesh as a biosphere reserve. On September 20, 2010, the Ministry of Environment and Forests designated Seshachalam Hills as the 17th biosphere reserve. Panna (Madhya Pradesh) was scheduled to become the 18th on August 25, 2011.[2] Biosphere reserves of India (area wise) Y e a r Nam e Location State Type Key Fauna A r e a (k m ²) 1 200 8 Great Rann of Kutch Part of Kutch, Rajkot, Surendr anagar and Patan Districts Gujarat Desert Indian Wild Ass 124 54 2 198 9 Gulf of Mannar Indian part of Gulf of Mannar extending from Rameswaram island in Tamil Nadu Coasts Dugong or Sea Cow 105 00
  18. 18. Biosphere reserves of India (area wise) Y e a r Nam e Location State Type Key Fauna A r e a (k m ²) the North to Kanyakumari in the South of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka 3 198 9 Sundarb ans Part of delta of Ganges and Barahama putra river system West Bengal Gangeti c Delta Royal Bengal Tiger 963 0 4 200 9 Cold Desert Pin Valley National Park and surroundings;Chandratal and Sarchu & Kibber Wildlife Sancturary Himachal Pradesh Western Himalay as Snow Leopard 777 0 5 198 8 Nanda Devi National Park& Biosphe re Reserve Parts of Chamoli District, Pithoragarh District & Bageshwar District Uttarakhan d Western Himalay as 586 0
  19. 19. Biosphere reserves of India (area wise) Y e a r Nam e Location State Type Key Fauna A r e a (k m ²) 6 198 6 Nilgiri Biosphe re Reserve Part of Waynad, Nagarhole, B andipur and Mudumalai, Nilambur, Silent Valleyand Anaimalai Hills Tamil Nadu, Keral aand Karna taka Western Ghats Nilgiri Tahr, Lion- tailed macaque 552 0 7 199 8 Dihang- Dibang Part of Siang and Dibang Valley Arunachal Pradesh Eastern Himalay a 511 2 8 199 9 Pachma rhi Biosphe re Reserve Parts of Betul District, Hoshangabad District and Chhindwara District Madhya Pradesh Semi- Arid Giant Squirrel, Flying Squirrel 498 1.72 9 201 0 Seshac halam Hills Seshachalam Hill Ranges covering parts of Chittoor and Kadapa districts Andhra Pradesh Eastern Ghats 475 5 10 199 4 Simlipal Part of Mayurbhanj district Odisha Deccan Peninsul Gaur, Royal Bengal 437 4
  20. 20. Biosphere reserves of India (area wise) Y e a r Nam e Location State Type Key Fauna A r e a (k m ²) a Tiger,Wild elephant 11 200 5 Achana kamar - Amarka ntak Part of Annupur, Dindori and B ilaspur districts Madhya Pradesh,Ch hattisgarh Maikala Hills 383 5 12 198 9 Manas Part of Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon, Barpeta, Nalbari, Kamrup and Darrang Districts Assam East Himalay as Golden Langur, Red Panda 283 7 13 200 0 Khangc hendzon ga Parts of Kanchanjunga Hills Sikkim East Himalay as Snow Leopard, Red Panda 262 0 14 200 1 Agasthy amalai Biosphe re Reserve Neyyar, Peppara and She nduruny Wildlife Sanctuary and their adjoining areas Kerala, Ta mil Nadu Western ghats Nilgiri Tahr, Elephants 182 8
  21. 21. Biosphere reserves of India (area wise) Y e a r Nam e Location State Type Key Fauna A r e a (k m ²) 15 198 9 Great Nicobar Biosphe re Reserve Southern most islands of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Andaman and Nicobar Islands Islands Saltwater Crocodile 885 16 198 8 Nokrek Part of Garo Hills Meghalaya East Himalay as Red Panda 820 17 199 7 Dibru- Saikhow a Part of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts Assam East Himalay as Golden Langur 765 18 201 1 Panna Part of Panna and Chattarpur Districts Madhya Pradesh catchme nt area of the Ken River Tiger, Chital, Chi nkara,Sambhar a nd Sloth bear 543