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- 1. t0cv764 USN Seventh Semester B.E. Degree Examination, Dec.2013 /Jan.20l4 Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Time d o o ! o. C) 3 b. oX de 7n -1 ol) troo H() oq -O a. b. c. a2 a: oO Max. Marks:100 Note: Answer FrvEfull questions, selecting at least TWO questions from each part. PART _ A I a. i) ii) iii) o L -il hrs' Explain about Terrestrial photographs. Explain about photo theodolite. Adva,ntages of aerial photographs. Explain: i) Focal length. iil Fiducial marks iii) Nadir point iv) Mosics v) Verricalphotograph. (03 Marks) (03 Marks) (04 Marks) (10 Marks) Derive expression for scale of vertical photograph over flat terrain with figure. (0S Marks) (04 Marks) Explain: i) Relief displacement: ii1 Overlaps. Assume a vertical photograph was taken at a flying height of 5000m above MSL using a camera with a 152mm focal length lens. D Determine the photoscale ai pt A and B which lie at elevation of 1200m and 1960m. ii) What ground distance corresponds to a 20.lmm photo measured at each of there (08 Marks) elevatron. botr >! !d or= 3 a. b. c. ^X oj (04 Marks) What are stereoscoper? Name any two stereoscoper. Derive an expression for parallax equation for determing elevation and ground co-ordinate (10 Marks) of a point. The meanprincipal base of a pair of photo graphs taken from analtitude of 5500m above mean sea level is 92mm. The difference of parallax between 2 points is 1.50mm. If the elevation of the lower pt is 480m from MSL. What is the elevation of higher point? (06 Marks) o= AE, !o 4a. Y, b. ooo trcQ o= go =(B :o => o* c. ^.? t< -6I o o What are the general processor involved in EM (Electromagnetic) remote sensing. (08 Marks) (04 Marks) Draw a neat sketch of electromagnetic spectrum. Explain the interaction mechanism of EM radiation with Earth atmosphere. (08 Marks) PART _ B 5a. b. Z o, c. Explain about passive and active sensors. Explain about: i) Spectral resolution ii) Spatial resolution iil) Radiometric resolution iv) Temporalresolution. Explain the different types of platforms used in the remote sensing. 1 of2 (04 Marks) (08 Marks) (08 Marks)
- 2. l t0cY764 6 a. b. c. What you mean by DIP? Explain the types of RS data formate. What you mean by image enhancement? Explain any 2 t1pes. Explain 2 types of image filtering. 2 of2 (10 Marks) (06 Marks) (04 Marks)
- 3. 10cv71 USN Seventh Semester B.E. Degree Examination, Dec.2013 I Jan.2O14 Environmental Engineering - ll Time: 3 hrs. Note: l. Answer FIVEfull questions, selecting at least TWO questions from each part. 2. Assume uny missing data d necessary. PART _ A ' (J o o I a,. b. L o o cd o ! .:, c. 2a. Eq b. dU p,, oo ll 96' oEi 3 a. b. c. -O o> *.a 4 a. o: :,,,. Explain thpl;@prns: b. oc) 60 a€ 5 a. ^X b. c. oj i, tE LO =-d >'!-oo caJ o= oii tr> :o o- U< 6 P o (08 Marks) the sewer material commonly used. (06 Marks) , :.,,r,. (04 Marks) Briefly explain how the sewers are.,tffted for.'treakage after laying. What are sewer appurtenances? LiStthemand explain with a neat sketch any one of them. (10 Marks) ",ri , (06 Marks) Explain BOD and discuss the advantqageS and limitation of BOD. Explain the concept of Aerobig,and Anaerobis- activity with respect to sewage ,..u,,ffit1".u, s.l The 5 day BOD at 30oC of.h sewage sample is 120 mg4. Calculate 5 days BOS at 20oC. (08 Marks) Assume deoxygenation,,C'onstant at 20o C, K : 0. l l day . '""' """' Explain with a rteatifigure the oxygen sag curve indicating fu.ialient features related to self (10 Marks) purification o-f stieams. " (05 Marks) List the conditions favourable for on land disposal of sewage. '.' ', A partially treated sewage from a town 1.7 million litres per day having'BoD of 120 mgd is to bE diicharged into a stream. The stream has a BOD of l0 mg/|. what sh$uld be minimum ':1';:' ' (05 Marks) flqnv of the stream. flow diagram employed for a conventional waste water treatment plant, Indicate (10 Plarks) ,...,....',,,,. the importance of each unit indicated in the flow diagram. ,, -,;.',,b. Design a rectangular sedimentation-tank for a population of 90 thousand with rate of water supply 140 litres per capacity per day, 80% of which reaches the treatment plant. Assume .., peak factor as 1.2 and horizontal velocity of flow 0.3 m/minute. Check for over flow rate. a.:,;.''l'Write the (10 Marks) -;6i o o 2 (12 Marks) Infiltrati List the desirable character$$,f sewer material,I. !o OE Self cleaning velocity and non scouring velocity; ,.. c. boc -r? () (04 Marks) Design u ,"*"i io.r".r" a population of 36,000 the rate of water supply being 135 litres per capita per day of w, icfr 80% finds its way into sewer. fhe'.sewer are laid at a slope of I in 625 and sewer should designed to carry three times dfy weather flow when running full. -L 'o i) " t't,i'., i: T--ct1--^]:^.^ ^.^l ^,-Cl+-^+:^,r', .: ,, ll Itration and exfiltrati10n ii) N:0.012. EOO .=N (d$ Explain the necessity and importance of sewerage system. EXplain what do you man by sewerage system and discuss relative merits ii) Combined system of sewerage. i) So$arate system of sewerage Explain:the rational method of estimation of storm water. 7 a. b. c. (10 Marks) With a neat sketch, explain the working of a conventional trickling filter. (04 Marks) Discuss the effect of recirculation in filters with figure. Define and explain the significance of sludge volume index and food to micro organism (06 Marks) ratio. 8 Write short notes on any four of the following: b. Sludge digestion Oxidation pond Time of concentration e. Traps in house plumbing o. a. d. c. Sewage sickness (20 Marks)
- 4. t0cv72 USN Seventh Semester B.E. Degree Examination, Dec. 2Dl3lJan.2Ol4 Design of Steel Structures Time: 3 hrs. Max. Marks:100 Answer FIVEfull questions, selecting atleast TWO questions from each part. 2. Use of IS 800 - 2007 snd steel tables or permitted. Note: 7. J 3 L = a) PART _ A a. b. c. a) L Mention the failure criteria for steel sections. Mention any four advantages and four disadvantages of steel structures. Define : i) Design actions ii) Design sirength iii) Compact and semi compact sections. (05 Marks) (08 Marks) (07 Marks) ?1) a. b. -e -:o' =ca U Mention brietly types of failure of bolted connection, with sketches. (08 Marks) Determine the bolt value for M22, G5.6 property class bolts applied in double shear. Assume threads in shear plane. Bolts are used to correct angles to 10 mm thick gusset plate. c. Determine the numbe, of hits ,equired to connect two angles ISA 75 x 75 x 6 to 12 mm thick gusset plate of M20 -" G4.6 properly class bolts are used to connect system in Fig. Q2(c). Assume f, : 250 MPa. f, = 410 MPa. (08 Marks) J:J otr sa) o> oz (04 Ularks) R)', .o.L (i d: o() w ^ 6"*"*ll$a b0c +- >6 E(d 4d) OE ^X orv (.) ..i >'! s50 Lr'' b. In a truss, angle ISA 100 x 100 x 8 mm is subjected to factored tension of 200 kN. It has to be connected to a gusset using fillet welds, at the toe and back. Determine the weld length required so that centre of gravity of welds lies in the plane of the centre of gravity of t1e (08 Marks) angle if fr:410 MPa. (12 Marks) a. Define : i) Plastic neutral b. c. Mention any four advantages of plastic design. (04 Marks) Determine the position of plastic hinge form support B for the beam shown in Fig. Q4(c) and the magnitude of collapse load. (10 Marks) tr> :^ () 319tsr') Mention the different tlpes of welds commonly used in structurbs for anyone of the types. LO o.r lr< ttoxttord i - t/ it 3 a. @LE C) ,se, Fig. Q2(c) o= qo =(d i Lb .1.forr'l ffi.B*tY'l' 14/' axis ii) Elastic and plastic section modulus iii) Shape facto rand load factor iv) Plastic hinge. o z V.l F o. 1 *ltr- (06 Marks)
- 5. G* t0cY72 PART _ B Ja. Classify Temion members commonly used based on types of structures and method of connections. b. (06 Marks) Determine efficiency of the Temion members shown Fig. Qs(bxii). to A,rzrcS Plale Zo lFnr bo itlr tYr t'r'r&*(t* trr'r-5l tm' f rnd f-.uk '-*$- t Lf,s !f,l"A t tortr' I {e ItrD Q5(bXi) in types Fig Qs(bxi) and 6r" .;.{ttu$ u!4fi s ?r--z J! $*^ l ] I Bolted Joint Fig. Welded Joint Fig. Q5(bxii) Assume 200 mm as effective weld length for Fig. Q5(b). Assume yield strength and ultimate strength of steel as ZSQ MPa and 410 Mpa. (14 Marks) 6a. Briefly explain the design'stdps followed as per IS'800 - 2007 for designing. Compression members for i) A single discontinuous angles used in roof tiusses ii) A continuous double angle strut places back to back on both sides of a gusset plate. , t, b. 7a. b. 8 a. b. c. (06 Marks) Determine design load capacity of a single discontinuous angle ISA 50 x 50 x 5 used as a compression member connectsd tb a gusset by two bolts. Centre to centre distance between and connections is 1.5 m. adopt t:250 MPa. (14 Marks) What are column bases?'Mention its types and explain design of any one type as per IS 800 - 2007. (06 Marks) Design a slab base for an ISHB 350@ 661.2 N/m 1661.2) to carry lactored load of 1000 kN. Adopt M25 concrete, Fe415 grade Steel for foundation. Adopt wdlding for the connection fo column to base plate. Indicate the details in a sketch. (14 Marks) Explain briefly design steps followed while designing laterally suppoited beam as per Indian standards IS 800 -2007. (06 Marks) Explain briefly web bucking and web crippling phenomena. (04 Marks) Determine : i) Design bending strength ii) Design shear strength iii) Intemity of udl the beam can carry under service conditions iv) Maximum deflection of a simply supported steel beam as shown in Fig. Q(c). Assume fy:250 Mpa. (10 Marks) $r*
- 6. 10cv73 USN Seventh Semester B.E. Degree Examination, Dec.2013 Estimation and Valuation o o (.) / Jan.2ol4 Time: 3 hrs. Max. Marks:100 o. Note: l. Question No. ONE is compulsory. 2. Answer FOaR questions selecting any TWO questions from each Part B and Part C. o d () ! ?Q) I PART - A Prepare a detailed estimate for a 69 -o0 residerrtiut-Effillhown in fig. el for the following items of a. Earthwork excavation (@ Rs 100/m3. b. Size stone masonry in dla r @ ns 21501m3. I troo .=N c. :il Yo o= d. =aJ 's First class brick work in supersrructu-re in R.C.C roolconcreting @3500 Rs/m3. o2 6X 2 o() botr :: cM l:6 (D, Rs 3700/m3. (40 Marks) PART. B Prepare a detailed estimate of a siptic items of works. a. Earth work in excavation. b. 1't class Brick work. turTffi* pit shown in fig. e2 for the following (15 Marks) k= -ao =l o- 5- 3 a. What is an estimate? Explain the different types of b. Briefly explain different types of contracts. o.e o-i A,i, Lo - o 7 o c-l 5 ' PART. C Carry out the rate analysis for any 3 of the 6iio@, Given : Basic rates of materiais as cement : 320Rs C aggregate : 750Rs /Cu.m. a. C.C of l:5:10 for bed in foundation. b. Random rubble masomy in CM of 1:6 in foundation. c. Brick masoffy in CM of 1:6 in superstructure. d. 6mm thick cement plastering of 1:3 to RCC ceiling. (08 Marks) (07 Marks) ut9t* Write.the detailed specification for any 3 of the following a. I't class brick work in CM (1:6). b. Cement plastering in CM (1:6). c. Earth work excavation. d. 25cmthick cement concrete flooring of l:2:4. o= >q^.= oo" trbQ o= go tr> :o UL .uqx?x I : (I5 Marks) bag ; sand : 120 Rs /Cu.m ; (15 Marks) Determine the quantities of earth work in mid section method for the portion of a road between chainages 10 to 20. RL of ground along the centre line are given below. The formation level at the 10"'chainage is 107 and formation width of road is 10m and the side slope of banking are 2:1. Length of the chain is 30m. The road is of down ward gradient I in 150 up to chainage 14 and then the downward gradient changes to 1 in 100 and also prepare an estimate of earthwork at the rate of Rs 275lm'.
- 7. 10cv73 t0 Chainage RL ofsround RL of formation level Gradient lt 12 t3 t4 l5 l6 l7 105 105.6 105.44 105.9 105.42 104.3 l0s 104.1 107 * Down eradient of .- I in 150 - Write short notes on any 3 of the following Down sradient of I in I Sche,dula lcrn ,41cnt l* t,. .a I i.l+O*t lcm l5c 1- ffiiru +! N I I LT.,UK B : = 1.?l{ r Z.[,Nl *"R*uR = ltlcrn x I.0 cm 1 $[ vrIX!{D0ld r tlt l.lM x l.$l,l FRdME x 10cr.r x $,Sc*r 5H8LF 5=1"1Mx1.5M FtJEfl"l 2ilcm l)+e* C,C. Floor S$ofItrTL EIfiYITIOfl, l{.il_.{lF, sll! -lll I RobM Fl {.5Mt1.6M U ---l. Iif;r' f .:tf t' r-- ffi JYIM L.L. b.F {.0M '".r.R.c"c, r8eam ,2orticm 'WEB 4.oM+3.6i{ gl .-?O<rnt?0cm lB T Ro0M L^^ .Sfr--l OY IBED I 1 I - l0cm - lSen Tread Rise - 1 20 03.3 (15 Marks) (15 Marks) 2t)emT*fr.f I 100 104 : a. Tender and Tender notice. b. Measurement book and schedule of rates. c. Earnest money deposit and security deposit. d. Valuation and different methods of valuation. O* t9 t8 t04.62 qIdII Fig.Q1. ? nf3 i ssffflofi oil s0
- 8. 10cv73 SEFflC T#{H TOfl ffi U$EHS G, $0At{ t.f,drl 5o{!tm . Sdt Di,r" fi, t. Vontil*tirq pfe 7.5cn1 H. C. C. 3rrrfir +{igh ?,$a.yt H"O.C- SSFmca?t $tah B- L. &irk lnle.t t-€ Csrd8fit l$fl {'lrrl mmOla $.91. Fioe 5, W- Frpe r-&ffiI 1 60 JI t# I j' t:3rE t ,sffiiocrnsse"d 0.C + Ed*k Wffh s$ 1:EC{llncnt tr$*tar Bafll* ;o ffi'&l{ A.({ Eirlw$rcions ir1Cgnknere t;;:lsgs glfislwige Fig.Q2. 3 of 3 $@liffi, pfr
- 9. t0cY74 USN Seventh Semester B.E. Degree Examination, Dec.2013 lJan.20l4 Design of Prestressed Goncrete Structures Time: 3 hrs. Note: 7. Answer FIVEfull questions, selecting ut least TWO questions from euch part. 2. Use of 151343-1930 is permitted. 3. Assame any missing data suitably. 6) o o : a a. PART _ A Explain the concept of using high strength concrete and high stfengt structures, What are thE advantages of prestressed concrete structures compared to R.C.C. structures? o () (05 NIarks) L ox ooo.;-y> Max. Marks:100 c. With neat sketches,explain pre tensioning and post tensioning. State the advantages of these (10 Marks) 6e -ool troo .= c.l c+ 2a. b. ir bO yo ol -O o> o2 a:: (04 Marks) With a neat sketch, explain Hoyes system of prestressing, A rectangular concrete beam,of cross section 30cm deep and 20cm wide is pre-stressed by means of l5wires of 5mm diameter located 6.5cm from the bottom of the beam and 3 wires of diameter of 5mm. 2.5cmfrom the top. Assuming the pre-stress in the steel as 840 N/mm2, calculate the stresses at the extreme fibres of the midspan section when the beam is supporting its own weight over a span of 6m. If a uniformly distributed live load of 6kN/m is imposed, evaluate the maximum working stress in concrete the density of concrete is 24 kN/m3. o() (16 Marks) (BO 50tr (d(d 3a. b. -6 3o 5.E ^X (10 Marks) What are the important losses of prestress? Explain in detail. rectangular concrete beam. 300mm deep and 200mm wide is prestressed by means of flfteen 5mm diameter wires located 65mm from the bottom of the beam and three 5mm wires, located 25 from the top of the beam. If the wires are initially tensioned to a stress of 840 N/mm2. calculale the peicentage loss of stress in Jeel immediately after transferallowing for the loss of stress due to elastic deformation of concrete. Take E, : 210 kN/mm2 A oj 9E aa L= =io €i !o x 4a. b. .:a >'! bov EOO o= so tr> VL o U< iN 0) o o. c. (04 Marks) List the factors influencing deflections. A concrete beam with a cross sectional area of 32 x 103 mm2 and radius of Gyration of 72mm is prestressed by a parabolic cable carrying an effective stress ol1000 N/mm2. The span of the beam is 3m. The cable composed of 6 wires of 7mm diameter, has an eccentricity of 50mm at the centre and zero at the supports. Neglecting all losses, find the central deflection of the beam for the following cases: i) Self weight * pre-stress; ii) Self weight + pre-stress + live load of 2 kN/m. (08 Marks) A pre-stressed concrete beam of rectangular section 120mm wide and 300mm deep, spans over 6m. The beam is prestressed by a straight cable carrying an effective force of 180kN at an eccentricity of 500mm. If it supports an imposed load of 4kN/m and the modulus of elasticity of concrete is 38 kN/mm2. Compute the deflection at the following stages and check whether they comply with the IS code specifications: i) Upward deflection under (pre-stress + self weight) and ii) Find downward deflation under (pre-stress + self weight * imposed load) inducing the effects of creep and shrinkage. Assume the creep coefficient to be 1.80. (08 Marks)
- 10. t0cY74 PART _ B 5a. b. c. 6a. b. c. List and explain the types of flexural failure. A pre-tensioned prestressed concrete beam having a rectangular section 150mm wide and 350mm deep has an effective cover of 50mm. If fcr:40 N/mm2, &: 1600 N/mm2 and the area of pre-stressing steel Ap : 461mm2, calculate the ultimate flexural strength of the. (07 Marks) section using IS:1343 code provisions. A post-tensioned beam with unbounded tendons is of rectangular section 400 mm wide with an effective depth of 800 mm. The cross sectional area of the pre-stressing steel is 2840mm2. The effective pre-stress in the steel after all losses s 900 N/mm2. The effective span of the beam is 16m. If f.r:40 N/mm2 estimate the ultimate moment of resistance ofthe section (05 Marks) uslng IS: 1 343 code recommendations. (08 Marks) List and explain the types of shear cracks in structural concrete. The support section of a pre-stressed concrete beam 100mm widg and 250mm deep, is required to support an ultimate shear force 60kN. The compressive pre-stress at the centroidal axi's is 5-N/mm2 the characteristic cube strength of concrete is 40N/mm2. The cover to the tensiqn'reinforcement is 50mm. If the characleristic tensile strength of steel in stirrups is 250 N/mm2, design suitable reinforcements it the section using the Indian standard code IS : 1 343 ieCbmmendations. The cross section of a pre-stie$sed concrete beam is rectangular b. (06 Marks) with a width of 350mm and an overall depth of 700mm.'The prestressing force of 180kN acts at an eccentricity of 190mm. If the bending and twisting momerlts at the section are 80 and 20kN-m respectively. Calculate the maximum principal tensile stress at the section. (06 Marks) '1 i. 7a. (08 Marks) Explain the concept of stress distribtrtion in End block. (08 Marks) The end block of a post tensioned pre-stressed member is 550mm wide and 550mm deep. Four cables each made up of 7 wires of 12mm diameter strands and carrying a force of 1000 kN are anchored by plate anchorages 150mrn by 150mm, located with their centres at l25mm from the edges of the end block. The cable duct is of 50mm diameter the 28day cube strength of concrete ler is 45N/mm2. the cube strength of concrete at transfbr f.i is 25N/mm2. Permissible bearing stresses behind anchorages should conform with IS I 343. The characteristic yield stress in mild steel anchorage reinforcemqnt is 260N/mm2. Design suitable anchorage for the end block. (12 Marks) Design'a'pre-tensioned roof Purlin to suit the data below: Effective span : 6m, applied load'* 5 kN/m, load factors: for dead load: 1.4, for live load: 1.6, concrete cube strength, f., * 50N/mm2, cube strength at transfer f"i : 30 N/mm2, tensile strehgth of concrete, ft : 1.7 N/mm2, modulus of elasticity of concrete, E. : 34 kN/mm2, loss ratio, 11 : 0.8, permissible stresses: at transfer : compressive stress, f.t : 15N/mm2, tensile stress, fn: -1N/mm2 , atworkingload:compressivestressf.*:17N/mm2,tensilestressf*:0. 7mm high tensile steel wires having an ultimate tensile strength, fp, : 1600 N/mm2 available fort use. are (20 Marks) * ,,< * 2 ,,< of2 {<
- 11. 10cv755 USN Seventh Semester B.E. Degree Examination, Dec. 2Ul3/Jan.2OL4 Highway Geometric Design (,) o o cg Time: 3 hrs. Note: 7. Answer FIVEfull questions, selecting T'lr//l :-.^^.:^--l'..^.-^--t^-... -zl^--^t atleast TWO questions from each part. . o I a. Max. Marks:100 PART_A . Briefly discuss the various design factors to be considered for geometric design {) ! (]X ,l "tiifrt[?l; b. Enumerate the concept of PCU in geometric design of highways. List out the factors governing PCU. Give some typical values as recommendod by IRC. (10 Marks) a. Distinguish between skid and slip with practical examples. Enumerate the factors affecting (10 Marks) liiction of skid resistance. What is camber? List the functions of camher. Discuss the factors governing camber. (10 Marks) Explain different shapes of camber with the help of neat sketches. de -bJr I troo o:Y b. -O a. a: oO b. -! 50i E(0 -?o OE a. b. o-a o'v o.j 6,i, 5 a U< :(f b. o Z o a E (10 Marks) PART _ B !o bocbo o= o. :j F> VL =o o What is super-elevation? With the aid olsketches. explain how super-elevation is introduced (10 Marks) on a horizontal curve in the field. Calculate the lelgth of transition curve of the shift using the following data : Design speediSOkmph; Radius of horizontal curve:500m; normal pavement width:7m. Allowable rate of introduction of super-elevation : 1 in 150 lPavement rotated about inner edge). E= =.:? Xa What is stopping sight distance (SSD)? List out the factors affecting SSD. Derive the (10 Marks) expression for finding SSD on a road rzrith a down gradient of - no/o. The speeds of overtaking & ovleltaken vehicleg are 96 kmph and 80 kmph respectively, on a two way traffic road. If the acceleration of oVertaking vehicle is 2.5 kmph/sec calculate the (10 Marks) safe overtaking sight distance (OSD) sketch the overtaking zone. 6 a. b. Explain the following with IRC recommended values for plain and rolling t i) Ruling gradient ii) Limiting gradient iii) Exceptional gradient iv) Minimum gradient. A valley curve is formed by a descending gradient of 1 in 25 meeting an ascending gradient of 1 in 30. Design the length of valley curve to fulfiII both comfort condition and head light distance requirement for a design speed of 80 kmph. Assume allowable rate of change of centrifugal acceleration : 0.6 m/sec3, (10 Marks) What is a rotary intersection? Under what circumstances atraffrc rotary is justified? Mention advantages and limitation of a rotary intersection. (I0 Marks) Explain the concept of grade separated intersections, with sketches. (10 Marks)
- 12. 10cv755 7 a. ' rr ;,,." b. ,, With the help of neat sketches, indicate various intersections at grade. State the advantages of grade separated intersections. (10 Marks) What is an overpass and underpass? Mention the advantages and disadvantages of overpass Q'- -----' *d underpass. (10 Nlarks), ,. I .,u. State the requirements of an efficient drainage system. With the help of neat sketches, i..; explain how surface drainage is effected in rural highways and urban roads. (10 Marks) b:{'Il}e maximum quantity of water expected in one of the open longitudinal drains on clayey ryS: 0.9 m3/sec. Design the crois section and longitudinal slope of trapezoidal drain asstlffig the bottom width of trapezoidal section to be 1.0 m and eross slope to be 1.0 vertiCal''to" 1.5 horizontal. The allowable velocity of flow in the drain is 1.2 m/sec and ,-'. .,n Mannin$?{,r,,0.!shness coefficient is 0.02. (10 Marks) ""t|*15,. .:..... *** ..::--'''! ,,::, .:1.{1.]]i ,. rt"i ,r li. tr.' 2 of2 {< ,: i it i" ..; ,,'l ,,,

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