4th semester Civil Engineering (2010 - December) Question Papers
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4th semester Civil Engineering (2010 - December) Question Papers

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4th semester Civil Engineering (2010 - December) Question Papers 4th semester Civil Engineering (2010 - December) Question Papers Document Transcript

  • f O6CV4? i---r- i-l l-r 1--i- | i ij-t-irt- j tiSf{ tL-i r,.*_ff$-ilffilfffiffi Ilece,l*lfuor 2rl) 10 Fourrrr ser*esrer 00 Ir14x" Marks:1 rime: 3 hrs. Note: r. ::.:;,;;:!::,:,!,,:#iii?:##{:f"XLr_- 7 Anv missingdala PART - (05 M$rks) | mat foundadon? . E , a. crassiturhcro,ndauons.Nhen.*,,;Ji;:*ffiJ:Hxlti"$ soils; commeni "lrH:-i ,ir : liil[.it***,t]Hfr,il****U]niilil*:il; I (w 6--" ?2, inf 2 a with sffii";#flffi1i;::::1;*l;,.-*,,*i#:*,ij neat slretclres main discuss the featt "[""Ji i[IlT;i:ff: $"[f 11r i r*;u .,*::,;+: :: ;:ffi I::"-1* "",HlHlK iA Jurlr v" dre types ()1 " fT. joint " - ..-^r,, (osMarks) ; t the stabilrtl :llt ttilr are rhe lunctions ol *" 2a * ; " ,c--,,.) u,,rr. rrrr vou assess Howaealchcs:l::i:1"1}irliJti:"T;%:lrf}ilJ:[lt:T (0*rvtarks) (0? lvrarls) shores in brier, raking thc ?ai 3:,:rulUn{H,",*.;ttl[}$:L" $ffI:-irc,,ents of ^ of *to:1tilil:i laving 1i; " or an i<teal n""" *o",n(n" method *-"ilL:*j € - .. fluoiog 4 a. List the reqr of sloped and flat roofs state where aE -vanrages and disadvantagos :.?, b. state the ad .1. z pARr-B and opetr ?-{ Lxptun *" -:,:"," **plain wirh noar sketch clog }egged FrZ c a. whar are rhe rcquirements .., ,*.n urrrl of good stairs? in rhe marksr.(l. M{rks) the ?E weil stair trf doors thar are available ditTerenr tyee: i? b Dxplain with ueat sketches painrhu"tt![Irlll.., agoodpoinrr Exprainthemethodsof ?1 6 r. Nh1t.,$erhecharacrcristrcsof .i the method of stucco plastenng (t0 M{rks) Ig ly:fu* - ,,he objeorives oI plastering? Explairr wh* are rhe objeorives,::l::::[::struction,,? *""[l,i;::i i b. whar are the mareria]s 0., "o Zi 7 a. ,har d.^you nrean ..:::r""t"u" ^ -; eriectrve conslru(tlon in cost r, i-i"i,,,. I",ll;*fi!,, l|,,uH:l] i, lp-"1" "o,,.,.,:l).,;:, .;,i[t::::T;,:-iwindows o[ sr ir, : T**JJH"::*,."J::::iffi; ;.ccrecunsurarf"-"lHill,,:, i) "iJtt"u"o "ot*tagcs md circular c.lurnns -^-- li}{,Jil-:,lli:::];]i,l,l]ill.lffi[T,ffJ#.i{:--,-sand,"-,,..ffi6}trlrlis c6trts*
  • {}s{1v44 t isli $l63mg.t$x $*rmest*y $$" ffi. t}*gree $Ixarraim*tiqrn, {}ec*xr} lrer 2{} I {} Suxwvwy$x?S * $ffi t Max. Marks:100 l I N * te rr " m.s:**.,rr drr$-lr ^{If.H& jfsdJj ry***sJx$fxs", x * I t *t i**g rxf /c*s"s lW{} rJrues#ui*rrus/rorx raclr prrrf- f..,tdi.ssfrug tf,r,I*r, f"r,n*& rnrqv d.rr srufr*r#fy nsss* wred" d] ,;) gAKL:A :: {i a. Ilefine tl:e ttrnts; Trtmion axis, cenlering, linhg in. tfiS Marks) :,:l},rig{iy gxpll*in:ih,e,telnpoil;u:y acijustmr:nls of $ivemier theodolite. tr. i$d {nrk"s) c. llrii:fii rlescrii:* thr prdceclr.:rre [r"lr trteasurilrg thr: rnngnctic trc*rit:gs, t.rsirrg a tlreocl*lit*. {{}{i Mnrks} ,;: d. ilii.lerepliate i:stwe*:n i) [hcc. ]e{l anc,{ fiiq:* le{"1 cr:nditir,:rrs ii) clalnping screws emiJ t*t*gent_.!X SCt*lVlr. {{}.{ il,[,nrks] ): *--f-.r :t $D n dumpy l*vei 1i: bt in prt:F*r ncljilstlnenls, tvhttt at* ttt ^) i:r.rr iu"c the er:nditions L,hat bc r;iitisJi*iJJ {{}{r M*rlr.r} l:: ai :.. Rr h. [,ist t]:.e cu*ditions tu br siltisll.*d by a verni*r the**t*ljte t* tre in perm *:*** r adj *ou,li?1]il,, rs^* r,o*, s i: Illri*l1y cxplain th* test irnti adjustment ufhurizontal *.xis o{a verni*r theodolite. {{}8 ft,lsrkr).::: ::) ul. With the lr*lp iila neat. l;k*t.ch" *:xplrrin 1.h* sin6rl* plarl* methot{ Ji:r i1*tsrmining thu e,l*vation i.) i.) of an iu*cc*siiible r:hjc*t. { lt} iM*rks} i . Whil ar* th* *onrlJollsntl, oi:ti tntal s{*tir;nJ aI) r: c.. L,ist th* us*s *t-a ro[*.1 *titti*n. Iffi HTH] /* .J fl-; ,.ifi r{ ii. ,,. } {.:t h" iiiglrtr:rt horilrnntally, a tachconret*r r*xis I.645 and 2^840 corresponcling tt"l stacJix wirr:s, un "r v*rliu*l sla,ff I2i] rn $wii1r. TJr* f-i:crrl k:ngth *f the ohj*ct glass is 200 rrr:r iu:d tlrs <ij.si"ixlc* *.; {) I)". r ti"orn thc oliject glass to truni*r"r axis is l5Orum" Calculat* the st.aclia intcn,al. ({i$ il{arks} ;: c, ,i.r ft irj A l;.1*h**lne.{*r is setup *t an intcrrr ,*clinte p*in[ $n ir trar"r*r.$e courss PQ nnel thr: I*lk:wing ol:si:rr,,atioirs 11r$ i:rade nn ii. v*rlic*il1 held sraff: St*Sst*lign Y*::Lissl-d;#{lr $is$ilJl}srss:}i Axuil}ilir-r.+-+,li,lnss P +- 8u16 2.350 2.]05 oJj * Q "F 6r,6, ?.{}55 1.S95 ilQ;rnd tiru I{i, o1{"). l"nkr-: iir* lttr. r)J}:n as iZl.:0{lnl, (t}s t}I*rks) "-i ; "Cl Ilr&It[" *,{} . ,u 5 *. $*iine tir* lirilowing, rvitl: r*$p*{( to a simple circular clu:e: ,{., Ape.x olxi"rs sur:v,i, point (rliax*rt*y. c.*ntral *nglu, n:icl oldinat$. (ilfi lH*rks) (: h. o settiris, out sirnpln cu:^ves" Iixplain the m*{hod oJ 3 Lll .lll"" :::lr::1.:*tir*crs ::t::::::::
  • // s6cv44 q}f 1I lle{in* fl *o*ipolind uurv*. A $finlp$unc} *urv* r:*nsistin$ $f tr#o riin:ple.{}ircul*r*:urues raclii 3S0 nr a*rJ 50il rN is tr: bc laid berwer:n lwt: straights. The angles of interueuti*n tirr* varir:us *lem*tll$ h*tlve*:,) {.h* trr.ngcnls *rnc} the two str*igtlts ar:e 55n a.nct 25o O*lcrllate (lt) Marks) t"lf th* compoul:d curve. ,r . l"r . ,A re;$rso c;r.lIv* is to i:rl **t b*twt*r*n tw* parr[]*l tm:gelrts l0m ap*irt The dislilncs bellvt:en Ihe tiingent pDints, m$r$ured parallel to the tar}gents is St}n. ll ti:* raeiius olthe {irst b:r"*rich E:1 tlt* trr"t: is l j0 ir, o*lo,olate ths r:adiui of th* s**onej brandr. Also, ca.trculate the lengths Irr*-6u|, Wuut i,vi:uld be the equal rilclius of the,br*nchexruf lhe rsver$* tutve? {}s t!trarks} 74" l,lst ttrs rsq$irrsmeuts of a fi:&nsiti$n $urv$ ttls tuI*rlts) Ir $na r.nilway trnck *f"l.6lpn wirith, the cl*signec{ sp*eci is 90 krnph"l"ra*sifiCIt} curvss erre t* nqr{) strrrig}rts *t t}ro Ir*: ;:r.*vict*ei t* jr>in a *ir.cula.r {:ilrvc with a iac}jus ut 5{X} in bstlryeen trn*k. Fhe rate 9t chang* *f rarlial accel*ration irji*rr:ited to 0.3: m/s3. Iletennine the ii tr.*ngrli *f rrnnsirinn requircc{ ii) strift *f"circr.rlar i}rc iii) $up*r eisvation t*n,$l*$rr,*r, Wh;- 6.re rhE: v*::riunl curv*s prt:,,,ir1*rl on irighwaysl What ;rr* the dil{ersnt lypes of verricnl *r**u*n ernplnyr.odl {lXi frtrrrrlts} i*- lI* {bllor.r,i:ig, p*rpenclir:ulnr oflsr:ts wer$ tnkr:rt al St:t irrtervals Ii:om a traverse linc to an ir-reg,ular bi: rintiix"y lin*. ^,185, (r*15, 465 3 l4m 1"iCI, J.I5, 4"5fi, 3.{iil. 4-58,, {Jnrr:put* t5* ar** eno}osed hetlve*n thr* t,r*vsrsr: line anci the ir:regular b0undary, Iionr the first t* the lirst n{fs*{. lJse the trap*z.oidal ruie" {t}6 Mnrks} b. {,;*Jr:ul*rr: t5* ;x"ci* of a pliur {i"r:rrr ih.* f*lltlwing readi.ngs of a planinrcter: InitiiiI re*dirrg "" Il.348 l;inill r*aelhrg " 1.435 J:h*: xero *j1" the disr pgsxscl the fixeri incl*x *:;trk twi3e in the clockwise directi*ft. Ihr) iu*hrxl 11$imtirv*s plaued::outsicie nhe,pl&n anli the trs{"ing :point wa$ mCIved in clockrvisr: ,llrr*ii,r,r. iotr* ]v{ == 100 crn2. ({}s Markr) tr, ,l eont*nr pliul *f a prop*s*r:J res*r,voir, tl:e arc*s et:closecl hy vrr,rious cr:ttt(:urs are giv*tt hcltir.v: Cuuti:$r(m) :1{,X} 1fl5 ili} 115 120 I,Js ,tr** (liit) : -1 ti l{} i5 20 25 Ilrterrnirlr"" t1* q:itfr;rr:ity *f tJr* r*s*rvuir"ifl tlr* frtll r*s*lvoir level is lJ5{X}, (Js* prisrnoidnl titrmr"rlii. {f}li Markt} *:frts*d{
  • *-r*--" i*- li{},$N li i. _...-L_".. . #6{ rv45 .F,* nr rth $emlssf.er tr}. {i. []*gx"e* ffi xrrrxt,i{lir*iom, tr}e**mher ZSI{} h$y$$-ffi$,s$$mm ffi M?d S$y#nmsx $ $w ffiffi mwh,fr x.xesJ nlrt:: i hr,s. Ivklx" h,{iu,,l<s: I {itl N*tr:: J-,,{r*sn,rr. ff/.xJr,, py}/*:/i.#f gl*c,*sir.rn.q,se/rcldjru# af fsrrif -J"$y# ryru*s"dfrrr s r{r*rn e*r:lt p*rt, J" $fir.sr*.*g uf*f,r.r, l,/ r,rn.ir, *r{f;}.r f.,e dJ,i.$r*rffgri_ fl&,I*J*:"* tr a. $ist.ingr:jsh br:r,,ve*n 1) Op*n *ira.nl:*l ll*w itniJ pipc flr:.w" ii.l l-il,clraulic clepth antl hydr:auiic mean cl*ptir iii) {ir*ctuul}1,rr;u,i*r-l i1r:u,iLr:rl lapicliy varieil {Iow and i,,) [-inilrrn::r iu]d slcacil, {:1111.1i. ({}4 }{aks1 hils Iho {ittce:;icjcs 1*rtg*ittial to tlrr: icn:ricir^clc, cl*scri*rl r.rn thc "r lrIv .it**r-rlr, watcrll;;" *- A ti*pexoicl*l crhalrnr:l lvirh sicle .rloi:cs o{l : I hao r h* <ir*sig,,rru,i;;;;;rl,r*y l*r*I;u**,"0o lhat rliuii:xt:t-l*t r.:{**tlcr:*t* Iinir:,g, {.irr lhe }rrci *ncl{:h* sicles is the minim*.nt. i) (lail;uJ*{e the;tr*i. *{lining lerluirecl [E]r *ne rnelrg. l*ngth ci{thq; ci:ilal. ii) [f rugr:sit-v- r:o*llicicnl n -{).(i15. calct.r]atcthu becl sit>gie oLthec*rrgl lor;l:ru-r:ilnr:rrr 16w.. (I{} Marks}? il. l:spla.irl tht l*r:rt |;1t{pr11} .: iru"np, DE:rir,.* an exprr}ssj*n J.br the clelrtl: *{ f:yrlruulic,junrp iir {*nns *f tipstr*niu },;ror.tr.l*s nrtn: l:*r. {{}S i1{.*rtr+} h. Ii.x3:lnir.r ili* r!r:r[qinp1 o1.i] r,,ei]1.l.lr"i{llriri*1. with i* rr*rrt, i;kr:ti;il. {$d M*rir.i} c. ln il l*rtangu,lar r:hirmel. thex:: occlrr$ i* ju.mp, {)ilr.res;:r:ndir:g t6 }:rrg ": ].$. Ilctcr.rnin* tlie cr,iti*a.l c{,ept.h and ir:ss r:f}:.*ircl, in t*rrxs of initial c{eptir y1. (il1* &,IrarX*rr] n*:x{ skrtr:}r*ri. . ({}5 i{:rrks} *j illrr: lJr.riri. r r --- i,i3irro.rurr l*ifiextlllfic uiscr:;;ity ?"?5xli.)-12 siokes {rt I.25 orlis*r. In *rcler to m,e,>d*i thc fi*w. i{,i,r l2ijrxrn diam*tct pi1:e is itsucl tr: couvev r+*ter of kjnernnric visconirv Y s/^ !" tl.o;- ;;,;k;., ;;;;;^sir*ujrj v I rr iq nJ hc ,,,eiouit,y- ;urr{: d isrrhfri:ge ,in ti:* r:rodc}? (.,? iH* r-ks} l:. A mr:tal plilte ullOrnnr thlc,lrness ir:rd 1]00r:rirn sqlrare, il; so hrurg that, it can swing Irec1y A je:,{ gf rv;*fsr 75nrm in cliarrrr:l*r, h;tvirrgi a. l.rslclcit,y of ?.0 mls, srrikes a scri*s lilJ,x"fri;i p.lates, ;;rrrii1|,,*;1 arouncl rlr* ;iu,trc*i, 1:*riphery ,-{. sr-rclr t}.rar. ea*h plate appears su***ssil,*l 1..
  • s$il/4$ PART.* TI) $how ll-rar thr: rnaxifil*m ellicieni:1. ti:r a j*t strikir:g a singl* eurvecl v&ne, symmetri*atr ahr*ut t5e nxis of Ifiq i*t rxr:viltg in thc cJire*ti{rnr:{thejet is }6i27. {li} sltrr}wi li. A.i*t r.:i iviirl,l. having il v*li:r:ity $145 *:is, innpinger; rvilh*tit shoclq ofi a setiss of vani:s, nrr>vinp, 6.1 I5 m/s, lhr: dir:ccticxr oi nrotir:n u{ vi}rlss being in*linud at ?0" t* t}rat i:l th* .jet. lhe rsiltir.,r: velocity at the r:utlet is 0.9 oJ. theit r:ft}:e in[*t ar:d t]:e a,bsi:lilte ve lc]sity ulwi]ler al tlle r:xit is to lr* nr:rrturl to tli* rnotiot: o[van*s- Irind i; Va.n* *r:gl*s *t tl:e ell[:"an** ilnd lire *xit, ii) wurk don* ()n v i1. weight 0fwater sirppliecl by th* iet a.nd iii) tlte hyrlruuiic *fticienc,v- {l{r M*rks) & *fl s r, c.{ l r,t_ rirrtrerrt*iJlilX-ik rrrrr:in*s iJ voo ftl ru;,urion ii) il.xtJi*i xncl ir:<iitl llorv lr.rrhi:t*s i?t"$P;- ,/rV iii) Inrvixti *fdoutw*rc{ lxiiial ti*w trlrhin** ;tnd A--4 .7/ f ,I .L.}..lrlrr{-+.lir ${r!r }./r/I/vr.r.{ t$lr r/rr*vqt <-:---- h" W,ftnt dralttubex1.{)bt*in tn q pr$ssir:n Ii:r *fiici.ret}c} *J. clraflr tubes" u,r,e {i}tt [?hrrks) A siggl* j*t pcltgn wheel trirhinei i* teeluitcd to develi:p a p$wer of {r00{} kW. fiv*riili *iYiei*ncy *llth* turhin* is 8?%. A,ril.ilabls trsad at the nr:r*l* is ?S(}nr r-rf watr:r. Co*Jlicient 3lve]**ity i:f noxxi* is ti,{)7. Spe*d r*ti* is 0,4$, Outi*t angle of the Ynne is 15"" [tr:lativr: r,*]ocit,v c{rviit*r leavir.rg t}r* i::uck*t is fi.85 tir:r*s ilre ruiative vel*city at lhe inlet, Fin.e] tirc cliiln:ul,er oJrlire jet, rli*ciri,rrg;s a.niJ liru {*rce exert*d i:y th* i*t i:n the buck*ts. {{}ti Mnr}is} ;r. Wh*t is ;r 1,tuvt*rnor in a. tu:rhin*t l-:xi:lain vvittr fi n*ilt sket*h th* governing *f a r*action luri:ine. ((}* l?I.*r ks) b. I)*riv* itn *xprc$sii:r: {,irr thr: sp**ilic sperrJ of a tult:in*. h{ention its signilicitl}ct. {i}s Marks} c. l hc fbiJr:rvinp, clrtir were ot>taineit ltorr: thc main char"acteristics ol a Kaplan l.urbinc ol rllnller ciiltrt*:t.*r lin. I),, ::;; {.!.?1, Q,, ,: }{)S.{:, N,, " {I11.6. irittinral.e lh* runi}er di.am*l*r" tit* lsW. I".)el.crmin* th* :;pet:itiL: s;:**:el r>Ii.lrt: iult;hi::c, {i}# I?I*rks) iirat i*r* rn;]tlo;i:etrifi *llir:ien*3r. m*chanicnl eflicienuy and overal1 slliciencv, ol it r:e:rlriirr; ul purn6r? {$f: sxnrk*} l:. ${ti}le. {{iil> ltr{nrks} "il:e iuip*[,lq]I: *{n ccntrifugai pilrr}p is tr m in ciiarx*ter *ncl S.irn rvide. it elelivsrs l}tn:i/s *J^ wirter thr*uglr * height of 45rn wi:ilu runnin.g at Si)0 rplll. Iftltt bl*cle*; *r^* *(rvcd bn*lnv*.r:ci *nei th* ,nutiel angi* is 30u, calculiitc 1,he maxx:rnctric eflllci*ncy *nd lhe p*w*r requir*cl t* r"r.:n tllx p*xlp. Listirnalc the minirnurll q>eed tr: sta* th* purnp if the imr.pr:ller diarn*l,*r is {i.6rrr. {ot{ i}tnrks) * ;t{ * tli {c
  • f" f / i n"l,)..l i i t....^.,.-... i I I I I]t l-l-i _L I_i l_ L i t)6{iv4$ iX $ tl xth Sex1r estsr m. $)egx"*e [.{xnmim*ti*m, L}erenr hcr Zt} I t} I3. ffiss$H$$nxg F[asxm$mg m*Nd ffirmw*mg l"irn*: .$ hrs. N *te: J. f},ll#f Max. Marks: l0(i ,d is r:orrrpxiro{p, lff$$rs.r Tyv$ ,- 4r*esficns;f}0r,n J" "!-x#c$Je rJflrf{r rlr{r.}/ f:e assr*rr ed, if necs.i.sfiry. r%ffr-.irrr,o } r* e. s}. IIA lt.[. * z (:1 I Il:c . F D line skotch r:1a rosirler:tial huiiciing is giv*n in l:;ig. i: Illarv to it suitgt:lc. senle Ql. ll r u" PIan at si,ll lev,:[. t./) r: b. Fr"r:nt errsvation (25 lIarks) tr r. Section on A **A. fl5 Marks) l-i d Schedulc i:lo1:rcnings. {15 trWtrks) aJ *- Msst-ltrary) f*undi]tion, rooj: is CIN SSM(S(NHT} l{ccl. and fhe rCI()l height- js i,0 m and ]intel level Irom plir:th level, is 2.1 rn ccl *. =c{l .r - D ! 2 Druw n clogleggecl s{aircnse thal ,6--o-i,Hl,;,Lr rwo lroors separareo hy 3.r0 rn heigrrt, Y(l) rootrr or size 3"8 x 2"1 m. l)rarv secrii:nat l,-) E ,Jb [|tlJl[r;]fi[f:* *l**ti,,i,*;i-;;,;r,oth tne GrS :i I)raw the. rvr:rking clrawing for an isolared iboti6g Ior a colrunn ofsize ?30 x 450 {}0 Marks) reirrltrrcetJ rvitlr B nurnbet c,l16 n:nr n:m dia ancl 4 numbers c:fl2 rnin dia [iYSh u,ith B nrrn diil stir"u6:ps (l$ l$0 rnnr c/u" bars rogether i: il* ..J {-l sizeof.ru*,oo*irrg"l.;;; 1.6 rn with the thiclsness ttifooting d*pth 4i[i nrnr.[hc {troting nrert camprises c/c hotl: wil_ys. r:f j2 rnr::4ia [{YSD hars @ 140 mn: 5li L; ;i- {20 Marks} tr.v rvrarKsJ ffiiiil:-i,l-:11|i,,111:f:il,,f::i::l::l:{ :li?$:"0) ancr. cre rine rliagran,r rnr prirnnr"y EI "r erop .:J :: u i c: 3*r lriil [,a]r$r!]f nrr. rriiih,il,. l,r rrrn*,r l / r- * r,- : 1,"r ;ffi,ffi"J;:;",i,iffli, :: ]J rrv"Fr. (ru IYI*rK",} .* :* w{Iretsuprpl-v lavout clerails *. XGI t^.i.. I}ilfi:jll::::lIr3,tttrcl liuildinp. shorvn in F ig. on r}:e iir:e rJiasran: of a rcsidenrial uri !.. . - (2(} lVIarl*^r) I r; (ii f IJ ki {"} ri xu )*r k* oio L 3r":.t ? r]{frr tsi *&,Eu,.. S,$ri ,rrJli -. i-) u 1.. -) q6 e(*_* .JJ * ri I :)llj.l.|lii}i.* t/ I l-5 rr, X (,.ilti;ry 7 ri: L I c f*hr,t*hy *4* ri"
  • /II U$iE {}scvsr $I$.fl*&s $eNm csssr $;Sl" H3 egx"e* X{ xtxrsx *,xrns t$* xx r X} me*rxx fu er 2$ }" S ffiwwNgwm m$ ffi*wesffi*effiw.ffis * Wffiffi [irrr*: 3 ]:rs. ,Xg* Ntlfrx J. r$msrrs$dsr{p $f rurJ}sdd Erce.vsi*res, sed**sj*e rxd S*x*.sl lt,p$/f,] ryrues$r*re*s.fi"earxx r*s:Jr p*xfls. J. fl.lte *flf-$;+f$$, -$P#{*j *,*p***$Sesf. I ff*$.$ -:-& q*iltx () 43 a. llxgrl*in th* firll*wing : i) tho*,**terist,ic values ; ii) Partial safuxy LrB&Aw t k,l f{ a s. $istingruisi: h*rw*r:n worki rg str*sx *tmcl }irxit st&t.e rn"etll*d r: f des igri -{{gfiflar}is} *.^4i,i.,1 g1MbESy)eKii. .i ---- E) c" lixlilr,l.i:r th* cliJfs:r*r:t typr*s; *frein{irruix$l *j.**l r:seri in R{l{1. {{}S M*rrtr.s} (t)6 M*rk.si o l* a- $x.pl*in Lht *$nc*.pt r:lci*v*l*;:rncnl length, wit]: rh* h*lp of a n*at sk*tcir. l}1:rrksi * c.r b A [t{-l buam r:fsizs 20fi rnm x 400 rnm deei: is cast urr:nolithically ,uvlth {1,5 ls1; mm strab. "Iirs Q..a2 br:iuu is sln:ply support*cl r:v*r a $pelr of 4.2 m iurd s$aceel nt Z or C/c. C*.otut$ the ffii#nrent d-: adu of r*sistal:c* lurd the maxit:1uln ru:i:ft:rully cli*tritrut*cl loaci the beanl cafi rnr,y^ Llsr 1v{2tr; -.o it concr*t* ;xnd F* 415 steel Alsr: find the st*ei rerluirr:<i. Eco (ts rlfixrkv) ra .= a.i $- Hxpi*in tfue irnpofirtnc*s of siqJ* firce steel irr trtC b*mn" $ive th* s;:re*ifi*ation fbr rtr* s{$ne" xd) x6) -. tl) b A dur.iu-ly rein"forcecl heain ofsize 25{} mrn x S{}{i mrrx is *ubj*cted t* {{}4 *n rdtir**te IjM tif -t I {l &.tr*r*is} kN -- rn Calsulxt* the arn*utrt *f t*nsion mcl oompr*$sion ste*l r"equir*d concr*t* *rncl mikl steel r*inJ*rsr*rnent ars user*. tiketclithe det*rils. if Iv{;{) gr*:rt,.: .ic) {16 M*rks} nd3 a [-]islii:guish lx*tvr*en eqrrilibrium and c*rnpiitihility turrsi*n, rvith tire ]ieip *f sk*tches. .() iSO b h r*e;tnnguiu.l" b*a:n ?]0 mrrn x 550 mrn rieel: is iiub.iept*d to a snggir:g $h4 *t,4fi{t}S M*rks} kN ** nr, shnar &ir*e uf ]ii kN *nd trviriiing m:r:mout <.:{ I l.s k":q ^ -(} f.L rn at u [;"*, se*:fi*r:. #*sign t]:e > {.+ rsinli:rc*rn*nt if fu.x.?-ti *r:i:*r*tr: *nd I;r:4tS ste*l *r* us*d. $ketch si --r &r th* cl*i:ilri. {i$ Flnri*} Ted^i *l 6J * Iiixplxin th* structural aciiun $l&$ffi,;-S . *fcne-,-3,6dt"" wxy slabs with rhe h*lp *f skuri:hes. tt *r r}.. ii ts. t.I h" il*sig$ n l{"ii slab lirr * }:utll tx*nsuring {i.5 n: x 5 nr. ll:* slah is r:ast {{}$ ft{ar:}at} rnc;r**}i{hir:all3, {,ver rhs b**:ttls rvith o$I1I)*r$ liirld qi$wn. Jhe bearing is 25{} rwil^ T}:* sl*b carriss s=upr::rin:pr:seri li:irrl ". t*t *i3 leN/rxr. uou kl2t) coRcrnm anel l* +ri "fi**l:-ik;t*i, -il-*ttffi;i {r$ Mariuv} i) ri !. i: -rt d.) iI" I-)*:sigl: rt **:imtnn $J*fJk*tiv* i*ilgth 4^rn suhjer:tecl t* ultirnate lo;rcl of 100{} kN" Lln* fufz{} st**l (J J. co*cret* itnei s* "{ } 5 r,r 15 h" ^r -.. _ , I)*siRn s slrr:rt idc **lumn rf r*ctlxtguliu se*ti*n suNe.cted _ {t}s htxrks} to an uitirxat* i*ad q:i,600 klN mre$ ultinratc bcnding n:om*nt *f 100 ,{ :. kiJ *- n . the csi;lln bends ab*ut rnajr:r &xis. I*mg{h *f column is 4"5 ttr. Assurn* uidth -r --ir** I;ifuuiive xL ,-* 15" Iru 4l5 stc*l. l)*sign th* kit*r*rls *rn<l skctnh the ; ffi;;ilu*t*r* vrrv {r *r:ncrct* a*eJ *, ",tl deteils, {}3 &trsrks} "." c Ilesign * suitabl* fr:*ting fi:r a itil cnlunn: 4{}l) x 4(i{} - *-^) n vL*s vr mm tr: carry + Islfid uf l2{}t} khl. $jk*t*ir ,S"} C) tht: qt*tliils" [.Js* fu12s q*m*r*I.* ;rr:d Fe 4lf st*el {x} t}xxrks} () {l Hxplain ttlq* *fli*ctiv* siran {br stair *as<*tvit*r diflbr*ni rynql {:*nilitions. ( h" t cl*$g [*gg*d s{*ir ci:s* {*r * hall me*s*rinH ?.1 rn x d.4s has a {lc:cr (n,$ klatr$es} T"Iier to flo*r height *fl 3.?lr:. lrl] r*Lmd h**sir:g is 25{i l}rrTl. trrr:pilr"tiri: the stair r:nse arrd ciesigm t}r* gro*nr{ flight *.,nly. us* .Ivnt{} uur}flr*t* ar}<$ I;:* 4I5.st**1.:n* le*rrJ.ing a.nd tlig*rt I?* spiN:s ir: $rr sililc eiirection" svracsp rrr the "".."{i;,;;* $k*{c.h t}r* d*tails n.flst**l"