Nationalism spreads when people begin to feel that
they are all part of the same nation, when they
discover some unity that binds them together.
A sense of collective belonging among the people
came partly through the experience of united
These were also a variety of cultural processes
through which nationalism captured people’s
Like history, fiction folklore and some popular
prints and symbols all played a part in the making
Today living in free India we have actually forgotten
the cost our freedom fighters have paid to achieve
this independence. We hardly remember our
struggle for freedom but history tells us that it was
not achieved in one day. Series of events took place
before we realized what freedom is all about.
According to history it was the impact of English
education in India, which led the foundation and
growth of nationalism, which eventually resulted in
freedom of thought and expression.
In the 20th century with the
growth of nationalism the
identity of India came to be
visually associated with the
image of Bharat Mata.
painted his famous image of
Bharat Mata, she was
portrayed as an ascetic figure,
calm, composed, divine and
Chattopadhyay in the
1870 wrote Vande
Mataram as a hymn to
the motherland. Later it
was included in his novel
‘Anandmath’. The image
of Bharat Mata was also
first created by him.
History Of Indian Flag
During Swadeshi Movement in Bengal a tri-color flag was designed. It had eight
lotus representing eight provinces of British India, a crescent moon representing
Hindus and Muslims.
By 1921 Gandhiji designed the Swaraj Flag. It was also Tricolor and had a
spinning wheel in the centre representing Gandhian ideal of self help.
REINTERPRETATION OF HISTORY
Looking into glorious past by the end of the 19th
century many Indians felt that to instill a sense of
pride in the nation, Indian history had to be
thought about differently. Indians started looking
into the past to rediscover India’s achievements.
They wrote about the development in ancient
times when art, architecture, science,
mathematics, religion, culture, law, crafts and
trade had flourished.
When past being glorified was Hindu and
celebrated images were drawn from Hindu
iconology, the people of other communities felt
In the late 19th century India, nationalists began recording
folk tales sung by bards and they toured villages to gather
folk songs and legends. It was essential to preserve one’s
national identity and restore a sense of pride in one’s past.
These tales, they believed, gave a true picture of
traditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged
by outside forces.
In Madras, In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore himself began
collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths, and led the
movement for folk revival.
Mahatma Gandhi with late Prime minister of Independent India
Nationalism: Patriotism; a feeling of collective belonging to one’s nation;
sharing common feelings of identity.
Nation-states: A state having common territory and inhabited by people
sharing common language, race, culture, etc.
Satyagraha: A method of agitation and protest, based on truth and non-
violence. This was first introduced by Gandhiji in Indian National Movement.
Khalifa: The spiritual and temporal head of all Muslims or the Muslim world.
Khalifa was also the ruler of Turkey till 1922.
Picket: A method of protest by which the people block the entrance of a shop,
factory or office. One or more persons stand outside a place of work or shop to
dissuade others from entering.
Begar: Forced labor compelling people to work free without any remuneration.
Martial Law: Law of military government. When martial laws were imposed,
ordinary laws are suspended.
Civil Disobedience: Refusal to comply with certain laws as a method of
Class: 10 - B