International trade in india pptPresentation Transcript
INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN INDIA
What Is International Trade? International trade is exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories. In most countries, it represents a significant share of gross domestic product (GDP). While international trade has been present throughout much of history (see Silk Road, Amber Road), its economic, social, and political importance has been on the rise in recent centuries.
Importance of International Trade Without international trade, nations would be limited to the goods and services produced within their own borders. International trade is the backbone of our modern, commercial world, as producers in various nations try to profit from an expanded market, rather than be limited to selling within their own borders. There are many reasons that trade across national borders occurs, including lower production costs in one region versus another, specialized industries, lack or surplus of natural resources and consumer tastes.
Risks in international trade Buyer insolvency (purchaser cannot pay); Non-acceptance (buyer rejects goods as different from the agreed upon specifications); Credit risk (allowing the buyer to take possession of goods prior to payment); Regulatory risk (e.g., a change in rules that prevents the transaction); Intervention (governmental action to prevent a transaction being completed); Political risk (change in leadership interfering with transactions or prices); and War and other uncontrollable events. In addition, international trade also faces the risk of unfavorable exchange rate movements
Trade In India Trade and commerce have been the backbone of the Indian economy right from ancient times. Textiles and spices were the first products to be exported by India. The Indian trade scenario evolved gradually after the country’s independence in 1947. From the 1950s to the late 1980s, the country followed socialist policies, resulting in protectionism and heavy regulations on foreign companies conducting trade with India.
India’s major imports comprise of crude oilmachinery, military products, fertilizers, chemicals, gems, antiques and artworks. Imported goods are divided into the following categories: Freely importable items: For these items, no import license is required. They can be freely imported by an individual or a firm. Canalized items: These items can only be imported by public sector firms. For example petroleum products fall under this category. Prohibited items: Items such as unprocessed ivory, animal rennet and tallow fat cannot be exported to India. India Trade: Imports
India’s Import Performance
Indian exports comprise mainly of engineering and textile products, precious stones, petroleum products, jewelry, sugar, steel chemicals, zinc and leather products. Most of the exported goods are exempt from export duties. India also exports services to several countries, primarily to the US. In fact, India is among the world’s largest exporters of services related to information and communication technology (ICT). It is also the key destination for business process outsourcing (BPO). India Trade: Exports
India’s Export Performance
Set up by an act of parliament in September 1981
Wholly owned by Government of India
Commenced operations in march, 1982
Established “for providing financial assistance to exporters and importers, and for functioning as the principal financial institution for coordinating the working of institutions engaged in financing export and import of goods and services with a view to promoting the country’s international trade…”
Where Does India Stand Globally?
India’s share in global merchandise exports: 0.8% (2003)