culture and heritage-Australia and New zealand

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culture and heritage-Australia and New zealand

  1. 1. Meaning of Culture and Heritage  Culture: Culture emerged as a concept central to anthropology, encompassing all human phenomena that are not purely results of human genetics. Specifically, the term "culture" in American anthropology has two meanings: (1) the evolved human capacity to classify and represent experiences with symbols, and to act imaginatively and creatively; and (2) the distinct ways that people living in different parts of the world classified and represented their experiences, and acted creatively.  Cultural Heritage: refers to architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combinations of features, which are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science
  2. 2. AustralianCulture
  3. 3.  Australia has no official language. Australian English has its own distinctive accent and vocabulary. According to the 2001 census, English is the only language spoken in the home for around 80% of the population. The next most common languages spoken at home are Chinese (2.1%), Italian (1.9%), and Greek (1.4%).  Australia has a sign language known as Auslan, which is the main language of about 6,500 deaf people.  It is believed that there were between 200 and 300 Australian Aboriginal languages at the time of first European contact, but only about 70 of these languages have survived and all but 20 of these are now endangered.
  4. 4. ARTS IN AUSTRALIA  The arts in Australia — film, music, painting, theatre, dance and crafts — have achieved international recognition.  High culture thrives in the form with a few art galleries, a rich tradition in ballet, enlivened by the legacy of Edouard Borovansky and Sir Robert Helpmann, and continuing with the national ballet company The Australian Ballet, and choreographer/dancers such as Graeme Murphy and Meryl Tankard; a national opera company based in Sydney; and symphony orchestras in all capital cities, particularly the Melbourne and Sydney symphony orchestras.  However, outside of the main centres artists struggle and high culture is virtually non-existent.  The independent arts of music, film, art and street art, are the most extensive. Melbourne's independent music scene, is one of the largest in the world
  5. 5.  Contemporary Australian architecture includes a number of iconic structures, including the Sydney Opera House, the Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne and Parliament House, Canberra. Significant architects include Harry Seidler and Francis Greenway.  Other significant architectural movements in Australian architecture include the Federation style of the turn of the 20th century and the modern styles of the late 20th century which also saw many older buildings demolished.  Heritage concerns led to union-initiated green bans, which saved significant examples of Australia's architectural past. Green bans helped to protect historic 18th century buildings in The Rocks from being demolished to make way for office towers, and prevented the Royal Botanic Gardens from being turned into a car park for the Sydney Opera House.
  6. 6. Clothing and Apparel  Australia has no official designated national dress. However, two examples of Australian local dress are bushwear and surfwear. Major examples of clothing brands associated with bushwear are Akubra and R.M. Williams whilst surfwear labels including Billabong and Rip Curl are sold and recognised around the world  Other iconic Australian clothing and apparel labels include Blundstone Footwear, Bonds, Country Road, Driza-Bone, Mambo and Quiksilver.
  7. 7. Cuisine  Australian food traditions have been influenced by those that have settled in Australia. There are a few foods which can be considered uniquely Australian.  Macadamia nuts are an Australian food that have become popular worldwide, and more recently kangaroo meat has become more mainstream.  Local beers and wines are popular and internationally renowned. Vegemite is a well-known spread originating from Australia. It is not popular among immigrants, but is exported to many foreign countries.  Desserts well known for their Australian origins include Pavlova lamingtons and Tim Tams.
  8. 8.  Australians are passionate about sport and it forms a major part of the country's culture, particularly in terms of spectating, but also in terms of participation.  Cricket is popular in the summer and football codes are popular in the winter, with different codes being more popular in different areas.  Football (soccer) is Australia's highest participation sport in the country with both boys and girls at junior level as well with men and women at senior level.  Rugby League is the most popular winter sport in New South Wales, Queensland and arguably in the Australian Capital Territory. The National Rugby League (NRL) grew out of a suburban league in Sydney and has expanded to include teams from across Eastern Australia and New Zealand.
  9. 9.  Australia has some of the most beautiful and lively cities and tourist attractions in the world. Australia offers irony and contrast beyond the disposition of its relaxed inhabitants. The spectacular Great Barrier Reef along the Queensland shore is one is kind in the world.  Uluru (famous for its towering red rock projection,348 m), Barossa Valley (well known for its delicate wines), Flinders Ranges (bushwalks, salt lakes, national parks and gorges), Freycinet Peninsula, Kakadu National Park, Snowy Mountains, and The Kimberley (epitome of raw outback Australia with rivers, oasis, crocodiles etc) are the famous places.
  10. 10. The ACT Memorial is an Australian war memorial honouring men and women associated with the Australian Capital Territory who served in a number of conflicts and peacekeeping missions throughout the world. Dog on the Tuckerbox: The statue was inspired by a bullock driver's poem, Bullocky Bill, which celebrates the life of a mythical driver's dog that loyally guarded the man's lunch box until death.
  11. 11. Designed in the Greek Classic Revival style, the columns of the Shrine of Remembrance are built of Helidon sandstone, and the Eternal Flame is kept in a brass urn within the Shrine. Johnstone Park is a landscaped garden in Geelong, Victoria, Australia. It is bounded by Railway Terrace, Gheringhap Street, Little Malop Street, Fenwick Street, and Mercer Street.
  12. 12. New Zealand Culture
  13. 13.  New Zealand has three official languages: New Zealand English, Te Reo Māori (the Māori language), and New Zealand Sign Language. In practice only English is widely used although major efforts have been made in recent years to nurture Te Reo.  New Zealand English: New Zealand English is close to Australia English in pronunciation, but has several subtle differences often overlooked by people from outside these countries.  Te Reo Māori: An Eastern Polynesian language, Te Reo Māori is closely related to Tahitian and Cook Islands Māori. The 2006 census found Te Reo to be spoken by 157,110 people, making it the most common language in New Zealand after English.  New Zealand Sign Language: It uses more lip-patterns in conjunction with hand and facial movement to cue signs than BSL, reflecting New Zealand's history of oralist education of Deaf people. Its vocabulary includes Māori concepts such as marae and tangi, and signs for New Zealand placenames.
  14. 14. ARTS IN NEW ZEALAND  New Zealand has two 'high cultural' traditions: Māori and Western. However most cultural material consumed in New Zealand is imported from overseas, particularly from Britain and the United States.  Because of this and New Zealand's small population, most New Zealand artists, performers and writers struggle to make a living from their art.  Performing arts: include Kapa Haka which is the 'cultural dance' component of traditional Māori Performing Arts. Kapa haka is an avenue for Maori people to express their heritage and cultural identity through song and dance; Drama which has been plagued during much of its history by cost and lack of popular interest in New Zealand culture; Music New Zealand music takes most of the same forms as that of other 'Western' countries, with hip-hop being particularly popular amongst young Māori and Pacific Islanders.
  15. 15.  Classical Architecture is very formal; it always obeyed laws. It used symmetry, which really means balance, and it used proportion which means keeping shapes to certain patterns. The Golden Mean was a rule (or law) which said, if you are making a room, or any other thing, it will work best if you always make the long side 1.6 times longer than the short side.  Later, people in Western Europe in the Middle Ages made Romanesque architecture, then Gothic architecture. Gothic buildings have tall, pointed windows and arches. Many churches have Gothic architecture.  Modernism, which started as early as 1890, has resulted in some handsome, impressive buildings, like the Chrysler Building in New York, but also some truly horrible buildings. The ancient laws have been forgotten, or ignored, as architects have become more interested in doing something 'original'.
  16. 16. Clothing and Apparel  Much of contemporary New Zealand clothing is derived from British roots. It also includes significant influences from American, Australian and Māori cultures.
  17. 17. Cuisine  Māori cuisine: Pre-European Māori cuisine was derived from that of tropical Polynesia, adapted for New Zealand's colder climate. Key ingredients included kūmara (sweet potato), fern root, taro, birds and fish. Food was cooked in hāngi (earth ovens), roasted and, in geothermal areas, boiled or steamed using natural hot springs and pools.  Pākehā cuisine: The majority of Pākehā are of British descent, and so it is not surprising that Pākehā cuisine owes much (good and bad) to British cuisine. Nineteenth century British settlers in New Zealand tried as much as possible to reproduce the foods of their homeland. A major difference between British and Pākehā food was that meat was much more readily available to all social classes in New Zealand.
  18. 18.  Sport in New Zealand largely reflects its British colonial heritage. Some of the most popular sports in New Zealand, namely rugby, cricket and netball, are primarily played in Commonwealth of Nations countries.  Sport is very popular in New Zealand and despite New Zealand being a very small nation, it has enjoyed great success in many sports notably Rugby Union (The national sport) and also Rugby League, Cricket, Americas Cup Sailing, Netball, motorsport and many other sports.  Snow sports such as skiing and snowboarding are also popular.
  19. 19.  Kaikoura : It is the seaside town of Kaikoura which overlooks majestic mountains which are snow capped for many months of the year.  Coromandel Peninsula : This area is blessed with a superb climate and contains some of New Zealand's most scenic beaches and coastline. There is even a thermal beach here called Hot Water Beach, which has volcanic heat rising through the ground.  Rotorua :Rotorua is famous for its volcanic activity.  Tongariro National Park : It is a World Heritage Park and one of the oldest National Parks in the world. The park contains 3 active volcanos.  Queenstown :For action adventure and scenery Queenstown has it all. This beautiful lake side town is surrounded by mountains and is one of New Zealands premier tourist destinations.  Fiordland National Park: It is New Zealand's largest national park and one of the largest in the world. The scenery is nothing short of stunning, with deep fiords, steep mountains, raging waterfalls, and lush rain forests.
  20. 20. The New Zealand Tomb of the Unknown Warrior: The remains of the Warrior, one of the 18,166 New Zealand casualties of World War I, were exhumed on 10 October 2004 from the Caterpillar Valley Cemetery, near where the New Zealand Division fought in 1916. Wellington Cenatoph: It is a war memorial in Wellington, New Zealand. Commemorating the New Zealand dead of World War I, it was unveiled on Anzac Day (25 April) 1931.
  21. 21. Made by :- Shivansh Jagga Simar Kohli

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